6. HEAT TRANSFER
Heat Exchange
There are two methods of heat exchange:
1.
Indirect transfer
• The transfer of heat through a tube wall is called indirect
transfer.
• Examples – heat exchangers, furnaces, boilers
2.
Direct transfer
• Another method by which heat exchange can be
accomplished is without the benefit of transfer surface. The
type of heating/cooling is called direct transfer and brought
about by intermingling the hot and cold fluids.
• Examples – fractionators, cooling towers, strippers
Heat Exchange
Flow of heat:
1.
Steady state
• Rate of heat transfer remain constant and is unaffected by
time
2.
Unsteady state
• Rate of heat transfer at any point varies with time
• Examples – batch process, cooling and heating of
materials, certain types of regeneration, curing or activation
process.
Heat Transfer
Methods of Heat Transmission
1.
Convection – transports heat by carrying hot portions of a fluid
from one place to another
Example – home water heater
Q = U * A * (t2 – t1)
Convection
• All system of heating and ventilating depend upon what are called
convection currents, which, in turn, depend upon the expansion of
liquids and gases.
• Any gas or liquid expands when heated, volume increases, density
decreases.
• In a convection current, the lighter fluid is pushed upward by the
heavier surrounding fluid.
• Since the rising part of a convection current is warmer than the
returning part there is a transfer of heat from the heat source to the
cooler parts of the fluid at the top.
Heat Transfer
Methods of Heat Transmission
2.
Conduction – the passage of heat from one
part of a substance to another part of the
same substance or from one substance to another in physical
contact with it, without
the movement of particles of either substance.
Example – metal spoon in hot coffee
Q = K/L * A * (t2-t1)
Conduction
Heat that passes from one part of a substance to another
part of the same substance or from one substance to
another in physical contact with it, without the movement of
particles of either substance, is said to flow by conduction.
Day to day example of heat transfer by conduction
- Metal handle of a sauce pan becomes extremely hot even
though only the bottom of the pan is exposed to a flame
- We often found the handle of spoon in hot coffee or soup
too hot to be lifted from the cup barehanded.
These experiences are example of heat being transmitted
by conduction.
Conduction
• There are some substances, such as wood, wool, cork which are poor
conductor of heat. They are called heat insulators
• All metals such as silver, copper, brass, iron are good conductor as
compared to non-metals.
• Metals vary in their respective abilities to conduct heat. This ability or
inability is referred to as conductivity. This physical property to conduct
heat is called coefficient of thermal conductivity of the materials.
Heat Transfer
Method of Heat Transmission
3.
Radiation – the transfer of heat through space by heat waves that
travel in straight lines.
Example – heat from an electrical light bulb
Q = o eA * (T4r1 –T4 r2)
Radiation
If an iron ball is heated and hung up in the room the heat can be felt
when the hand is held under the ball.
– this cannot be due to convection because hot air currents rise
– It cannot be due to conduction because gases are poor conductors
A lighted electric bulb feels hot if the hand is held near it, but when the
light is turned off, the sensation stops very quickly
- the glass in the bulb is a poor conductor and there is very little air in
the bulb
- Therefore, the sensation, of heat cannot be due neither to convection
or conduction
- if a book or screen is placed between heat source and the hand the
sensation immediately ceases.
These effects are caused by the travel of heat waves in straight lines
through the atmosphere similar to light. Radiation is the transfer of heat
through space by heat waves that travel in straight lines.
Factors Affecting Heat Transfer
Factors that effect the transfer of heat energy from one substance to another
1. Temperature
• Transfer of heat is proportional to its driving force – temperature
difference.
• Heat is always transmitted from a warmer body to a colder one
• The greater the difference in temperature of the 2 bodies, the greater the
amount of heat exchanged
2. Thermal Resistance
• Transfer of heat is opposed by a factor called thermal resistance
• Opposition is caused by the material of the container (heat exchanger)
stagnant films, scale or dirt on the tube wall.
Thermal Resistance
1.
•
•
•
Stagnant Film
In indirect heat transfer, flow of heat is initially being accompished
by convection. However, as the tube wall is approached the effect
of convection is steadily reduced until heat is transmitted through
the stagnant fluid film by conduction almost exclusively. Since
liquids or gases are relatively poor conductor, the flow of heat is
impeded.
Heat transfer by conduction is inversely proportional to the
thickness through which it flows. Decreasing the stagnant film
thickness is the only means by which greater heat flow can be
effected.
This can be done by increasing the speed or velocity at which the
fluid is passing over the tube wall.
Thermal Resistance
2.
Scale
•
After passing through the stagnant fluid film, heat encounters its
second resistance – scale.
Here mechanism is heat flow by conduction.
Since scale is relatively porous it is a good insulator, not a
conductor.
There are no means of reducing the scale thickness on the run.
Steps must be taken to reduce the tendency of scale formation and
periodically clean the tube surface.
•
•
•
Thermal Resistance
3.
Tube wall
• Thermal resistance offered by the tube wall is very often
very negligible compared with resistance offered by the
stagnant films and scales
• Heat flow through the tube wall is dependent upon
conduction, this means heat transfer is improved by reduced
thickness of impeding material. It is for this reason that thinwalled tubes are used in heat exchangers.
• Selection of better conductor for tube material can help
reduce this resistance.
Heat Transfer Coefficient
• In the study of heat exchange and the design of heat transfer
equipment there must be a means of evaluating the performance of a
given exchanger.
• In heat transfer work, this evaluating factor is called the overall heat
transfer coefficient
• It indicates the amount of heat an exchanger can interchange during
a given period of time for a given amount of surface and with a given
temperature difference between the hot and cold fluids.
