Orienteering
What is Orienteering?
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• From the Boy Scout merit badge manual, 2003
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• Over hill and dale, through the woods…
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• This is a timed event
• But how fast you go is a personal choice.
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a
compass to navigate their way between checkpoints
along an unfamiliar course.
• Folks of all ages, both genders, every walk of life.
• Alone or in groups.
• Of all fitness levels and abilities.
Suitable for all Ages
As Competitive as You Want
Alone or in a Group
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a
compass to navigate their way between checkpoints
along an unfamiliar course.
• A specially prepared map
• In accordance with IOF mapping standards
• With selected features enhancing foot navigation
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• You must have a amp to Orienteer
• You do not have to have a compass; although it is a valuable aid.
• Special compasses are made for Orienteering.
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• Selecting a route suitable to your abilities (Physical and mental)
• Following that route, and making improvements and corrections along the
way, in order to optimize your overall speed.
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• The area between two checkpoints is evaluated for alternative routes.
• One is selected.
• Orienteering techniques are implemented along the way.
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• The Orienteering Controls are marked with a distinct red & white kite like
flag.
• A unique punch or electronic recording device proves you arrived at each
location.
What is Orienteering?
• Orienteering is a cross country race in which
participants use a highly detailed map and a compass
to navigate their way between checkpoints along an
unfamiliar course.
• A course is a series of checkpoints with controls, visited in order.
• No prior knowledge of the course layout, and frequently the map is
permitted in competitive orienteering.
Types of Orienteering
• Cross Country
• Done in order
– Route Choice
• USOF – sub classes
– Short
– Middle - classic
– Long
Types of Orienteering
• Score
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Many Controls
Values
Time Limit
Penalty
Individual/Team
ROGAINEs
– Grueling
– 6, 8, 12, 24 hour events
Types of Orienteering
• Sprint Orienteering
• Relays
• FASTO Series
Types of Orienteering
• Line Orienteering
• Follow Line drawn on map
• Timed
• Penalty for missed controls
Types of Orienteering
• Route Orienteering
• Follow route marked on
ground
• Mark location of found
controls on map
• Timed
• Penalty for inaccuracy
Types of Orienteering
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Window/Corridor-O
Memory-O
Trail-O
Bike-O
Street-O
Night-O
Ski-O
Command-O
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History-O
Canoe-O
Radio-O
Goats
Other games
Poker
Declining score
Levels of Orienteering
• 4 levels of difficulty
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Beginner
Advanced Beginner
Intermediate
Advanced
Levels of Orienteering
• 4 lengths of advanced
• Age graduated
• To suite the needs of all
Levels of Orienteering
• Color Coded
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White
Yellow
Orange
Brown
Green
Red
Blue
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Novice 1-2 km
Beginner 2-3 km
Intermediate 3-5 km
Advanced 3-4 km
Advanced 4-5 km
Advanced 6-8 km
Advanced 7-12 km
Levels of Orienteering
• Course Design
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White
Yellow
Orange
Brown
Green
Red
Blue
– on trails
– off trails
– catching features, attack
points
BGRB – No Holds Barred
Levels of Orienteering
• Map Hiking
– Versus
• Competitive Orienteering
An Adventure
Orienteering can be
enjoyed as a leisurely walk
in the woods or as a
competitive race.
An Orienteering Course…
Consists of a start, a
series of control sites
to be visited in order,
and a finish.
Controls
• The circles are centered
on the feature to be
found.
• A control marks the
location.
• The description sheet
describes the control
placements and codes.
Punching
To verify a visit, the orienteer uses a punch
hanging next to the flag to mark his or her
control card.
Techniques
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Attack Points
Handrails
Catching features
Aiming Off
Collecting features –
Checking off
– Map to terrain
– Terrain to map
• Connecting features –
making a virtual pathway
• Contouring
• Map simplification
Attack Points
• It is a feature…
– near by the control
• That is easier to find…
– than the control itself
• It is typically 50 to 100
meters away…
– and seldom more than
150 meters.
• Whenever possible…
– attack from above.
Handrails
• Grasp it by the hand.
– Let it guide you safely to your
destination.
• A linear feature
• You may follow it directly…
– as on a path.
• You may travel along side …
– it such as a fence.
• You can travel near it…
– knowing that it will stop you
from
crossing over, like a guardrail.
Hand Rail
• White Course.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Hand Rail
• Yellow course.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Hand Rail
• Orange course.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Catching Feature
• Is usually a linear feature…
– that is easy to notice, that resides just before or just
beyond the control
• Use catching features to…
– alert yourself that the control is coming up very soon or
that you have just passed it.
• May also use catching features in…
– aiming off.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Catching Feature
• Traveling from 2 to 3 (cliff on the top) the
orienteer has drifted to the left (north).
