Topic II:
Health and Safety
Education and Training
Subtopic 1:Overview of Health and
Safety Training
EU Framework
• Employers are legally obligated to take
measures to ensure worker safety and
health including provision of information
and training.
Scope- applies to both public and private
• Training must be done at no cost to the
Employee representatives with safety and
health responsibilities also entitled to
training at no cost during work hours.
Directives establish training requirements
for specific hazards.
EU requirements transposed to the
National level
Specific training developed under 3
general approaches.
• 1:National training requirements established
by legislation
• 2:Branch or industry wide agreements
established under bipartite/tripartite governing
• 3. Training developed based on accepted codes
of Practice
US framework
• No comprehensive training and
Education requirement
• Curriculum based on specific hazard or
requirements of the OSHA standard
Many organizations follow systems approach
to instructional design.
• No formal tripartite approach
Labor, Industry & Government all provide
training to both employees and supervisors
• Varying degrees of collaboration and cooperation
between the three
• Delivery – (EU and US)
Classroom/hands on practical training
Imbedded with technical training
PC based
“Just-in-time” (here is the job, this is how
you do it safely)
Peer to Peer
Coaching, Mentoring, Buddy Systems
• Assessing effectiveness
Level 1 – Student Reaction
Level 2- Student learning skills, knowledge,
Level 3 – post training (6-9 months), did
training result in change on the job/transfer
of training
Despite different frameworks, EU and US
face similar challenges
• Reaching SMEs
many lack resources to effectively train
• Training consistency
• High turnover rate in certain industries
• Increased use of temporary workers and
• Lack of common understanding of “Safety
• Expanding markets
Different cultural views of safety and risk
Difficulty reaching target audiences
Aging of safety and health
• Maintaining safety and health expertise
Effectiveness of training
• Is it being learned?
• Is it being applied?
Barriers to training (language,
literacy, generational, cultural)
Fear of training (recertification and
testing issues)
Strategies & Approaches
Structured comprehensive approach
to safety
• Risk assessment
• Training targets
• Training content
• Planning
• Delivery
• Evaluation
• Continuous improvement and adoptions
Management involvement at all
• Leadership commitment, planning,
ongoing management, resources
Employee involvement in all aspects
of safety and health including
training development, delivery and
Facilitating government/inspection
Establishment of baseline training
• Adapted to particular industry or
geographic location
Collective bargaining/branch
Grant programs
• Fund non-profit organizations to
conduct training
Train-the-trainer programs
Partnerships to deliver training to
wider and more diverse workers
Guidance to SMEs on how to conduct
and access training
“Tool Box Training”
• On-site 10-15 minutes on different
Employer and Worker Identification
of specific S&H training needs of
workforce and target training
Future Collaboration
Build on synergy
• A lot of good training/strategies have
been developed in both EU and US
• Develop a structured accessible forum
for sharing these on an on-going basis
Continued collaboration between EU
and US and between labor, industry,
government and other stakeholders
Continued collaboration among
• Identify specific mechanisms
Succession Planning (future
conference topic)
Subtopic II: Education for Young
People and New Workers
• Employees have significantly higher risk
of injury during the first year of
Young workers more likely to take
• Employers more inclined to condone or
not recognize risk
Less sense of a “Safety Culture”
• Don’t recognize the importance of
• Not aware of employee rights or
employer obligations
Fear of losing job
Market pressures
• Labor shortages in many high risk
• High turnover as employees move
between jobs
Often different hazards
Competing demands on educational
Lack of safety and health education
Decentralized school systems
Strategies & Approaches
Safety and Health Education
Curriculum for all levels of education
• Encourages safe thinking and awareness
at an early age.
• Age appropriate
Nursery- puzzles and games
Primary – Secondary – safety culture and
hazard awareness training
University (business mgt, engineering, MD)
Safety poster contests (e.g. Poland)
Information meetings and workshops
for youth – community picnics
• Children can positively impact parents
awareness and behavior
Annual informational campaigns
Video Contests (posted on youtube)
• 1000s of hits
Incorporation of safety and health
content into mainstream education
requirements (reading, math, etc)
Development and delivery of core
curriculum which can be tailored by
teachers at all educational levels
(e.g. NIOSH)
Apprenticeship programs
Vocational Programs
Charter Schools
• High schools which focus on developing
students to enter construction industry
Development of H&S management
system for schools (e.g. Ireland)
• Teacher support and training of safety
Future Collaboration
Evaluation of programs under
development and piloting
Mechanism to inform about new
programs/projects in EU and US
Sharing of best practices and
innovative approaches
Pooling, sharing and expanding
Subtopic III: Addressing Cultural
Language and Literacy Barriers
• Both EU and US have an increasing
number of immigrant workers who do
not share language or culture of host
• Tend to work in high risk industries
• High instances of accidents, injuries and
Varying levels of risk acceptance
• Perceptions
Legal status
Underground economy
Effectiveness of translators
Cultural differences
• Both host and own languages
Access to training
Knowledge and skill level
• Varies
Lack of standardization
Strategies and Approaches
Peer training/mentoring
• Pair worker with journeyman worker who can
help facilitate understanding of training
Cultural surveys before work begins
• Identify individual views
• Develop training to target individual and
regional differences
Multilingual materials and information
Partnerships with consulates to distribute
training materials and information
Use of visual training materials
• Pictogram risk assessment
• Work plan
• Consequences
• “Silent Movies” (e.g. Napo DVD)
• Helps addresses literacy issues
Hands on practical training
Community based access points
• Churches, banks, physicians, libraries,
workers centers
Children are often more literate than
parents and can facilitate transfer of S&H
Communication and language skills
• Buddy system on work site
Hazard specific translation services
• offers translation of
key words and services for
transportation of dangerous materials
(27 different languages)
Future Collaboration
Sharing of materials and approaches
• Explore opportunities to standardize
Standardization of visual materials
Partnership to provide information to
workers before
See future collaboration under
subtopic I & II

Summary report topic II - European Agency for Safety and Health at