Political Marketing & Political
Campaign
DSS20007
Cheung Chor-yung
The Rise of Political Marketing
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The nature of the electoral system
The elected public offices
The development of the mass media
Marketing: Commercial Vs. Political
AMA’s Definition: 1960
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Marketing is “the performance of business
activities that direct the flow of goods and
services from producer to consumer or user.”
Nature of activities: business
Direction of activities: one way
Product: goods and services
Cutlip et al’s definition
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“Marketing is the management function that
identifies human needs and wants, offers
products and services to satisfy those
demands, and causes transactions that deliver
products and services in exchange for
something of value to the provider.”
Identification and satisfaction of human needs:
two way communication
Transactional activities
From good/service to candidate
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Marketing of ideas
Marketing of candidates
Political marketing:
application of marketing
concepts & techniques
to political campaigns
Marketing Vs Propaganda
Political Marketing Vs Propaganda
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Promotion of political
ideas
Competitive promotion
Favours symmetrical
communication
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Promotion of political
doctrine (absolute truth)
Authoritarian promotion
Asymmetrical
communication
A Framework for Campaign
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A management technology for professional
approach
A list of variables for questions and essential
elements
A systematic assessment of problems and
opportunities, of priorities and critical elements
No formulas for success, but heuristics for
discovery, reasoning and problem solving
Rules of Conduct in Political
Marketing
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Coherence
Systematic Re-examination
Minimal Differentiation/ Unique Selling
Proposition (USP)
Maximum Security
Political Marketing: Main Steps
Local Case: Tung
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Main Line of Campaign
Image: Heavy weight
Most promising
candidate
Local Case: Ng
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Main Line of Campaign
Image: Political leader
A credible candidate
Taking the Temperature
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Tung: Majority support
for the Selection
Committee
The public: Livelihood
issues
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Ng: Electorate torn
between democracy and
China
Support for rural
candidate vs. support for
democratic candidates
Analysis of Opponents
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Tung vs. Yeung
China connection vs.
Impartiality
Business experience vs.
lack of administrative
experience
Both did not understand
livelihood issues
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Ng: double seat double
vote elections
Means Available
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Tung
Professional support
Focus of the media
Good mainland and
international connections
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Ng
Party machine
One of the focuses of
the media
No go areas in the NT
Boycott by pro-China
media, etc.
Tung’s Campaign Objectives
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Overwhelming support from the Selection
Committee
Crucial Support from the public
Support from major political parties
Support from the Civil Service
A real race election
International goodwill and support
Ng’s Objectives
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Promotion of democracy
Establishment of a stronghold for the
democrats in NT West
Enhancement of people’s civic awareness
Tung’s Campaign Plan
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Multi-media approach
Intensive visits to
districts
Statesman-like Image
with a lot of experience
in coping with crises
Caring and open-minded
Tung’s Themes
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China-HK Linkage
Smooth Transition
Economic Prosperity
Rule of Law
Livelihood Issues
Gradual Development of
Democracy
Attack on the Democrats
Ng’s Plan
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Multi-media Approach
Intensive visits in the
district
Image of an honest,
principled, democratic
leader not afraid to stand
up for HK
Themes: Democracy,
Rule of Law, Human
Rights
Conducting the Campaign: Tung
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Stage One Preparation & Positioning
Campaign Team
Election Platform
Image Consolidation
Media Training
Issues Understanding
Research Back-Up
Medical Monitoring
Logistics: Campaign Office, Press Monitoring System,
Contact lists, etc.
Tung: Stage Two- Launch/
Nomination
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Remarks supporting the
Civil Service
High profile courteous
visits to major parties
Media monitoring &
prompt responses
Opinion polls monitoring
Fight against smear
campaign
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High Profile Declaration
of Candidacy
Intensive
communications with SC
members
Extensive interview with
media (But only 1 live
interview in Cantonese)
Speaking Platforms:
World Economic Forum
Tung: Third Stage- Finale
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2nd round lobby of SC members: noncommitted members
More efforts in public visits & comments on
public issues
Less emphasis on political issues
Heavy preparation for Q & A sessions
Conducting the Campaign: Ng
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“Street Campaign”
5:40am-Bus Stops
8:30am-Restaurants
Noon-Shopping Malls
2:30pm-Meet the Public
4:30pm-Wet Markets
8:00pm-Home Visits
10:00pm-Campaign
Meeting
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Long Distance Strategy:
LegCo
Medium Distance
Strategy: RegCo
Short Distance Strategy:
DB
Evaluation
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Political Marketing & Political Campaign