ENERGY Energy – The ability to do work How is energy involved in the following picture? The tennis player does work On her racket The racket does work on the ball Energy Video The ball does work on the net http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=2FBE6C5D-0DD3-4210-B4761A679001C8EE&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US STATES OF ENERGY 1. Kinetic - The energy of motion, when energy is being transferred. The faster the motion, the more kinetic energy it has. The bigger the mass, the more Kinetic energy it has. Depends on mass and velocity Increase Mass Increase K.E. Increase Velocity Increase K.E. Why would a high speed collision cause more damage than a low speed collision? STATES OF ENERGY Stored Energy or energy 2. Potential that is waiting to be transferred. -Object is not moving or doing work. BUT… the shape or position of the object can change the amount of potential energy. -When work is done on an object, potential energy is stored. -Has the ability to turn into kinetic energy. What type of energy does each Picture demonstrate? Kinetic – When you Swing hammer Potential Potential Kinetic The Roller Coaster http://www.ohiomathworks.org/themeparks/coastequation.gif 7 Forms of Energy http://www.teache rtube.com/viewVid eo.php?video_id=1 27807 FORMS OF ENERGY 1. Mechanical – Energy associated with motion, anything moving. POTENTIAL OR KINETIC Examples of mechanical energy FORMS OF ENERGY 2. Thermal – Heat Energy Is Kinetic Results from friction, causes temperature and phase changes, ALL OTHER TYPES of energy TURN INTO THIS. Solid to Liquid Liquid to Gas FORMS OF ENERGY 3. Chemical – Energy that is released as a result of molecular bonds being broken. A Form of Potential Energy Examples: All forms of fuel (gasoline, coal, wood, food, radioactive materials) Photosynthesis, batteries. What are examples of Chemical Energy in this picture? 1. Wood Burning; chemical energy stored in the wood is used to toast your marshmallows 2. Chemical energy is stored in the marshmallow’s sugar molecules. 3. When you eat a marshmallow, chemical energy stored becomes available for you to use. FORMS OF ENERGY 4. Electrical Energy – Energy of moving electrons. Is always kinetic. The electrical outlets in your home allow you to use electrical energy FORMS OF ENERGY 5. Sound – Caused by an object’s vibrations. Can also be considered mechanical. Is potential and kinetic Example: Guitar Strings Vibrating Is potential and kinetic 6. Light – Produced by the vibrations of electrically charged particle that are visible. Is kinetic. LIGHT IS ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY Electromagnetic Spectrum Other Examples of Electromagnetic Energy Microwave Radio Waves Infrared X-Rays FORMS OF ENERGY 7. Nuclear – energy associated with changes in the nucleus of an atom. Is potential. Examples: Sun’s Energy Nuclear Power Plant WHICH FORM OF ENERGY IS REPRESENTED IN EACH PICTURE? Energy is that "certain something" inside stuff (or matter to be more precise) that makes everything happen. When something or somebody moves or jumps or falls or explodes or breathes or thinks or dances or does anything, it's because energy is being transformed. SIMPLE ENERGY CONVERSIONS A change from one form of energy to another is called an energy conversion. Any form of energy can be converted Into any other form of energy. ENERGY CONVERTING FROM POTENTIAL TO KINETIC MAX PE. MAX PE. MAX KE. CHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS 1. Chemical energy in food is converted to ……… 2. Mechanical energy when you are moving, 3. Heat as a result of the movement to maintain body temperature (homeostasis) I think therefore I convert energy Chemical mechanical thermal (heat) Examples of Other Chemical Energy Conversions 1. Batteries(chemical) light heatsound 2. Gas(chemical) mechanicalheatsound Chemical to ? Lighting: electricallightheat Most of the energy is converted to heat. Only a small percentage of the original energy is converted into light energy. Heat causes the air to move very rapidly which in turn causes sound. Electrical Energy Conversions All electrical appliances are converting electricity. Name several examples of electrical conversions. MECHANICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS Movement causes friction which causes heat. Mechanical can turn into mechanical again. Bike: mechanical mechanical thermal sound THERE HAS TO BE AN ENERGY CHANGE TO MAKE THINGS HAPPEN! ENERGY CONVERSIONS CONSERVATION OF ENERGY The Law of Conservation of Energy states that when one form of energy is converted into another form of energy, no energy