To Teach is to Serve
Ornamentation and Style in
Bach and Mozart
Thomas Mastroianni
Ornamentation
• Table of Ornaments
• See preface to Kalmus editions
Style
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Concerto Grosso Style
Concerto Style (like Vivaldi)
French Overture or Sinfonia
Trio Sonata Style
Fugual Style
Ricercare Style
Dance Movement Styles
Improvisatory Style
Figural Style - Prelude Style
Concerto Grosso Style
Italian Concerto
• Stile Concitato
• Texture Contrasts
Tutti vs. solo and small ensembles
• Continuo
French Overture or Sinfonia
Partita # 2
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Orchestra style
French Overture rhythm – double dotting
Trio Sonata texture as contrast section
Fugual contrast section
Concerto Style
Italian Concerto (2nd Movement)
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Vivaldi
Continuo style ensemble
Repetitive figures
Bass line stability
Ornamental solo
Toccata
in E Minor
contains contrasting styles
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Prelude Style
Ricercare Style - Renaissance calm
Operatic style
Fugue – Toccata Style subject
Dance Movement Styles
• Allemande – German
• Courante – French; Corrente – Italian
• Sarabande – highly stylized Spanish/English
• Optional Movements (Minuet, Gavotte, etc.)
• Gigue – French; Giga - Italian
Allemande
B Minor French Suite p.18
• Variation Suite
• Compare Praltriller at the two final
cadences
Courante - French
B Minor French Suite p 20
Notice the shift from 6/4 to 3/2 in bars 13-14 and
in the last two bars.
Corrente - Italian
G Major French p 37
Headlong 3/4
Sarabande
Eb French Suite p 30
Second beat accent results from long note value
and ornamentation.
Ornament variation for repetition of the sections.
Sarabande
G Major French Suite p 38
Ornaments
Optional Suite Movements
Minuet (B minor French Suite p 22)
Two bar phrases; ¾ time
Trio smaller scale – notice slide in bar 2
Gavotte (G Major French Suite p 40)
3412
3412
Bourrée (G Major French Suite p 40)
4123
4123
Gigue
(G Major French Suite p 42)
• Lively
• Often figural
• Often fugal
Mozart Sonatas
K 279 3 note trill - p 5 Kalmus ed.
– Melodic appoggiatura on the beat - p 8 p 10
K.280 String Quartet texture, vocal style (m.9) –
p 19
K. 282 Trills on, above or before the beat
p. 34
K. 284 Symphonic style; classic praltriller p.50
Alternative ornamentation (division) p.64 –
see also p. 144 (K 332)
Mozart Sonatas
• K. 330 louré / coulé
2nd theme - minor/major p.117-8
• K. 331 Turkish style noise effects p.134
• K. 333 Concerto style p. 152 cz, p.167
• Fantasy K. 397 Opera style p.234
Ornamentation and
Improvisation
The Performer’s Role in the Creative Process
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Ornamentation and Style in Bach and Mozart