• The fence is as a catching feature.
• The alert orienteer is ‘caught’ by the catching
feature.
• In this example the fence is followed to the
hill top and a new attack is taken to the cliff
top.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Aiming Off
• Deliberately aiming to one side of a
linear feature; to avoid guessing
which way to turn
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Collecting features
• – Checking off
– Map to terrain
– Terrain to map
• Observing the features
that you pass by…
– Noting them on your
map.
• Noting features on the
map that you should
see…
– Looking for them in your
run
Connecting features
Making a virtual pathway
Contouring
– Advantage
• Maintain height, energy
• Use contour as a “handrail”
– Disadvantage
• Rarely a straight line
• Easy to gain, lose height if
not skilled
• Steep slopes are very slow
to traverse (steepness and
vegetation grows at odd
angles)
• Tops of hills often open,
easy running
– General Rule: 10m climb =
100m flat
Map Simplification
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Ignore the less useful abundance of detail.
Look for the major features; handrails and catching features.
Identify the attack point and minimum detail to get there.
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An orienteer takes a detailed map and visualizes a simplified version in the mind.
Only the details relevant to moving between controls 4 and 5 are focused upon in the
simplified metal map.
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Reading Ahead
• When the navigating on
the current leg is
simple;
• use the time to prevue
the next leg.
• Know what you will do
before you need to
know.
Relocation
Invest a few minutes to
save a lot
5 minutes now could save
20 or 30.
• Lose contact with map – STOP
• Orient the map with the compass.
• Match the terrain around you to
the features on the map.
• Find a plausible route from last
known location to here
• Otherwise, identify nearest
definite guaranteed location
• Return to the last place of known
location or bail out to a linear
feature.
Systematic Orienteering
• Orienting the Map
• Align Orienting arrow with
needle
• Find your current location
• Orienting the map/person
together
• Check and know the scale
and contour interval
• Study the next control
• Identify potential
– Attack Points
– Handrails
– Catching & Collecting features
• Select your best route
• Be extra careful with the first
several legs
– Build confidence and familiarity
with
• Map
• Terrain
• Self
• Read ahead – plan
– Exit from control
– Next route
• Check of features along the
way
Route Choice
changes with experience
• Judging Physical versus
Mental aspects of choice
– Navigational skills
– Physical ability
• Safe versus Risky
• Negative Considerations
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Climb
Obstacles
Distance
Difficulties
Vegetation
Out of bounds
• Positive considerations
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Landmarks
Handrails
Features – catching, collecting
Attack points
Description Sheets
Description Sheets
Rough vs Fine Orienteering
Rough
• General knowledge of
loaction
• Usually a high rate of speed.
• Gurenteed Catching
features
• Planning and reading ahead
Fine
• Precise Knowledge of
location
• A little to a lot slower
• Avoiding risk
• Focused
Distance Judgment
• Measuring on a map
– Using compass and map scales
• Dead reckoning
– Subjective and limited use
• Pace Counting - A learned skill
Pace Counting
Establishing ones pace
Using Pace Counting
Rough Orienteering
Fine Orienteering
Aiming Off
Negative effects on Pace Count
Climb
15m climb ~ 100m level ~ @30seconds
Fatigue
Obstacles – vegetation/features
Slope – contouring
Personal growth
Injury
Speed Walk/Run
Pace Counting
• Using pace count
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Count in the background
Make a perpetual habit
Always will have a rough distance traveled
Reset at all known locations
Accuracy dwindles with distance
Use to
• Gage when short or long
• Know where you have hit a crossing
catching feature
Orienteering Cincinnati, ©
2005
Strategies
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Avoiding unnecessary climb
Keeping the high ground
Attacking from the high ground
Aiming off
Using a trail to read ahead
Investing a bit of unnecessary time with safer
routes to guarantee no lost time
Mistakes
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Parallel errors
Directional errors
Distance errors
Losing contact with the map
– Ignoring & misinterpreting features
Orienteering Rules
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No prior Knowledge of the course
No mechanical or electronic aid (GPS)
No assistance – navigate alone
No following (mass start exceptions)
Be quiet
Help the injured
Do not damage
No trespassing
Report to the finish
Orienteering Preparedness
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Clothes
Shoes
Nutrition
Hydration
Temperature
Precipitation
Wind
Terrain
Duration
Eye protection
Post Orienteering
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Tick check
Scratch and wound cleaning
Clean dry warm clothes
Draw route
Evaluate and compare route choices
Identify mistakes and better choices
Orienteering Opportunities
• Events – schedule – TROL
– Saturdays (&Sundays) now through March
• Website http://ocin.org
• Contact info
• Pat Meehan
– 513-728-5688
– [email protected]
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What is Orienteering - Orienteering Cincinnati