is destroyed in the process. Energy cannot be Created or Destroyed. Energy Resources – a natural resource that can be converted into energy for use by humans. Two Types of Energy Resources: Renewable & Nonrenewable Renewable Resource – an energy resource that can be replaced in a short amount of time. WATER WIND GEOTHERMAL BIOMASS Renewable Resources: 1. Water- rivers (dams) a. Hoover Dam- Nevada 2. Wind- moving air (windmills) b. Great Plains 3. Geothermal- hot springs, geysers (inside Earth) c. Yellowstone, parts of KY 4. Biomass- corn, ethanol, vegetable oils, wood d. Everywhere Nonrenewable Resources – cannot be replaced after use or takes millions of years to replace. Fossil Fuels – energy resources that are formed from plants and animals that lived millions of years ago Non-renewable Resources – Fossil Fuel Natural Gas Coal SUN!!! Petroleum (Oil) Non Renewable Resources: 1. Coal- fossilized plants and animals (power plants) a. KY, VA, WV 2. Natural Gas- gas deposits in the Earth (pipelines) b. Great Plains 3. Petroleum- hot springs, geysers (oil rigs) c. Gulf of Mexico, Middle East 4. Sun- radiant energy (solar panels) d. Everywhere COMPLEX ENERGY CONVERSIONS Many simple energy conversions put together. Converting energy from the sun to make it available for use at your home. Complex Energy Conversions All energy originates (starts) with the SUN!!!! HOW CAN WE MAKE ENERGY FROM THE SUN USEABLE???? The energy conversions involved with the sun are: Nuclear light thermal (heat) How can we use the light energy given from the sun on earth? Complex Energy Conversions _________ _________ _________ _________ FOSSIL FUEL ENERGY TRANSFER Plants die Become coal Nuclear to Light Light to Chemical Chemical To Chemical Electrical Mechanical Electromagnetic (light) (turn turbines) Chemical Burn the Coal – Chemical tothermal Power plant NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear power plants do the same job as fossil fuel powered plants. They use nuclear energy to power the turbines that make the electricity. Solar Energy Light energy from the Sun is converted to electrical energy for use in our homes. Disadvantage: Sun is not really a renewable resource. Advantage: Readily available as of now in all areas of the world. Area of the World = Deserts, plains areas, any area with abundant sunlight. Arizona, Mexico, California Hydroelectric (Water) Energy Mechanical energy from water in rivers is converted to electrical power with dams. Disadvantage: Expensive upkeep of dams. Advantage: Readily available to those that already have dams in place. Area of the World = Hoover Dam most well known in our country. Wind Energy Mechanical energy from wind is converted to electrical power using wind turbines. Disadvantage: Expensive and depends on how land is laid out. Advantage: Readily available to those that already have wind turbines in place. Area of the World = Great Plains, Kansas, Oklahoma. Geothermal Energy Thermal energy from within the Earth that can be converted to usable energy. Disadvantage: Land dependent, not available to everyone. Advantage: Cost effective. Area of the World = Iceland, Wyoming, Yellowstone National Park. Biomass Energy Chemical energy in plant and animal waste can be converted to usable energy in the form of methane, ethanol, bio-diesel, etc. Disadvantage: Does use some food resources increasing prices for these items. Advantage: Readily available. Area of the World = Most places. ELECTRICAL ENERGY CONVERSIONS Nuclear to Thermal Electrical Thermal to Mechanical Mechanical to Mechanical Electrical to Heat Pretty f BELLRINGERS 1. Define potential and kinetic energy. 2. Name the 7 types of energy and give an example of each. 3. Which energy types are potential? Which are kinetic? Which are both? 4. Explain the energy tranformations from the sun to your alarm clock. 5. Explain the energy transformations from the sun to you riding a bike. 6. Explain the energy transformations as a pendulum swings. 7. Define renewable and nonrenewable resources and give an example of each. Bellringer #2 1. The energy conversion involved with photosynthesis is: a. Nuclear to light to heat to chemical b. Light to chemical c. Chemical to light 2. The energy conversion involved with a flashlight is: a. Electrical to light to heat b. Chemical to electrical to light to heat c. Light to heat 3. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that in energy conversions: a. Energy is used up during conversions b. Energy is not transferred from one form to another. c. Energy is neither created or destroyed only changed from one form to another with no energy loss.