教育技术学的
研究对象
未来教育研究中心 李海花
A History of Instructional Design and Technology
Educational Technology,Research an Development;
Washington; 2001 , Robert Reiser
Educational Research Department
Florida State University
Phone: (850) 644-4592
Fax: (850) 644-8776
E-mail: [email protected]
Field/Interests:
Areas such as teacher planning, integrating technology into schools,
learning from media, and computer software evaluation.
PART1
HISTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA
(第一部分:美国教学媒体发展史)
•School Museums
•The Visual Instructional Movement and Instructional Films
•The Audiovisual Instruction Movement and Instructional Radio
•World War II
•Post-World War II Developments and Media Research
•Instructional Television
•Shifting Terminology
•Computers: From the 1950s to 1995
•Recent Developments
•Conclusion
PART II
HISTORY OF INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
(第二部分:美国教学设计发展史)
•The Origins of Instructional Design:World War II
•More Early Developments:The Programmed Instruction Movement
•The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement
•Robert M. Gagne: Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and
Hierarchical Analysis
•Sputnik:The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation
•Early Instructional Design Models
•The 1970s: Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach
•The 1980s:Growth and Redirection
•The 1990s: Changing Views and Practices
•Conclusion
•一个有趣的问题:
历史的调查结果证明,媒体对
教学的促进作用是微乎其微的,
但为什么人们对新兴媒体的应
用却依旧乐此不疲?
•人们对“技术”一词的看法与演变
•教育技术学的名称、研究对象的确立和演变
•教育技术学有无独立的研究对象?
•Theory,Research, Field and profession?
英文定义
1963 Definition of
the Field
(National
Education
Association)
Audiovisual communications is that branch of educational
theory and practice concerned with the design and use of
messages whcih control the learning process. It undertakes: (a)
the study of the unique and relative strengths and weaknesses
of both pictorial and nonrepresentational messages whcih may
be employed in the learning process for any reason; and (b) the
structuring and systematizing of messages by men and
instruments in an educational environment. These undertaking
include planning, production, selection, management, and
utilization of both components and entire instructional systems.
Its practical goal is the efficient utilization of every method and
medium of communication which can contribute to the
development of the learners' full potential. (Ely, 1963, pp. 18-
19)
视听传播是教育理论与实践的一个分支,它主要研究对控
制学习过程的信息进行设计和使用,包括:(1)研究在
有目的的学习过程中可以使用的图像信息和非表征信息的
独特的和相对的优缺点;(2)在教育环境中,利用人员
1963年定义
和设备将信息结构化、系统化。这些任务包括对整个教学
(全美教育协会 系统及其组成部分的计划、制作、选择、管理和应用。它
的技术开发项目) 的实际目标是:有效地使用每一种传播方法和媒体,以开
发学习者的全部潜力。
中文翻译
英文定义
Instructional technology ... is a systematical
way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating
1970 Definition of the total process of learning and teaching in
IT (President's terms of specific objectives, based on research
Commission on in human learning and communication and
employing a combination of human and nonInstructional
human resources to bring about more effective
Technology)
instruction.
中文翻译
1970年定义
(美国总统教学
技术委员会)
1、从比较熟悉的意义上来说,教学技术指产生于传
播革命中的媒体,这些媒体可以同教师、教科书和
黑板一起,用于教学目的……教学技术是由电视、
电影、投影仪、计算机以及其他硬件和软件组成
的……
2、教学技术……是一种根据特定目标来设计、实施
与评价整个学与教过程的系统方法,它以对人的学
习和传播的研究为基础,综合运用人力、物力资源,
以达到更有效的教学的目的。
英文定义
Instructional Technology is the Development
(Research, Design, Production, Evaluation,
Kenneth Silber's Support-Supply, Utilization) of Instructional
1970 Definition Systems Components (Messages, Men,
Materials, Devices, Techniques, Settings) and
(who later
chaired the AECT the Management of that development
(Organization, Personnel) in a systematic
Committee on
Definitions and manner with the goal of solving educational
problems (Silber, 1970, p. 21)
Terminology)
中文翻译
1970年定义
(西尔伯 )
教学技术是用系统的方式对教学系统组成
部分(包括讯息、人员、材料、设备、技
术和环境)的开发(包括研究、设计、制
作、评价、支持—供给和利用),以及对
开发的管理(包括组织和人员)。其目的
是解决教育问题。
英文定义
MacKenzie and
Eraut's 1971
Definition
中文翻译
1971年定义
(麦肯齐、厄劳
特)
Educational technology is the
systematic study of the means
whereby educational ends are
achieved. (as cited in Ely, 1973, p.
52)
教育技术是对达到教育目标
的手段的系统化研究。
英文定义 Educational technology is a field
AECT 1972
Definition
中文翻译
involved in the facilitation of human
learning through systematic
identification, development,
organization and utilization of a fullrange of learning resources and
through the management of these
processes .(AECT, 1972, p. 36)
教育技术是这样一个领域,它通过对所有
学习资源的系统化鉴别、开发、组织和利
1972年定义
用,以及通过对这些过程的管理,来利于
(美国教育传播
人类的学习。
与技术协会定义
与术语委员会)
英文定义
AECT 1977
Definition
Educational technology is a complex,
integrated process involving people,
procedures, ideas, devices and
organization for analyzing problems
and devising, implementing, evaluation
and managing solutions to those
problems involved in all aspects of
human learning (AECT, 1977, p. 1).
中文翻译 教育技术是一个分析问题,并对解决
1977年定义
(美国教育传播
与技术协会)
问题的方法进行设计、实施、评价和
管理的综合的、有机的的过程,它涉
及人员、程序、思想、设备和组织等
各个方面,与人类学习的所有方面都
有关系。
英文定义 Instructional Technology is the
AECT 1994
Definition
theory and practice of design,
development, utilization,
management, and evaluation of
processes and resources for
learning.
中文翻译
1994年定义
(美国教育传播
与技术协会)
教学技术是为了促进学习,对有
关的过程和资源进行设计、开发、
利用、管理和评价的理论与实践。
英文定义
2001 Definition Robert Raiser
The field of instructional design and technology
encompasses the analysis of learning and
performance problems, and the design,
development, implementation, evaluation and
management of instructional and
noninstructional processes and resources
intended to improve learning and performance in
a variety of settings,particularly educational
institutions and the workplace.
教学设计与技术是这样一个领域,它涵盖对学习
问题和绩效问题的分析,并对教学和非教学的过
程和资源进行设计、开发、实施、评价和管理;
其目的是改善不同环境下尤其是教育场所和工作
场所的学习与绩效。
年份
名称
1963
1970
1970
1971
视听传播
教学技术
教学技术
教育技术
•为什么从1970年
至1977年间教育
技术的定义几经
变化?
1972
1977
1994
教育技术
教育技术
教学技术
2001
•1977年的定义是
坚持时间最长的
一个定义,为什
么?
教学设计与技术
教育技术研究对象的演变
•1963:控制学习过程的信息
•1970:整个学与教过程
•1970:教学系统组成部分
•1971:达到教育目标的手段
•1972:学习资源
•1977:分析问题与解决问题的方法
•1994:学习过程和学习资源
•2001:学习问题和绩效问题
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教育技术学的研究对象