Cognitive Development (Social Development Theory) Lev Vygotsky Week Two: Lecture 11th July 2011 Table of Contents • • • • • • • • • Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts The Social Development Theory Zone of Proximal Development Learning as process of Enculturation Individual and Social Constructivism ZPD Development Stages Scaffolding Applying Vygotsky’s theory to Education Test your understanding Vygotsky awakes our eyes to the powerful role of community in learning. culture and His theory presents the radical idea that our very thought and intelligence is really not our own. It’s the product of history and culture. Mediated Activity Signs (Help us do mental work--So we call them mental tools) Tools (Help us do physical work) Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts • Cultures create mental tools which transform our mental work just like physical tools transform our physical work. The Social Development Theory • Children socializing with their peers or adults plays a major role in their cognitive development. • Vygotsky stresses dialogue between children and adults in order for knowledge to be passed to the child. The Social Development Theory (Cont…) • Knowledge originally exists outside the child, but through interaction with the adult, knowledge can be internalized. • Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD): The gap between what a learner can do independently and what a learner cannot do even with assistance. Tasks I cannot do even with help Tasks I can do only with help Tasks I can do all by myself ZPD Vygotsky in a Nutshell • The mental tools of our culture are what make us smart. We acquire these mental tools best through meaningful participation in authentic, social activities. The ZPD describes how we learn from others as we participate in social activity. • Overall, learning is a process of enculturation. Learning as a process of Enculturation Think about a group you were a part of in high school. 1. What were some of the defining qualities of this group? • What “look” did you need to have? • How did you need to talk? • What unique values did the group have? • What activities did you engage in? 2. How did you learn to be a part of this group and adopt these qualities? Individual and Social Constructivism • Individual: individuals construct meaning out of what they already know and through their interactions with the environment. • Social: Groups or cultures construct meaning together out of what the group or culture already knows and experiences. • Vygotsky’s extension: Individuals construct meaning through their interaction with others (i.e., they internalize the meaning constructed by the group or culture as they become enculturated). Zone of Proximal Development Stages Stage 1: Assistance from “more knowledgeable other” (capable peer or adult) Stage 2: Assistance from self (prior knowledge and research) Stage 3: Automatization (practice, trial-and-error) Stage 4: De-automatization (provide explanation to others) Zone of Proximal Development Stages Scaffolding Cognitive development in the zone off proximal development stresses the role off a social partner off the student (a teacher or a more skilled peer).. Images of scaffolding ? Which picture is the odd one out and why? Applying Vygotsky’s Theory to Education Group Working: Collaborative learning is beneficial for using and developing skills. Importance of Language: Language is used differently at different times in development, so type of language used at any time is important. Eg: talking to oneself while solving problems, parents talking with their children… Scaffolding: Scaffolding means that the teacher need not wait until the child appears to be ‘ready’ to learn, as the child can be supported during their development Test your understanding! • What theory did Lev Vygotsky contribute to education? A. Zone of Proximal Development B. Social Learning Theory C. Scaffolding D. Socialization Process Correct! Keep going! Incorrect! Try again! Test your understanding! • How many stages are there for the development of the Zone of Proximal Development? A. B. C. D. 2 3 4 5 Correct! Keep going! Incorrect! Try again! Test your understanding! • Vygotsky’s theory supports social interaction between students and more capable peers’ or adults. A. True B. False Correct! Congratulations! You are finished! Incorrect! Try again! Tutorial work • Explain the 4 steps in Vygotsy’s theory with example. Take one mathematics concept when explaining. • What is the role of scaffolding in ZPD. Give an example.