Chapter 16
First Aid
Bell Work
•What occurs when the
body is over exposed to heat?
•First Aid treatment for
Hypothermia
•Signs and Symptoms of
a sprain
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
16:7 Providing First Aid
for Heat Exposure
• Overexposure to heat may cause a chemical
imbalance in the body
• Occurs when water and salt are lost through
perspiration
• Also occurs when body cannot eliminate
excess heat
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Heat Cramps
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•
•
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Muscle pains and spasms
Caused by exposure to heat
Loss of water and salt
Apply firm pressure on cramped muscle to
provide relief
• Provide rest and move to cooler area
• Small sips of water or electrolyte solution
(e.g., sports drink)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Heat Exhaustion
• Occurs when exposed to heat with loss
of fluids through sweating
• Signs and symptoms
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–
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Pale clammy skin
Diaphoresis
Fatigue
Dilated pupils and HA
Muscle Cramps
• First aid care
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Heat Exhaustion First Aid
•
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Move to cooler area
Apply cool wet clothes
Lie victim down with feet elevated
Give small sips of water
Get help and watch for shock
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Heat Stroke
• Prolonged exposure to higher than normal
temperatures
• Medical emergency—needs immediate care
and attention
• Body unable to eliminate excess heat
• Signs and symptoms
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–
–
–
↑ Body Temp
Red, hot and dry skin
Rapid pulse
Pupils constricted
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Heat Stroke First Aid
• Cool victim quickly
• Sponge or place in tub of cool water or
alcohol
• Watch for shock
• Give nothing by mouth
• Get help
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
In Conclusion…
• Warn victim to avoid warm or hot
temperatures for several days after
recovering from heat exposure condition
• Encourage recovered victim to drink
sufficient amounts of water and to have an
adequate intake of salt
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
16:8 Providing First Aid
for Cold Exposure
• Exposure to cold temperatures can cause
body tissues to freeze and body processes
to slow down
• Needs immediate attention
• Degree of injury affected by wind velocity,
amount of humidity, and length of exposure
to cold
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Hypothermia
• When body temperature is less than
95ºF (35ºC)
• Caused by prolonged exposure to cold
• Signs and symptoms
– Shivering, numbness, weakness or drowsiness
• Death can occur if body processes become
too slowed down
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Hypothermia First Aid
•
•
•
•
Move to warm area
Remove wet clothes
Warm victim slowly by blanket or bath
Give warming liquids by mouth (no caffeine)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
What is the condition?
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Frostbite
• Freezing of tissue fluids with damage
to the skin and underlying tissues
• Caused by exposure to freezing or
below-freezing temperatures
• Early signs and symptoms
– Redness and tingling
• Other signs and symptoms as frostbite
progresses
– Pale, glossy skin, Blisters possible, numbness and pain,
lethargic
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Frostbite
• Objectives of first aid
– Maintain respirations
– Treat for shock
– Warm affected parts
• Common sites: fingers, toes, ears, nose,
cheeks
• First aid care
• Assess for signs and symptoms of shock
and treat as needed
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Frostbite First Aid Care
• Warm affected parts
• Never rub or massage area because this may
cause gangrene or death of the tissue
• Avoid opening or breaking any blisters
• Place dry sterile dressing between affected
toes or fingers to prevent them from rubbing
and causing further injury.
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
16:9 Providing First Aid
for Bone and Joint Injuries
• Frequently occur during accidents or falls
with variety of injuries
• Examples: fractures, dislocations, sprains,
and strains
• May have more than one type of injury to
bones and joints at the same time
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Fracture
• Break in the bone
• Closed or simple fracture
– No open wound on the skin
• Compound or open fracture
– Open wound on the skin
• Objectives of first aid
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Fracture Signs and symptoms
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•
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Deformities
Limited motion
Pain and tenderness
Swelling and discoloration
Protrusion
Hearing the break or snap
Victim feels a grating sensation of abnormal
movement
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Fracture Objectives of first aid
•
•
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Maintain respirations
Treat for shock
Keep the broken bone from moving
Get Help
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Dislocation
• When the end of the bone is displaced from
a joint or moved out of its normal position
within a joint
• Tearing or stretching of ligaments, muscles,
and other soft tissues also frequently occurs
• First aid care
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Dislocation
• Signs and symptoms
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–
–
–
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Deformities
Limited motion
Pain and tenderness
Swelling and discoloration
Shortening or lengthening of affected arm or leg
• First aid care
-Same as a fracture
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Sprain-Ligaments
•
•
•
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Injury to tissues surrounding a joint
Common sites: ankles and wrists
Signs and symptoms
Sprains frequently resemble fractures or
dislocations—treat as fracture if any doubt
• First aid care
– PRICE
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Strain-Tendons
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•
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•
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Overstretching of a muscle
Caused by overexertion or by lifting
Frequent site: back
Signs and symptoms
First aid treatment
– PRICE
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Splints
• Devices to immobilize injured parts
• Types of splints
– Pneumatic or air splints
– Padded boards
– Traction splints
• Splints can also be made from cardboard,
newspapers, pillows, boards, etc.
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Splints
• Need to be long enough to immobilize the
joint above and below the injured area to
prevent movement
• Should be padded
• Tied in place
• Apply as not to create pressure on affected
area
• If open wound, control bleeding before
applying splint
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Splints
• Never attempt to reposition bone
• Splint before moving victim
• Observe precautions when using
pneumatic splints
• Traction splints
– Use only if have been trained
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Circulation Check After Splint
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Verify that the splints are not too tight
Check skin temperature
Check color
Note swelling or edema
Numbness or tingling
Check pulse
If circulation impaired, immediately loosen
the ties
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Slings
• Commercial slings
• Triangular bandages
• Use: support arm, hand, forearm,
and shoulder
• Positioning of sling
– Elevate if possible to reduce swelling and decrease pain
• Check circulation
• Limit movement of limb
(continues)
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Slings
(continued)
• If using knots
– Placement
– Padding
• Considerations for shoulder injury
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning