I’ve got the power
I’ve Got
The
Power!
I’ve got the power
©Stan Honda / AFP
What are these people doing?
These people are using the power from their
muscles to generate electricity.
I’ve Got The Power!
Learning objectives
At the end of the lessons, you will be able to:
• describe the roles of aerobic and anaerobic energy
systems in the body
• measure the power you generate during exercise
• estimate aerobic fitness and VO2max
I’ve Got The Power!
Learning objectives
• record and graph the data you obtained to see if
there is any correlation between power generated
and hours per week of activity
• outline the importance of scientific research in
informing training and coaching programmes.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Comparing aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Aerobic respiration
requires oxygen
Anaerobic respiration
doesn’t require oxygen
produces a lot of ATP per
glucose molecule
occurs in the mitochondria
of cells
produces less ATP per
glucose molecule
occurs in the cytoplasm of
cells
used when heart rate and
breathing rate rise
used during the first 1–2
minutes of exercise
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
We use both aerobic and anaerobic respiration during
exercise. Different activities use different proportions of
anaerobic and aerobic respiration to provide ATP.
Event
% aerobic
% anaerobic
100 m and 200 m
sprints
5
95
400 m
20
80
800 m
34
66
1500 m
55
45
5000 m
80
20
10 000 m
90
10
marathon
98
2
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Which energy systems are used in these events?
©PCN Photography
©Press Association Images: Ng Han Guan / AP
©Getty Images: Mark Dadswell
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Aerobic fitness – the ability and
efficiency of your lungs, heart and
blood vessels to deliver oxygen to
your muscles. It is also the ability
of your muscles to use the oxygen.
VO2max – a measure of aerobic
fitness — the maximum rate you
can absorb and use oxygen.
At VO2max your heart rate is close
to its maximum.
Picture from
SPL
P200/0070
©Science Photo Library Ltd:
PASIEKA
Blood circulation
system.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
All sportspeople need good
aerobic fitness even if their
event uses mainly anaerobic
respiration.
Find out about the different
zonal levels for athletes
training.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Zonal level is the percentage of maximum heart rate at
which training takes place.
Zone
Zonal
level (%)
Outcome of
training in zone
energy efficient
recovery zone
60–70
develops basic
endurance
aerobic zone
70–80
improves blood flow
to and from muscles
anaerobic zone
80–90
raises anaerobic
threshold (AT)
red line zone
90–100
develops speed;
only very fit athletes
for a very short time
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Experiment D investigates how your blood pressure
changes during exercise.
Both diastolic and systolic blood
pressure increase with:
• height
• smoking
• tension.
Children and young people have
lower blood pressure than
adults.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Systolic blood pressure
vena
cava
• maximum blood
pressure during a heart
beat
right
• increases due to
atrium
the left ventricle
right ventricle
contracting more
forcefully. This
pushes more blood out
at each beat (increased
stroke volume).
aorta
pulmonary artery
left
atrium
left ventricle
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Background science
Diastolic blood pressure
• minimum blood pressure
during a heart beat
• decreases as more blood
reaches the active muscles
as the resistance in the
blood vessels decreases
• increases if muscle
contraction is sustained or
particularly forceful.
lungs
vein
artery
heart
vein
small
intestine artery
kidneys
rest of body
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
How much power do my leg muscles generate?
• The power generated by the muscles is their rate
of doing work.
• The total work done depends on:
• mass
• step height
• how many steps done per minute
• activity level — determines how many
steps you do per minute.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
How much power do my leg muscles generate?
• Other factors that influence work done may include:
• size of the muscles and number of muscle fibres
• energy reserves (ATP, creatine phosphate (CP),
glycogen and fat)
• anaerobic threshold (when lactate is produced
more quickly than it is removed)
• efficiency of the muscles to turn chemical
energy into mechanical energy.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
What does being fit mean?
• Heart rate increases with
exercise — transports more
oxygen to aerobically
respiring muscle tissue, so
that more ATP is made for
muscle contraction.
• Return of the heart rate to its
resting rate is faster in more
aerobically fit individuals.
This is the recovery rate.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
What does being fit mean?
Percentage oxygen saturation in arterial blood
doesn’t change during exercise. The increased
demand for oxygen in muscles is met by:
• increased heart rate
• increased stroke volume (volume of blood
leaving the heart at each beat)
• reduced affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen so
it gives up its oxygen more readily.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
How does the amount of carbon dioxide in my
breath change after exercise?
There is more carbon dioxide in your breath after
exercise, whether aerobic or anaerobic, than at rest.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
How does the amount of carbon dioxide in my
breath change after exercise?
• Aerobic and anaerobic exercise increase the
heart rate.
• An increase in heart rate and stroke volume,
cause the cardiac output (volume of blood leaving
the heart in one minute) to increase.
• More oxygenated blood reaches the respiring
muscles per minute so respiration rate
increases, producing more carbon dioxide.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
Why does my blood pressure vary with exercise?
Diastolic pressure may not increase much or fall
during exercise.
Systolic blood pressure increases during exercise
because:
• heart muscle stretches and contracts more forcefully
as more blood returns to the heart
• more blood is forced out of the ventricles at each
beat (stoke volume increases)
So, more oxygenated blood reaches the
respiring muscles.