• In engineering practice this value is referred us “U”
• Unit of measure is BTU/Hr/Ft2/oF.
Overall Heat transfer Coefficient
Clean coefficient U = 90
U
(100 % efficiency)
U = 63 after 3 months ops
70 % efficiency
Months in operations
Fouling Factor
• After heat transfer equipment has been in service for some time, dirt
or scale may form on the heat transfer surfaces, causing additional
resistance to the flow of heat
• To compensate for this, a resistance called dirt, scale or fouling
factor is included in determining an overall coefficient of heat
transfer
Heat Transfer Equipment
The 3 general categories of heat transfer
equipment are:
1.
Exchangers – transfer heat from a hot process stream to a cold
process stream.
2.
Cooler – transfer heat from a hot medium to cooling wate
3.
Condenser – condense vapor
Heat Transfer Equipment
Process use
1.
Exchangers – conserve heat that would otherwise be wasted i.e.
taking heat from one liquid that needs cooling and giving it to
another which needs heating
2.
Coolers – to cool materials leaving a unit to a temperature which
is safe for storage or loading.
3.
Condensers – remove heat from vapors, condense these vapor
and heat the cooling water/
Heat Transfer Equipment
As a background in the use of heat transfer equipment, an
understanding of the various types of equipment on the market is
helpful.
1.
Double pipe heat exchanger
In this type, one fluid flows in the small, inner pipe and the other
fluid in the space between the small, inner pipe and the larger,
outer pipe.
Finned tubes are often used to improve the heat transfer
efficiency of a unit
2.
Air cooled Heat Exchanger
This is an air cooled heat exchanger in which the hot fluid is
cooled by air blown past the tubes by the fan below
Heat Transfer Equipment
3.
Shell and Tube heat Exchanger
The majority of heat transfer equipment is the shell-and-tube type
of heat exchanger.
A shell and tube exchanger consists of a number of parallel tubes
enclosed in a cylindrical shell.
One fluid flows inside the tubes and is called the tube side fluid
The other fluid flows outside the tubes and is called the shell side
fluid.
All shell and tube heat transfer equipment is composed of the
same basic parts, but some of these parts are arranged in such a
way as to produce the desired results.
Shell and Tube Exchange
Shell and Tube Exchanger
Parts Identification
2, 2 heat exchangers
Reboiler
Baffles
Baffles are used to increase the rate of heat
transfer by increasing the velocity of the shell side
fluid.
• Two (2) general types of baffles
1. Transverse
2. Longitudinal
• In order to be effective, baffles must be installed so that there is a
minimum of by-passing around baffles. This is done by reducing to a
minimum the clearance between the baffles and the shell side fluid.
Baffle Arrangements in Exchangers
Cooler
Cause of Fouling
• Fouling of a heat exchanger may result from scale, or particles
lodging in the exchanger.
• Water residue may foul the tubes of coolers and condensers.
• Usually, oil side fouling material cannot be readily removed short of
mechanical means. When this is necessary, the tube bundle must
be removed.
However, water residue can be removed without pulling the tube
bundle from the shell. Water residue may be dirt, mud, silt, and/or
scale.
Cause of Fouling
IF THE FOULING MATERIAL IS DIRT:
• The use of backwash connections can substantially improve
operating efficiency
• By reversing the direction of flow momentarily, the force of the water
will knock the adhering trash from the tube ends and remove some
mud and silt from the tube walls.
• Such an arrangement makes it possible to regain a degree of design
performance without a shutdown
Causes of Fouling
Water scale formation can be removed without dismantling the
exchanger by utilizing chemical cleaning. Water residue is removed
mechanically and is accomplished by water jets or by drilling
through which water passes as a scavenging agent.
Mechanical cleaning of oil side scale can be done in a number of ways.
Drilling, steaming, and sandblasting are used to clean the tube side.
The shell side scales are usually hand sawed and washed with high
pressure water. It is also possible to chemically remove oil scales.
Tips to Reduce Maintenance
OPERATION TECHNICIANS ARE IN A POSITION TO MAKE A
SUBSTANTIAL CONTRIBUTION TO REDUCE MAINTENANCE
AND IMPROVED OPERATING EFFICIENCY. By RECOGNIZING
PROPER OPERATING PROCEDURES AND REALIZING THE
EFFECT OF INCORRECT PROCEDURES ON EQUIPMENT LIFE,
HE/SHE CAN PREVENT MATERIAL FAILURE AND EQUIPMENT
INOPERABILITY
Some example of recommended procedures by which we can help
reduce maintenance and extend the life and efficiency of
exchangers:
• Maintain proper cooling water outlet temperature (not in excess of
125oF)
Tips to Reduce Maintenance
Failure to observe this recommendation may result in:
1. excessive scaling of tube wall.
2. accelerated corrosion of exchanger parts.
3. mechanical failure of exchanger in tube rolls.
• Avoid introducing a high temperature stream into an exchanger
before circulation of the cooling medium has been established. This
is to prevent undue stress on the metal.
• Maintain adequate flow rates through exchangers to wash fouling
media from the bundle and maintain heating rates within the limits of
thermal design to prevent overheating.
• Operate within mechanical design limits to prevent overstress of
metals.
Tips to Reduce Maintenance
• Utilize steam traps on steam heaters to maintain maximum steam
pressure within exchanger. By passing traps results in excessive
steam consumption and reduced overall transfer coefficient.
• Guard against the use of superheated steam in exchangers
designed for saturated steam heat. Superheated steam in such tube
bundles reduces the overall transfer rate 10 times and may results in
over heated equipment.