PAVEMENT CONDITION SURVEYS
Instructional Objectives
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Need for condition surveys
Collection methodologies
Basic types of condition surveys
Different procedures and equipment
available
Condition Surveys are used to assess the
“health” of the network.
Need for Condition Surveys
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Evaluate the current condition of the network
Determine the rates of deterioration
Project future conditions
Determine maintenance and rehabilitation needs
Determine the costs of repair
Prepare plans for repairs
Determine the effects of budget reductions and
deferred maintenance
Schedule future pavement maintenance activities
Track performance of various pavement designs
and materials
Types of Surveys
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Roughness (Ride Quality)
Distress Surveys
Rutting
Skid Resistance (Surface Friction)
Structural Capacity –Project Level
Condition Survey Plan Example
 Survey the outside lane
 For undivided highways survey one direction
 For divided highways survey the outside lane in both
directions
FREQUENCY
SAMPLING - RANDOM, PERIODIC, or CONTINUOUS
Data Updates
REPEAT SCHEDULING - ANNUAL, BIENNIAL
Based on Functional Class (e.g., arterials might be inspected
annually, collectors every two years, and residential streets every
five years)
Good pavement distress survey will
collect data necessary to:
• Identify roads which need no immediate maintenance
and therefore, no immediate expenditures
• Identify roads which require a minor or routine
maintenance and immediate expenditures
• Identify roads which require pavement preservation
activities such as seal, Micro Surfacing, etc
• Identify roads which need minor rehabilitation, major
rehabilitation or reconstruction
Pavement Condition Survey Equipment
Profiler
Skid Trailer
roughness, distress,
rutting, noise, pavement
imaging
(Safety)
Pavement
friction
GPR
Layer
Thickness
FWD
Structural Capacity
Manual Survey
Pavement Video Systems
ROW
Pavement
Image
PROTOCOL DEFINITION
A procedure for the objective measurement
of a pavement characteristic which defines
a minimum standard and a set of
parameters regarding the type, precision,
quantity, location, reporting, and quality of
a measurement to be made
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
ROAD ROUGHNESS
"ROAD ROUGHNESS IS THE IRREGULARITIES IN THE
PAVEMENT SURFACE AFFECTING USER COMFORT
AND SAFETY”
DUE TO VARIATIONS IN HORIZONTAL, VERITICAL,
AND TRANSVERSE PROFILES
RIDE QUALITY - USER PERCEPTION OF PAVEMENT
ROUGHNESS
IRI ROUGHNESS PROTOCOL
IRI is calculated from longitudinal profile measured
with a road profiler in both wheelpaths. The average
IRI of the two wheelpaths is reported as the
roughness of the pavement section.
International Roughness Index (IRI) - The IRI is
computed from a single longitudinal profile using a
quarter-car simulation
Little Book of Profiling
High Speed Profiler
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
Surface Distress
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS
Surface distress is damage observed on the pavement surface.
DESCRIPTION
TYPE OF DISTRESS (Cracking, Patching, Rutting)
SEVERITY (Crack Width, Condition Assessment)
EXTENT (Length, Area, % of Length or Area)
DATA COLLECTION
CONTINUOUS - WINDSHIELD SURVEY
(COMPUTER RATER KEYBOARD, and VIDEO)
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS
1.75 ft
2.5 ft
3.5 ft
2.5 ft
1.75 ft
Wheel path
Wheel path
12 ft
LOAD ASSOCIATED vs. Non-LOAD ASSOCIATED LOCATION
Distress Identification Manual
for the Long-Term Pavement Performance Program
http://www.tfhrc.gov/pavement/ltpp/reports/03031/index.htm
NJDOT Version
FATIGUE CRACKING
CL
Inside
Wheelpath
Center
Area
Outside
Wheelpath
Shoulder
Level 3
Level 2
MISCELLANEOUS CRACKING
CL
Inside
Wheel Path
Center Area
Outside
Wheel Path
Shoulder
Miscellaneous
Fatigue
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS
BITUMINOUS and COMPOSITE PAVEMENTS
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
CRACKING
FATIGUE
BLOCK
EDGE
LOGITUDINAL
TRANSVERSE
REFLECTION
PATCH AND PATCH CONDITION
POTHOLES
SURFACE DEFORMATION
RUTTING
SHOVING
SURFACE DEFECTS
BLEEDING
WATER BLEEDING AND PUMPING
POLISH AGGREGATES
RAVELING
MISCELLANEOUS
SHOULDER CONDITION
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS
CONCRETE PAVEMENTS
*
*
CRACKING
CORNER BREAKS
DURABILITY ("D" CRACKING)
LOGITUDINAL
TRANSVERSE
SURFACE DEFECTS
MAP CRACKING
SCALING
POPOUTS
POLISH AGGREGATES
JOINT DEFECTS
JOINT SEAL DAMAGE
SPALLING OF LOGITUDINAL/TRANSVERSE JOINTS
*
*
*
*
*
MISCELLANEOUS
BLOWUPS FAULTING OF TRANSVERSE JOINTS AND CRACKS
LANE-TO-SHOULDER DROPOFF OR SEPARATION
