Canada in the Post War World
Canada in the Post War World
• The transition into post-war Canada was
smoother after WW II than the transition from
• Past experience had alerted the government to
the needs of returning soldiers and the changes
required for a successful transition to a peacetime economy.
The Gouzenko Affair
• Of concern was the admission by a Russian
cipher clerk of the existence of a Soviet spy ring
in Canada.
• Igor Gouzenko’s divulgence of this information
resulted in a realization by Canada that it was not
removed from international affairs and especially
the affairs of its southern neighbour the United
States of America.
• It would open a new era in foreign affairs.
Igor Gouzenko
A cipher clerk for the
Soviet Embassy to
Canada in Ottawa,
• He defected on Sept. 5,
1945 with 109 documents
on Soviet espionage
activities in the West.
The Cold War Begins
• The U.S.A. and Russia would square off as the
world’s superpowers.
• As a result of the escalation of nuclear weapons
and differing political views, the two nations
would confront each other with challenges for
control of developing nations.
• The superpowers would engage in small scale
wars while continually endeavouring to gather
secret information through espionage and spy
The Ideological Struggle
Soviet &
Eastern Bloc
[“Iron Curtain”]
GOAL  spread worldwide Communism
US & the
GOAL  “Containment”
of Communism & the
eventual collapse of the
Communist world.
[George Kennan]
 Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]
 Arms Race [nuclear escalation]
 Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts
of Third World peoples [Communist govt. &
command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist
economy]  “proxy wars”
 Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
The Arms Race:
A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union
exploded its first
A-bomb in 1949.
Now there were
two nuclear
The Cold War World
North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (1949)
 United States
 Luxemburg
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Britain
 Norway
 Canada
 Portugal
 Denmark
 1952: Greece &
 France
 Iceland
 Italy
 1955: West Germany
 1983: Spain
Warsaw Pact (1955)
U. S. S. R.
East Germany
NATO and The Warsaw Pact
• This relationship would become known as the
Cold War and would manifest itself in battles in
Korea, Vietnam, Egypt, and Cuba.
• Defensive posturing would result in the creation
of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization of
democratic countries and the Warsaw Pact, an
alliance of communist countries.
• The hope of N.A.T.O. was to stop or limit the
spread of communism, the “red menace”.
MAP: Countries of the NATO Alliance
Planning for Peace: The United
• The United Nations, a predecessor to the ineffective
League of Nations, was created in 1945 in San
Francisco formulated on the principle of collective
• This organization could publicly condemn offending
nations, impose economic boycotts, and engage
military force through its Security Council.
• The five permanent members of the UN Security Council
are: Great Britain, France, the U.S.A., Russia, and
China (they all have the power of “veto”).
The United Nations Building, NYC
Planning for Peace: The United
• Canada would be an active member of the U.N.
participating in many aspects of the organizations
• Canada would be a member of the prestigious
Security Council in every decade of the U.N.’s
• It would be Lester B. Pearson, who would
become Prime Minister of Canada in 1963, who
suggested a solution to the Suez Crisis with the
deployment of an international peace keeping
force to maintain the peace.
Lester B. Pearson
• Lester Bowles "Mike"
Pearson (23 April 1897 –
27 December 1972)
• A Canadian statesman,
diplomat and politician
who was made a Nobel
Laureate in 1957.
• Fourteenth Prime Minister
of Canada from April 22,
1963, until April 20, 1968
Planning for Peace: The United
• The United Nations is committed to the
betterment of people’s lives through its many
agencies including the World Health
Organization, UNICEF, and the International
Monetary Fund.
• Canada has participated in many of these
agencies as well as development projects, aid
during natural disasters, and refugee assistance.
Towards a More Independent Defence
• Military apprehension would lead Canada to
closer ties with the U.S.A (and decreasing
association with Great Britain).
• Canada would commit to the N.O.R.A.D
agreement in 1957, a combined defensive effort
of North America by combined Canadian and
American efforts (mostly American).
NORAD Headquarters Colorado
Towards a More Independent Defence
• The Americans would install three “warning
systems” throughout Canada purposed to
intercept inter-continental ballistic missiles
that if launched would travel over Canada on their
way to either the U.S.A. or Russia.
• Canada would keep an army brigade and several
air squadrons in Europe and Canadians ships
and planes would track Russian submarines.
Planned Route of ICBM’s
Towards a More Independent Defence
• The Canadian government would develop civil
defence plans for citizens and those more fearful,
would construct “bomb shelters”.
• Canadians would also become more conscious of
“communist” ideologies and sympathies.
• Defence industries “screened” their workers and
unions were eyed with a “watchful eye”.
1950’s Fallout Shelter Handbook
Towards a More Independent Defence
• The situation in Canada did not parallel the
American intensity. Senator McCarthy initiated a
“witch-hunt” in the U.S.A. for communists and
communists sympathizers with his House
Committee on Un-American Activities.
• McCarthy’s persecution of many innocent
Americans through this commission would ruin
many of their lives.
