Intelligence and Adaptive
Behavior for
Classroom Practices
Litigation of IQ Assessment
Intellectual Functioning
• “General intellectual functioning"
– Typically measured by an intelligence test (IQ)
– Persons with mental retardation usually score 70
or below on such tests (or at least 2 standard
deviations below the mean on the normal curve).
IQ Testing
• Intelligence Quotient
– Score derived from several standardized tests
– Designed to assess intelligence.
Adaptive Behavior
• "Adaptive behavior"
– refers to a person's adjustment to everyday life
– Also refers to an individual’s ability to meet social
requirements of his or her community that are
appropriate for his or her chronological age
– It is an indication of independence and social
competency.
Classroom Support
•
The 4 Levels of Intensities and Supports (from
least to most intensive and supportive)
– Intermittent
– Limited
– Extensive
– Pervasive
Classroom Strategies
• Allow for many breaks throughout the school day.
• Children with MR may require time to relax and unwind.
• Always speak directly to the child so he can see you-Never speak with your
back to him.
• Assign jobs in the classroom for the child so that he can feel success and
accomplishment.
• Build a foundation of success by providing a series of short and simple
assignments.
• Encourage interaction with other children.
http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles/13506.aspx.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale
• Comprehensive testing of the following
– Communication
– Daily living skills
– Socialization
– Motor skills
– Maladaptive behavior
http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/medicalinterventions/g/adptbehvrdeffin.htm.
Larry P. v. Riles
• Landmark case tried in US Court of Appeals, 1984
• Issue: CA placed children in special classes
– Used standard I.Q testing to place 6 black
schoolchildren
– Children identified as mentally retarded (EMR)
• IQ testing only criterion used
• Children placed in special class
http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf
Larry P. v. Riles
• Educable mentally retarded
– Labeled as incapable of being educated
– Used as evaluation method by CA schools
– Based on IQ standard IQ testing
http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf
Larry P. v. Riles
• Involved parties
– Larry P., Plaintiff
• Young black boy + 5 other classmates with EMR
• Claimed IQ tests biased
• Violated 14th amendment rights
– California school system, Defendant
• Case reasoning
– Larry P. argued that children had been placed
incorrectly in EMR classrooms
Grant, P. (1992). Using special education to destroy Black boys. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 17-21.
Larry P. v. Riles
• Main points of disagreement
– CA placed children only on basis of IQ scores
• IQ tests not validated for black students
– Larry P. claimed that IQ testing discriminatory
• Majority of labeled as EMR were black
– 1968-1969, 9% of CA state school population → black
– Made up 27% of EMR group
http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf
Larry P. v. Riles
• Outcomes
– Court ruled
• IQ tests culturally inappropriate for black children
• Banned CA school system from using IQ tests for blacks
• Required a different evaluation system
• Demanded CA keep records of students enrolled in EMR
classrooms, including racial data
• Demanded CA prove reasoning for black students to be labeled
EMR
http://www.uwyo.edu/wind/edec5250/assignments/Larry.pdf
Larry P. v. Riles
• Implications for today
– Tests given to evaluate minority children be
validated for given population
– Gives legal precedent for outlawing the use of
cultural bias as evaluation method
Gill, W. (1992). Helping African-American males: The cure. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 31-36.
References
1. http://sped100fall07.wikispaces.com/Larry+P.+vs.+Ril
es. Downloaded August 9, 2010.
2. http://www.inmotionmagazine.com/peterz1.html.
Downloaded August 9, 2010
3. http://learningdisabilities.about.com/od/medicalinter
ventions/g/adptbehvrdeffin.htm..
4. http://www.brighthub.com/education/special/articles
/13506.aspx..
5. Gill, W. (1992). Helping African-American males: The
cure. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 31-36.
6. Grant, P. (1992). Using special education to destroy
Black boys. The Negro Educational Review, 63, 17-21.
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Intelligence and Adaptive Behavior for Classroom