Group Presentation Group 3 Chair: Ali Hamdani HM Diah & Ibrahim Haji Abdul Rahman Brunei Darussalam Members: Shi Bingxing (China) Ida Karnasih (Indonesia) Rohani Ahmad Tarmizi (Malaysia) Soledad Ulep (The Philippines), Ivan Vysotsky (Russia) Yip Hoe Yin (Singapore) Report: Yeap Ban Har (Singapore) Is textbook use prevalent in various countries? Country • • Primary Secondary Brunei Darussalam Yes Yes China Yes Yes Indonesia Yes Yes Malaysia Yes Yes Philippines Yes Yes Russia Yes Yes Singapore Yes Yes How are textbooks used? How can textbooks be used meaningfully? How Do You Use Textbooks in Your Country? To Implement Curriculum In many countries where there is a national curriculum, textbooks are written to ensure schools implement the curriculum according to the intended scope and sequence. For example, Malaysian textbooks include the Polya’s Four-Stage Model to help teachers implement the teaching of problem solving which is an emphasis of the national curriculum. In Singapore, the Ministry of Education evaluate textbooks written by private publishers before the textbooks are approved for use in schools. How Do You Use Textbooks in Your Country? To Influence Pedagogy For example, in Brunei, teachers are encouraged to use multiple representations. The textbooks represent concepts in multiple representations so that the teachers are influenced to teach using different representations. In Singapore, teachers are familiar with the CPA Approach (based on Jerome Bruner) because the primary school textbooks are written based on this approach. In China, context problems are used to encourage teachers to make mathematics learning meaningful. In a lesson study project, Filipino high school teachers who could not find such context problems looked elsewhere. However, the absence of context problems in Filipino textbooks make it inconvenient for teachers to use them in the classroom on a regular basis. How Do You Use Textbooks in Your Country? To Improve Teachers’ Knowledge For high school teachers in the Philippines who are engaged in lesson study, they use textbooks, and other resources when textbooks are not adequate, to provide students with meaningful context in the learning of mathematics. Careful examination of textbooks can lead to professional learning In Singapore, where primary teachers are not specialists and many are not university graduates, textbooks in the 1980s were written in a way that such teachers can learn the mathematics content that they are teaching. How Do You Use Textbooks in Your Country? To Implement Education Reforms Malaysia went through a series of reforms in mathematics education – from traditional approach to modern math to integrated approach to use of English to reverting back to use of national language. Each time textbooks were changed to reflect the reforms. How Do You Use Textbooks in Your Country? To Integrate Technology There is a clear direction in almost every country that there are attempts to utilize technology in mathematics learning. In Indonesia, the acknowledgement that present textbooks are not learnerfriendly (e.g. lack of visuals) is an impetus for projects on using technology to facilitate learning. Russia had agencies to identify, evaluate, recommend technology tools for teachers and provide teacher training in this area. It is evident from all the country presentations that technology has yet to be harnessed optimally to help students learn. The integration of textbooks and technology is not yet seamless. Technology is more an add-on.