CARTOON: Senator Joseph McCarthy
• What is the cartoon
• What is the cartoon
suggesting about the
evidence McCarthy is
• What does the cartoon
suggest might happen to
McCarthy’s future?
The Nuclear Issue in Canada
• In the 1960’s tensions existed between the
presidents of the U.S.A. and Canadian prime
ministers, probably a result of a lack of total
commitment by Canada to U.S. defence efforts.
• Both Prime Ministers Diefenbaker and Pearson
would have confrontations with Presidents
Kennedy and Johnson.
• Canada was hesitant during the Cuban missile
crisis and Pearson was hesitant to allow nuclear
warheads on American missiles on Canadian
The Avro Arrow
• A shining moment occurred with the development
of the Avro Arrow, a supersonic jet fighter.
• It was well ahead of its time technologically but
would be scrapped by the Diefenbaker
government who maintained modern day warfare
would be fought with intercontinental missiles
rather than jet fighters.
The AVRO Arrow
The Avro Arrow
• It was also a Liberal inspired project and
Diefenbaker was a Conservative.
• Some thought the project was submarined by the
U.S.A. because they had not developed the
• It is ironic that most of the world’s minor conflicts
since then have utilized jet fighters almost
The Vietnam War
• Canada did not participate
in the Vietnam War
although some Canadian
weapons companies
provided equipment to the
U.S. military.
• Many Canadians were
unimpressed with the
killing of civilians by
American troops.
Trudeau’s Foreign Policy
• In 1968 Pierre Elliott Trudeau would become Prime
Minster of Canada following on the heels of L.B.
• He wanted to become less dependent on the U.S.A.
• He officially recognized the communist government of
China contrary to American opinion and ordered nuclear
missiles removed from Canadian NATO forces in Europe.
• He dismantled BOMARC missile bases in Canada and
ordered the defence budget cut.
• He reduced Canada’s NATO contingent in Europe by
Pierre Elliott Trudeau
Was the fifteenth Prime
Minister of Canada from
20 April 1968 to 4 June
1979, and from 3 March
1980 to 30 June 1984.
• Trudeau was the first
Canadian Prime Minister
born in the 20th century.
• Trudeau was a
charismatic figure.
Trudeau’s Foreign Policy
• Trudeau also recognized the split between
development in poorer countries and richer
countries and part of his mission was to improve
their economic status.
• C.I.D.A., the Canadian International Development
Agency, was formed to assist developing
• Canada used “tied-aid”, whereby countries
receiving aid agreed to buy Canadian goods, as
an improvement strategy.
Advances in Science and Technology
• On July 21, 1969, the first manned moon landing
by the U.S.A. occurred.
• The ozone layer was discovered in 1976.
• In 1969 ARPANET was created, it provided the
foundation for the development of the Internet.
• Spar Arrowspace, a Canadian company, would
develop the Canadarm for the U.S, space
SPAR Aerospace Canadarm
Canada as a Middle Power
• Canada joined La Francophonie, an
organization of French speaking countries, many
former colonies of France.
• Canada also participated in the Colombo Plan, a
plan to assist developing countries.
• Canada invited overseas students to study in
Canada and sent experts overseas to give
technical assistance.
Canada as a Middle Power
• In 1972 SALT 1 (Strategic Arms Limitation
Talks) was signed which reduce the number of
nuclear weapons between the U.S.A. and the
• In 1979, the U.S.S.R. sent troops into
Afghanistan and NATO did the same.
• SALT talks were suspended and many western
nations boycotted the 1980 Olympic Summer
Games in Moscow in protest.
SALT II Talks: President Carter and
Leonid Brezhnev Sign Treaty
Canada as a Middle Power
• The U.S.A. increased its defence spending and a
Korean passenger jet was shot down over the
U.S.S.R. after it wandered into Russian air space.
• U.S. forces invaded Grenada and deposed a proSoviet government.
Canada as a Middle Power
• Prime Minister Trudeau went on a world tour
endeavouring to engage world leaders in a
campaign to mediate between the superpowers.
• In February of 1984, after his famous walk in the
snow, Trudeau decided to leave politics.
The Mulroney Era: Closer Ties with
the United States
• A change in government saw the Conservatives
led by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney work to
improve Canada’s relationship with the U.S.A.
• Canada, as a NORAD partner, was asked to be
part of the American Star Wars defence plan that
would put military defence satellites into space.
• Mulroney, after much controversy, said no but left
the door open for Canadian companies to bid on
contracts in the project.
Brian Mulroney
• Eighteenth Prime Minister
of Canada from
September 17, 1984, to
June 25, 1993.
• Leader of the
Progressive Conservative
Party of Canada from
1983 to 1993.
• After retiring from politics,
Mulroney resumed his
earlier career as a lawyer
and business consultant.
The Mulroney Era: Closer Ties with
the United States
• Mulroney dismantled Trudeau’s FIRA, the
Foreign Investment Review Agency, designed to
monitor unsuitable investment in Canada by
foreign companies.
