Weather and Climate
Prepared for STEP, May 1, 2013
By the Lunar and Planetary Institute
For use in teacher workshops
TEKS (8th grade)
(10) Earth and space. The student knows that
climatic interactions exist among Earth, ocean, and
weather systems. The student is expected to:
(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that
drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans,
producing winds and ocean currents;
(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric
movement influence local weather using weather maps
that show high and low pressures and fronts; and
(C) identify the role of the oceans in the formation of
weather systems such as hurricanes.
Engagement
• Why is weather important in Texas? Spend 3
minutes sharing your thoughts with 1 partner.
• Is climate important in Texas?
Underlying Forces, Connections
In order to understand weather and climate,
students need to be familiar with certain
physical concepts:
• Density and its relationship to temperature
• Convection
• How energy can be transferred
• Pressure
Assessments
Table Texting:
• Write in the question box “The difference between
weather and climate is”
• Then write your opinion in the “My Response” bubble
• Pass your paper to others at the table, writing replies to
whatever the previous “text” said; each sheet should
have things written by 4 people.
Show video at
http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/science/earthsci/climate-weather-sci/
Vocabulary terms
• Weather
• Radiation
• Absorption
• Convection
•
•
•
•
•
Currents
Meteorology
Atmosphere
Forecast
Climate
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Air pressure
Water Cycle
Fronts
Humidity
Temperature
Precipitation
Hurricane
Tornado
– “Climate is what you expect; Weather is what you get.”
~Mark Twain
– “Weather is what you wear each day, and climate is what’s
in your closet!”
(A) recognize that the Sun provides the energy that
drives convection within the atmosphere and oceans,
producing winds and ocean currents;
• How does the Sun’s energy drive our weather
and climate systems?
Think-Pair-Share
• Best procedures: read quietly to yourself
(so you don’t give any unconscious clues)
• As the instructor, we read it too, for timing, then ask if anyone needs more time
• If not, it’s time to vote simultaneously—use your fingers, right in front of your
chest so others don’t see (anonymous)
The Sun warms the Earth’s atmosphere primarily
because
1. The sunlight is absorbed by the atmosphere.
2. The sunlight and heat from the Sun are absorbed by the
atmosphere.
3. The sunlight is absorbed by the land and oceans.
4. The sunlight and heat from the Sun are absorbed by the
land and oceans.
5. The infrared light from the Sun warms the Earth.
Earth’s Radiation Budget
Visible
Light
From http://ceres.larc.nasa.gov/ceres_brochure.php?page=2
Time for some activities!
• A Comparison of Land and Water Temperature
http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lesson-plans/lesson-plans-middle-schooleducators/?page_id=474?&passid=36
Students examine NASA satellite observations of surface temperature.
• Fireproof Balloon
http://www.imcpl.org/kids/blog/?p=10660
This demonstration can be used to get students to think about heat capacity.
• Are Cold Liquids More Dense than Warm Liquids?
http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/pdf/245900main_MeteorologyTeacherRes-Ch9.r3.pdf
Verifying that warmer air is lighter than cooler air helps to take some of the abstractness out
of developing a basic understanding of weather. Students examine this principal with liquids
instead of gases.
• Weather Stations: Winds
http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/explore/solar_system/activities/weatherStations/winds/
Students use a toaster to generate wind and discover that convection drives wind.
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
The solar radiation heats
the surface of the Earth.
Heat is transferred to air molecules that come
in contact with the ground or ocean.
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
As the
Warmer Air
Rises…
Cooler air is pulled
in from other places
Cooler air is pulled
in from other places
Convection
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Where else do we see convection?
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Convection current – the
transfer of heat energy
through a fluid due to
gravity
Image from http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/deserts/atmosphere/
Think, Pair, Share…
How does a convection current work?
Why do we have wind?
How does the Sun’s energy drive
ocean currents?
Image from Windows to the Universe
Visuals of Currents and winds
• See http://www.fastcodesign.com/1669361/better-than-avan-gogh-nasa-visualizes-all-the-worlds-ocean-currents
And
http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/conten
t/visualizations/es2401/es2401page01.cfm?chapter_no=visu
alization
(B) identify how global patterns of atmospheric movement
influence local weather using weather maps that show high and
low pressures and fronts;
Activities: The STORM Project
• Activity 5: Fronts
http://www.uni.edu/storm/downloads/Level2/Fronts-5.pdf
Christine’s recommendation: Use this image
http://www.uni.edu/storm/wximages/images/usfronts.gif and
http://www.uni.edu/storm/wximages/images/sfc_map.gif and skip questions about winds
Students examine temperatures and precipitation compared to fronts.
Possible addition; invite students to compare air pressure numbers
(http://www.uni.edu/storm/wximages/images/pmsl.gif) to the fronts map as well.
• Activity 7: Precipitation Patterns
http://www.uni.edu/storm/activities/level2/act7.shtml
http://www.uni.edu/storm/downloads/Level2/Precipitation%20Patterns-7.pdf
Students will demonstrate the relationship between precipitation types and
surface temperatures. They will use forecast maps to predict where snow or rain
will fall over the next several days.
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
The Wind
• Result of uneven heating of the Earth’s
surface
– causes differences
in air pressure
to develop (cold air
near the poles,
warm air near the
Equator)
– Molecules always move from areas of
high pressure to areas of low pressure
Image courtesy
of NASA.
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
• Leading edge of an
air mass
• 4 kinds of fronts:
–
–
–
–
front
boundary
Cold front
Warm front
Stationary front
Occluded front
Image from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Thunderstorm_with_lead_gust_front__NOAA.jpg
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
• Cold Front: mass of cold air moving into area of warmer
air
• Warm Front: mass of warm air moving into area of cooler
air
• Stationary Front: masses of cold & warm air meet from
opposite directions and stop moving
• Occluded Front: mass of cold air overtakes mass of warm
air moving in same direction
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Cold Front
• mass of cold air moving into area of warmer air
• cold air forces warm air up & over the cold air; often creating storms
Image courtesy of http://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasses
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Warm Front
• mass of warm air moving into area of cooler air
• As front enters, rain showers, then light rain, then clearing and
warmer
Image courtesy of http://www.srh.noaa.gov/crp/?n=education-airmasses
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Stationary Fronts
•
•
•
•
air masses are not moving against each other
forms when a cold front or warm front stops moving
may stay put for days
often cloudy with rain or snow
Image from
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/stat_front.html
REVIEWING: Slides from http://greenslime.info/notes.html
Occluded
Fronts
forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm front
•
• Light to moderate rain before and during
• Clearing and cooler after
Image courtesy of the
http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/Atmosphere/tstorm/occl_front.html
(C) identify the role of the oceans in the
formation of weather systems such as
hurricanes.
Activity:
Hurricanes As Heat Engines
http://mynasadata.larc.nasa.gov/lessonplans/lesson-plans-middle-schooleducators/?page_id=474?&passid=50
Students examine authentic sea surface temperature
data to explore how hurricanes extract heat energy
from the ocean surface
Oceans
Show movie
• http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a010000/a011000
/a011056/The_OCEAN.mov
Download

Weather and Climate - Lunar and Planetary Institute

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