I’ve Got The Power!
Explaining the results
Why does my blood pressure vary with exercise?
During very high intensity activity, muscles also respire
anaerobically to meet the extra oxygen demands.
• Muscles contract forcefully, which may:
• decrease the blood flow in muscles
• increase resistance in the blood vessels.
• The diastolic blood pressure may increase if enough
skeletal muscles are contracting.
After exercise, systolic and diastolic blood pressures
return quite quickly to normal resting levels.
I’ve Got The Power!
Your results
What happens to your heart rate
when you exercise?
Upload your heart rate data to the
In the Zone ‘Live Data Zone’ and
compare your recovery rate to the
national average.
Visit www.getinthezone.org.uk/livedatazone
I’ve Got The Power!
Your results
Use data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ to answer the
questions below.
1 Compare your class average to the ‘Live Data
Zone’ average for heart rate. Use other data to
explain these comparisons.
2 Compare the data from the ‘Live Data Zone’ for
male and female heart rate.
I’ve Got The Power!
Your results
Use the results from your
experiments to discuss
how the body responds
to the changing energy
needs during exercise.
What are the long-term
changes to the body when
we exercise regularly?
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Improving performance
‘All days include
running. A typical
session may include
6 x 200 m with a
4 minute recovery.’
‘Thursday is the hardest
because we do circuits ©SNS Group
before running (lunges, Jay Younger, 400 m Scottish
Schools Champion
sit-ups, step-ups etc).’
How could Jay use the information from these
training sessions to inform future training?
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Improving performance
Some research shows that living and training at high
altitudes (1 500 m), can improve performance in
endurance events (5 000 m).
At high altitudes air is less dense so we inhale less
oxygen at each breath, than at sea level. This triggers
physiological changes:
• increased red blood cell production
• increased diffusion capacity of the lungs
• increased number of blood vessels in muscle
tissues.
• increased ability of tissues to use oxygen.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Improving performance
Physical limits
There is a limit to human
achievement set by powerto-weight ratio. Beyond this
limit the benefits of longer
legs and stronger muscles
are offset by the increased
energy needed to move the
extra load.
©PCN Photography
Usain Bolt’s 100 m
sprint world record of
9.58 s may be within
0.1 s of the
absolute limit.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Improving performance
Do all members of a team train
in the same way?
Which is more effective in team
sports, high-intensity interval
training or medium-intensity
continuous training?
I’ve Got
The
Power!
Improving performance
When the body has used up
carbohydrates that are available it
can then use the lactic acid
generated during anaerobic
respiration.
Interval training generates big
lactate loads. The body adapts by
increasing numbers of mitochondria
in muscle fibres to quickly clear the
lactate.
I’ve Got
The
Power!
In the
Zone
I’ve got the power is the Ages 16–19 component of the In the Zone
schools experiments.
In the Zone is the Wellcome Trust’s major UK initiative inspired by the
2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. It has been awarded the London
2012 Inspire Mark and is part of Get Set +, the official London 2012
education programme.
For more information about In the Zone, the ‘Live Data Zone’ and
downloadable teacher resources go to: www.getinthezone.org.uk.
In the Zone resources are, unless otherwise stated, licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution-NonCommerical-ShareAlike 3.0 UK:England And Wales License. This means
that, unless indicated that restrictions apply, you can copy, share and adapt materials as
much as you like, as long as it is not for commercial use.
I’ve Got The Power!
Credits
In the Zone is commissioned by the Wellcome Trust and
delivered by a consortium led by Pearson Education and
Guardian Professional
Pearson Education Consortium
Teacher and student materials produced by Pearson
Education Ltd
Slide 12 illustration by HL Studios
All other illustrations by Oxford Designers and Illustrators
Author
Sue Hocking, GCE examiner
Photo Shoot School – Farringdon Community College,
Farringdon, Oxfordshire
Advisors and Contributors to In the Zone
Ages 16-19 PowerPoint presentation
Jamie Younger, Merchiston School, Edinburgh
Picture credits
The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind
permission to reproduce their photographs:
(Key: b-bottom; c-centre; l-left; r-right; t-top)
Alamy Images: PCN Photography 7r, 27; Getty Images: Mark
Dadswell 7b, Stan Honda / AFP 2; Press Association Images:
Ng Han Guan / AP 7l; SNS Group: 25; Science Photo Library
Ltd: PASIEKA 8; Additional images by Clark Wiseman /
Studio8
Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and
we apologise in advance for any unintentional omissions. We
would be pleased to insert the appropriate acknowledgement in
any subsequent edition of this publication.
Where material is owned by a third party, e.g. some
photographs, certain restrictions may apply that you have to
comply with. In particular, where a copyright line is included on
a photograph you must not modify, adapt, or remove that photo
from its context.
Thanks to BBC Learning ‘Class Clips’ which feature in the Notes for Slides 5, 9 and 11.
The website links to 3rd party material, which are used in this presentation, were correct and up-to-date at the time of
publication. It is essential for teachers to preview each weblink before using it in class so as to ensure that the URL is
still accurate, relevant and appropriate.
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