Conflict over Representation
New Jersey Plan
• Small states were afraid that large states
would control the government
• Each state should have the same number of
representatives in Congress
• Called equal representation
• One house (unicameral) legislature
Virginia Plan
• Proposed by James Madison
• Favored more representatives for states with
larger populations
• Called proportional representation
• Two-house (bicameral) legislature
The Great Compromise
• Suggested by Ben Franklin and Roger
• Congress would have two houses – the
Senate and the House of Representatives
• The House would be elected based on
proportional representation.
• The House would develop all money bills.
Compromise continued
• The Senate would be elected based on equal
• Senate could only accept or reject money
• House favored larger states; Senate favored
smaller states
• Compromise passed by one vote
Conflicts between North and
• Protective tariffs – taxes on products
• North – tariffs were necessary to allow
businesses to be competitive
• Wanted the Constitution to give government
the power to control trade.
• South – tariffs would increase the cost of
goods that they bought from Europe.
• England might place tariffs on their farm
products making them harder to sell.
• Southern states were smaller giving them
less power. Opposed giving the government
power to control trade.
Conflict over Slavery
Many framers opposed slavery
Delegates from the South favored slavery
Slaves were considered personal property
Would not be part of the government if
slavery was abolished
• Delegates from the North wanted all states
to join the Union.
• Section 8 – power to collect taxes and
regulate trade
• Section 9 – 20 years before Congress can
regulate the slave trade
• Three-fifths Compromise – each slave
would be counted as three-fifths of a person
• Fugitive slave clause – escaped slaves must
be returned

Conflict over Representation