Multi-Tiered System of Supports
A Comprehensive Framework for
Implementing the
California Common Core State Standards
Professional Learning Module Series
• Unit 1: What is a Multi-Tiered System of
• Unit 2: Data-based Decision Making
• Unit 3: Instructional Planning and Supports
• Unit 4: Leadership for Implementation of
Learning Objectives
By the end of this unit, you will be able to:
1. Identify elements of good Tier 1 classroom
2. Define scaffolding and give examples of
where it is addressed in the standards
3. State the purpose for differentiating
4. Define Universal Design for Learning and its
5. Describe types of classroom
accommodations that benefit all students
Review of Unit 2
Take Away Activity
• As you considered your own school or
district setting
– What did you discover about how universal
screening and progress monitoring occur?
– How is the information being used?
– Have staff members received training in the
problem solving processes to make data-based
Quality of Classroom Instruction
• Single most important attribute for generating
academic student growth
• Effective teacher has six to ten times as much
impact on achievement as all other factors
– Family background, class size, socio-economic
status, and peer group affiliation
• A strong predictor of eradicating poverty and
ethnicity when teachers teach to a specific
academic purpose
(Odden & Wallace 2003) (Mortimore & Sammons 1987) (Brock 2007)
Tier 1
• Foundation of the general education
• Scientific, research-based core
instructional and behavioral practices and
supports designed for all students
• Explicit and systematic
Direct Explanation
• Clearly stating the objectives for the lesson
• Identifying the specific core content and
language objectives
• Defining the skills and strategies to be
Instructional Scaffolding
• Teacher modeling
– I do
• Guided practice and feedback
– We do
• Independent practice
– You do
Teacher Modeling
“I Do”
• The teacher
– Models by showing and telling a procedure or
– Presents the model or example with a visual
• Photograph, illustration, video clip, graphic
organizer, or diagram
– Ensures that the model is clear and aligned to
the objective
– Uses student engagement
• Note taking, partner share, or echo response
Guided Practice and Feedback
“We Do”
• The teacher
– Allows time for both teacher and students to
do it together using student engagement
• Choral responding or open pair and share
– Gradually increases the number of steps
students complete, while decreasing the
amount of teacher prompts and scaffolding
Independent Practice
“You Do”
• The teacher
– Provides independent student practice
– Continually checks for understanding
– Monitors student progress
– Identifies those students who need more
Time to Reflect
• Give an example of how a teacher would
provide direct, explicit instruction
following the gradual release of
responsibility from the teacher to the
students, using the “I do,” “We do,” and
“You do” approach
Instructional Scaffolding
• Gradual process in which teachers assist
students with
– Incorporating new skills
– Learning by modeling
– Providing guided practice so the student will
eventually be able to complete similar tasks
• Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development
– The difference between what students can do
with direct assistance and what they can do
without assistance
(Vygotsky 1978)
Reading Standards for Literature
• By the end of the year, students will be
able to
– Read and comprehend literature including
stories and poetry in grades 2–3 text
complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding
as needed
(RL2.10; R:3.10)
Differentiated Instruction
• Consistently using a variety of evidence-based
instructional approaches to transform
materials, curriculum, and production in
response to the interests, preferences, and
readiness of academically diverse learners
• Way for teachers to think effectively about
whom they teach, where they teach, and how
they teach to maximize the students’
(Hall, Stangman, & Meyer 2003)
• Content
– Change in the material being learned by the
• Process
– The way in which the students access the
• Product
– The way in which the student shows what he
or she has learned
Flexible Grouping
• Purposeful reordering of students into
working groups
• Ensure that all students work with a wide
variety of classmates in a wide range of
• Group membership can be organized by
readiness, student interests, reading level,
skill level, background knowledge, or social
Time to Reflect
• How does your school and/or classroom
successfully meet the needs of all diverse
• Within one content area that you teach,
write down some ways that you might
differentiate instruction with consideration
of content, process, product, and flexible
Differentiated Instruction
• Offers students multiple options for grasping
• Affords a flexible approach to teaching that
makes adjustments to both the curriculum
and the presentation of information to the
learners, as opposed to expecting the learners
to adapt themselves to the curriculum
• Based on the foundation of Universal Design
for Learning
(Hall, Tracey, Strangman, & Meyer 2003)
Universal Design for Learning (UDL)
• Set of principles for curriculum development
• Gives all individuals equal opportunities to
learn by providing flexible approaches for
creating instructional goals, methods,
materials, and assessments that work for
• Can be customized and adjusted for individual
• Uses multiple means of representation,
expression, action, and engagement to plan
curricula to meet the needs of all diverse
Three Principles of UDL
Multiple Means of
Multiple Means of Multiple Means of
Action &
Options for:
• Perception
• Language and symbols
• Comprehension
Options for:
• Expressive skills and
• Executive functions
• Physical action
Examples of
Examples of
options for comprehension: options for physical action:
• Media
• Authenticity
• Graphic organizers
• Project-based learning
• Demonstration
• Collaborative grouping
Options for:
• Recruiting interest
• Sustaining interest
• Self-regulation
Examples of
means of engagement:
• Flexible grouping
• Technology supports
• Offering choices
Universal Design for Learning
VIDEO: Universal Design for Learning
(Maryland Learning Link)
Time to Reflect
• Using the UDL Educator’s toolkit provided
in your Unit 3 Participant Packet, note any
examples you observed that demonstrated
variation in:
– How information was represented
– How students demonstrated their
– How students were engaged in learning
Universal Design for Learning
• Provide more students access to the general
education curriculum
• Can impact
– The number of students requiring special education
– The amount of time teachers spend individualizing
– The number of accommodations needed during
instruction and assessment
– The number of students dropping out of school
– The number of students not currently engaged in
Commitment Evident in Standards
• “The standards should also be read as
allowing for the widest possible range of
students to participate fully from the
outset, and as permitting appropriate
accommodations to ensure maximum
participation of students with special
education needs.”