• Mulroney replaced FIRA with Investment
Canada, an agency designed to encourage
suitable investment in Canada.
• Mulroney and the Conservatives inititated
NAFTA, the North American Free Trade
Agreement, with the U.S.A. to remove tariffs on
goods crossing the Canadian-U.S. border.
The Mulroney Era: Closer Ties with
the United States
• It was hoped that Canada would attract more
business from south of the border and have
access to the larger American market.
• Canadian businesses feared the potential
competition from bigger, more multi-national
American businesses.
• Some feared that Canadian businesses would
move farther south into Mexico where labour was
cheaper and anti-pollution laws are less stringent.
The End of the Cold War
• A change in leadership in the U.S.S.R. brought
change to the communist world.
• The U.S.S.R.’s President Mikhail Gorbachev’s
policies of “glasnost” and “perestroika”
brought sweeping economic, social, and political
reforms, to the U.S.S.R.
• Censorship was loosened and greater freedom of
speech was allowed.
• East Germans, Czechs, Poles, Hungarians, and
Romanians demanded similar reforms.
VIDEO: The Cold War Ends
Mikhail Gorbachev
• Was the last General Secretary
of the Communist Party of the
Soviet Union and the last head
of state of the USSR, serving
from 1985 until its collapse in
• His attempts at reform —
perestroika and glasnost — as
well as summit conferences
with United States President
Ronald Reagan, contributed to
the end of the Cold War.
The End of the Cold War
• In November of 1989 the Berlin Wall fell but
China who experimented with perestroika was
more reluctant with increased freedoms as
evidenced in Tiananmen Square where the
military squared off with demonstrating students
and citizens.
• The result indicated China was not as ready as
the U.S.S.R. to chart a new domestic path.
Fall of the Berlin Wall – Symbolic end
of the Cold War
The New World Order
• Recent decades have seen Canada active in the
Persian Gulf, Yugoslavia, and Africa.
• Canadian naval forces participated in the Gulf
activities and Canadian CF-18’s participated in
the bombings in Yugoslavia.
• After the Gulf War, President George Bush of
the U.S.A proclaimed a New World Order that
would see the U.S.A. taking a more active role as
a global police force rather than peacekeeping.
The New World Order
• Canadian troops participated in Operation Restore
Hope in Somalia (Africa), ravaged by civil war, under the
auspices of the United Nations.
• A teenager was arrested and tortured by the Canadian
• Compounding the act was efforts made at a cover-up that
tarnished the reputation of Canadian forces.
• The air borne squadron that was involved was
completely disbanded as a consequence.
Operation Restory Hope: Somali
Children in Bombed Out Home
The New World Order
• In Rawanda, Canadian General Romeo Dallaire,
commanding U.N. peacekeepers requested a
large multi-national force to disarm the warring
factions in that country.
• His requests were not responded to and the world
was horrified to learn that a million people had
been killed within a few weeks.
Rwandan Refugee Camp
The New World Order
• Canada’s participation in these conflicts gave rise
to questions about Canada’s involvement and
commitment to international events and agencies.
• Some suggested that Canada should not have
been involved in Yugoslavia, a problem
interpreted by some as a domestic affair in a
sovereign country.
• Others stated that Canadians had a duty to see
that the Serbian-Albanian conflict did not
The New World Order
• Others suggested that Canada is unable to
defend herself with its inadequate military forces
and we, therefore, must rely on NATO, and
hence, must meet our commitments to that
• Some suggest that we redefine our independence
and part of our relationship with the U.S.A and
not commit to a “lock-step” adherence to U.S.
foreign policy.
A New Era of Globalization
• The 1990’s saw Canada actively try to expand its
trade initiatives.
• Canada eagerly organized “Team Canada”, a
trade mission to Asia and Latin America to secure
deals for investment and exports.
• Canada has signed free trade deals with Chile
and Israel.
Canada’s Trade With China
What does the chart suggest about
Canada’s trade with China?
A New Era of Globalization
• Canada has joined APEC, the Asia Pacific
Economic Cooperation Group, to promote freer
trade among Pacific countries.
• Canada has embraced the idea, albeit with some
opposition, of globalization, the process by
which regions and countries of the world are
becoming interconnected in many facets of life
and economy.
• Globalization has been speeded up by modern
communication technologies.
The Countries of APEC
A New Era of Globalization
• Proponents of globalization say that it will raise
living standards for everyone, large corporations
will invest in less industrialized countries, and
jobs will be created for more people.
• Opponents, who insist globalization is fraught
with optimism, say the Canadian economy will
suffer from failed initiatives, the global economy is
unstable, workers will lose jobs, corporations will
relocated to countries with cheaper labour, and
that other cultures are at risk from the domination
of the ways and cultures of Western countries.
Globalization as the Americ
A New Era of Globalization
• To Canada’s credit, it has insisted upon a
commitment to human rights packages in
countries with which it has made trade deals.