LANE-TO-LANE SEPARATION
PATCH/PATCH DETERIORATION
WATER BLEEDING AND PUMPING
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS RATER KEYBOARD
Severity
*
*
BC/CO
None
*
*
*
*
Shoulder
Condition
Severe
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TRANSVERSE
FATIGUE
Moderate
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LOGITUDINAL
*
Slight
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Patch
Condition
Saved at 52.8 foot increments
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SURFACE DISTRESS RATER FORM
Severity
*
*
BC/CO
None
Slight
Moderate
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LOGITUDINAL
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TRANSVERSE
*
*
*
*
*
FATIGUE
Severe
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Shoulder
Condition
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Patch
Condition
Summary for Street Link
Distress Data Collection
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Visual survey
Laser technology
Film-based systems
Video systems
Classes of Automated Data Collection
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Distress images collected on film or high
resolution video and:
– analyzed while the vehicle collects data
– analyzed in the office after data collection
– analyzed after data collection by viewing the
images
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Lasers are used to determine changes in
surface texture
Automated Distress Surveys
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Increase speed and ease of data
collection
Reduce transcription errors
Increase consistency between
classification and quantification
Increase safety of field crews
Automated Distress Surveys
35 mm analog continuous film technology
• Collect pavement images
• Analyze images
Automated Distress Surveys
digital camera technology
Automated Distress Surveys
• Collect pavement images
• Automated Analyze images
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
Rutting
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
Rutting
RUT DEPTH MEASUREMENT
3-5 Point Measurement
D2
D
WPL
1
WPR
D3
RD
Rut Depth =
+
D
2
D
3
2
-
D
1
Laser Rut Measurement Systems
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
Skid Resistance
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
SKID RESISTANCE
SAFETY
DESCRIPTION
ASSESSMENT OF THE COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION
OF THE PAVEMENT SURFACE (BASED ON SPEED)
DATA COLLECTION
CONTINUOUS - ASTM E274
(LOCK WHEEL) SKID
TRAILER
slip friction
Structural Evaluation
Non-Destructive Testing
Rolling Weight
Deflectometer
GPR
Ground Penetrating Radar
NCHRP Synthesis 255
Ground Penetrating Radar for Evaluating Subsurface Conditions for
Transportation Facilities
• Asphalt layer thickness determination: GPR results are
used to estimate thickness to within 10 percent and
thicknesses of up to 0.5 m are accurately measured
• Base thickness determination: thicknesses are
estimated, provided that there is a dielectric contrast
between the base and subgrade
The best results occur when subgrade is made up of
clay soils which are highly conductive compared to
sands or gravels
Ground Penetrating Radar
NCHRP Synthesis 255
Ground Penetrating Radar for Evaluating Subsurface Conditions for
Transportation Facilities
• Concrete thickness determination: depth constraints
and accuracy are not yet well defined. This is because
portland cement concrete attenuates GPR signals more
than asphalt, PCC conductivity changes as the cement
hydrates, slabs that contain steel make interpretation
more difficult
• Void detection: GPR has detected air-filled voids as
thin as 6 mm, while the detection of water-filled voids
is more problematic
GPR Basics
Antenna
Antenna
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
Structural Capacity
Project Level PMS
Structural Evaluation
Destructive Testing
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Coring
Laboratory testing
Excavation of pits
Field CBR
Dutch Cone Penetrometer
Structural Evaluation
Non-Destructive Testing
Benkelman
Beam
Dynaflect
Structural Evaluation
Non-Destructive Testing
Road Rater
FWD
PAVEMENT CONDITION EVALUATION
STRUCTURAL LOAD CAPACITY
Project Level PMS
DESCRIPTION
ASSESSMENT OF THE LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF
THE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE
DATA COLLECTION
DESTRUCTIVE - CORING/BORINGS/LAB TESTS
NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST –
FALLING WEIGHT DEFLECTOMETER (FWD)
CONCRETE JOINT LOAD TRANSFER EFFICIENCY
GROUND PENETRATING RADAR
Questions?
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MOD5 class 3 Pavemen..