(ELA Standards, “What is Not Covered”)
Commitment to
English Learners
• “All students should be held to the same
high expectations outlined in the Common
Core State Standards. This includes
students who are English Language
Learners. However, these students may
require additional time, appropriate
instructional support, and aligned
(ELA Standards, “What is Not Covered”)
Commitment to
Students with Disabilities
• “For students with disabilities, reading
should allow for the use of Braille, screenreader technology, and other assistive
devices, while writing should include the
use of a scribe, computer, or speech-totext technology. In a similar vein, speaking
and listening should be interpreted
broadly to include sign language.”
(ELA Standards, “What is Not Covered”)
Time to Reflect
Reflect on the Common Core State
Standards’ commitment to support English
Learners and students with disabilities
• How do these statements shift your
thinking in terms of teacher knowledge of
the core standards and current
pedagogical practices?
• Practices and procedures that provide
equitable access during instruction and
• Minimize or eliminate barriers to the general
education curriculum
• Do not change the expectation level or
• For all students
• Applied systematically at the beginning of
curricular or assessment activities
(CDE 2010)
Types of Accommodations
• Presentation
– Allow students to access information in ways that do not
require them to visually read standard print
• Response
– Allow students to complete activities, assignments, and
assessments by using an assistive device or an organizer
• Setting
– May change the location in which a test or assignment is
given or the conditions of the assessment setting
• Timing & Scheduling
– Allow an increased time allotted to complete an
assessment or assignment
Time to Reflect
• Write down one example of an
accommodation in each area of
– Presentation
– Response
– Setting
– Timing & Scheduling
Assistive Technology
Video: AIM Simply Said
(National Center on Instructional Materials)
Time to Reflect
Consider how assistive technology support
high expectations for students with
disabilities in the classroom
• Give an example of an accessible
instructional material
• List the four types of specialized formats
• How are the right formats chosen?
• What is one way that a student can
interact with the content?
Re-Teach and Enrich
• School-wide strategy for providing
additional support for students who are
struggling with a concept
• Allows students who have mastered a
concept to move on to the next level
Re-Teach and Enrich
• Grade level teams create and provide
weekly formative assessments
• Identify both the students who are
struggling with a learning objective, as well
as the students who have mastered the
same learning objective
Re-Teach and Enrich
Reteach and Enrich: How to Make Time for Every
Tier 2
Strategic Intervention
• Students identified through screening as “at risk”
• Typically no more than 15% of the entire student
Supplemental to the core instruction
Delivered in small groups
• General education classroom
• Another general education setting
- An intervention block
• Progress monitoring
• Diagnostic
• Screening
Tier 2
Strategic Intervention
• Elementary
– Small group instruction
(3-5 students)
– Instruction is targeted
and skill-based
– Instruction in based on
student needs, not on
age or grade level
– 30 minutes in addition
to the time allotted for
the core instruction in
Tier 1
(Kansas Guide to Learning Literacy 2012)
• Secondary
– Small group instruction
(10-16 students)
– Instruction is targeted
and strategy-based
– Instruction is based on
student needs, not on
age or grade level
– 30-50 minutes in
addition to the time
allotted for content
Tier 3
Intensive Intervention
• Students who have not responded to primary or
secondary level interventions
• Students with very low performance levels
• Typically only includes 3-5% of the entire student
• Individualized
• Can be delivered to small groups or to an individual
• Intensified by making adaptations based on student data
• Either in the general education or special education
Progress monitoring
Should occur with greater frequency to determine which
instructional adaptations may be needed
Tier 3
Intensive Intervention
• Elementary
– Small group instruction
(1-3 students)
– Instruction is based on
student needs, not on
age or grade level
– 60 minutes (or two 30
minute sessions) in
addition to time
allotted for core
instruction in Tier 1
(Kansas Guide to Learning Literacy 2012)
• Secondary
– Small group instruction
(1-4 students)
– Instruction is based on
student needs, not on
age or grade level
– 60 minutes (or two 30
minute sessions) in
addition to the time
allotted for core
instruction in Tier 1
Time to Reflect
• What are two similarities between
strategic, tier 2 supports and intensive, tier
3 supports?
• What are two differences between
strategic, tier 2 supports and intensive, tier
3 supports?
Take Away Activity
• Consider the instructional readiness elements
in your setting
– Are staff members selecting academic curricula,
behavioral instructional materials, and programs
that will meet the needs of all students?
– Are staff members specifically trained in using the
academic and behavioral core, supplemental, and
intensive curricular materials and programs that
they are responsible for providing?
– Does the schedule provide sufficient time for core,
supplemental, and intensive instruction?
Time to Reflect
• What did you learn in Unit 3?
• What questions do you have?
Unit 4 Preview
• Leadership
– What role does leadership play in initial
implementation and sustainability?
– How can districts and school sites establish
self-correcting feedback loops to support

Multi-tiered Systems of Support (MTSS)