Preview p.70 1. List behaviors that you believe to be distinctively characteristic of either particularly intelligent or of particularly unintelligent people. 2. Identify two people (living or dead) that you consider to be intelligent. Explain. Chapter 11 Intelligence pp. 430-442 NB p. 71 Fun Facts About Intelligence • School attendance correlates with IQ. Staying in school can elevate IQ or, more accurately, keep it from slipping. • IQ is related to breast-feeding. • IQ varies by birth date. • IQ may be influenced by the school cafeteria menu. • IQ is correlated with head size What is Intelligence? • The mental capacity to solve problems and and adapt to the environment. Spearman’s two factor theory • g factor = general intelligence • s factor = specific mental abilities • According to Spearman, if a person was intelligent in one area, then he or she was intelligent in other areas as well Howard Gardner: Multiple Intelligences • “If I know you’re very good in music, I can predict with just about zero accuracy whether you’re going to be good or bad in other things.” • Intelligence is not fixed and all individuals possess at least eight different types of intelligences Savant Syndrome • A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing. • Occurs in a narrow range of skills: calendar calculating, music, lightning calculations and mathematics, art, mechanical ability, prodigious memory Sternberg’s triarchic theory • Practical – the ability to adapt to changes in the environment • Analytical – the reasoning and problem solving that is evaluated by most intelligence tests • Creative – the capacity to create new ideas and unique solutions to problems Sternberg’s Successful Intelligence • Alice is a good student, always getting good grades until she reached graduate school. Required to come up with original ideas, Alice began to fall behind. Barbara is not such a good student, but she’s brimming over with ideas for research. Celia is neither a good nor a creative student, but she’s street smart; she knows how to play the game – how to get things done. Comparing Theories of Intelligence Comparing Theories of Intelligence Comparing Theories of Intelligence Comparing Theories of Intelligence Comparing Theories of Intelligence Emotional Intelligence “The ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and one’s own actions.” -- John Mayer & Peter Salovey Emotional Intelligence Scale • • • • • Reverse scores for items 5, 28, and 33 Add all items Means of 135 for therapists; 120 for prisoners Means of 131 for females; 125 for males High scores associated with greater optimism, less depression, and less impulsivity Intelligence and Creativity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Expertise Imaginative thinking skills A venturesome personality Intrinsic motivation A creative environment Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? • Brain size studies – genes, nutrition, environmental stimulation, or something else • Grey matter vs. white matter Is Intelligence Neurologically Measurable? • Perceptual Speed • Neurological Speed Process p.70 • Is intelligence or self-discipline more important in predicting academic success?