LIFE IN EARLY MODERN
EUROPE, 1500-1650
NAISBITT/FREILER
INTRO: SETTING THE SCENE
• The scene of communal farming is repeated with little variation
throughout Europe in the early modern era
• With one bed per household, the family was obviously close-knit
• There was no running water, no central heat, no bathrooms, and no
electricity
• A 16th century prince endured greater material hardship than a 20th
century welfare recipient
• The whole family performed physical labor reminding us that the life of
the ordinary people of the early modern era was not romantic
EUROPEANS SHARED
EXPERIENCES
• While there was no typical 16th century European, there
were shared experiences
• Agriculture increased as more land was cleared and more
crops were grown
• The century-long population explosion and increase in
commodity prices fundamentally altered lives
RURAL LIFE THE NORM
• In the early modern era, as much as 90% of the European population
lived on farms or in small towns where farming was the principal
occupation
• Villages were small and isolated
• They ranged in size from 20-100 families
• The village was the bedrock of the 16th century state
• The manor, the parish and the rural administrative district were the
institutional frameworks
PEASANT
BUDGET
• Manorial rents supported the
lifestyle of the nobility; parish
tithes supported the Church;
local taxes supported the
power of the state
• Rents, tithes, and taxes
absorbed more than half of
the wealth produced by the
peasant
• From the remaining half, the
peasant had to make
provisions for the present
and future
Tithes
SURVIVAL
• To survive, the village had to be self-sufficient
• Hard times meant hunger and starvation – both of which were
accepted as part of the natural order
• One in three harvests was bad; one in five was disastrous
• Depending on the soil and crop, between one-fifth and one-half of
the grain harvested had to saved as seed for the next year
HOUSING
• Hunger and cold were constant
companions of the
average European
• Especially in Scandinavia
and Muscovy, winter
posed as great a threat as
starvation
• Most homes were made
of wood and roofed in
thatch
• Walls were patched with
dry mud and the ground
was leaves or straw
• The typical home was one large
room with a hearth at one end
Thatched
homes
HOME FURNISHINGS
• People had few household
possessions
• The essential piece of
furniture was the wooden
chest, which was used for
storage
• A typical family could keep
all their possessions in the
chest, which could then be
buried or carried away in
times of danger
• The chest could also be
used as a table or bench
• Most domestic activities,
including cooking, eating and
sleeping, took place close to
the ground, thus sitting,
squatting, and kneeling were
the usual positions
• Most family possessions
related to food production
• Iron spits and pots were
treasured possessions
• Most kitchen items were
made of wood, including
long-handled spoons,
trenchers (boards for cutting
and eating), cups and bowls
• Knives were essential but
forks were still a curiosity
THE KITCHEN
?
ISOLATION
For many Europeans, the village was
where they were born, lived, and died
• Up at dawn, asleep at
dusk; long working hours
in summer, short ones in
winter
• For most, the world was
bounded by the distance
that could be traveled only
by foot
• Most died never seeing
more than a hundred other
people or hearing anything
louder than a human voice
or thunder
• Their wisdom was based
solely on experience
AGRICULTURE – THE PLAINS
• Peasant life centered on
agriculture
• While technology and
technique varied little across
the continent, there were
significant differences
depending on climate, soil
and the animals they raised
• Across the great plain (Low
Countries to Poland) the
three-crop rotation was the
norm
• Grain composed 75% of the
calories of a typical diet
• 1) Winter- wheat
• 2) Spring – barley, peas,
beans
• 3) Fallow (idle)
More than 80% of crops grown
were consumed on the farm
AGRICULTURE – THE MED
Olive trees are everywhere in the
Mediterranean
• The warm and dry climate
of the Mediterranean
favored a two-crop
rotation
• With less water and
stronger sunlight, half the
land had to be left fallow
each year to restore the
nutrients
• Grapes and olives were
staple crops as meat was
less plentiful
AGRICULTURE – THE MOUNTAINS
• The mountainous and hilly regions of Europe depended on animal
husbandry for subsistence
• Sheep were
the most
common
animal raised
by
Europeans
• Sheep provided
the raw material
for most clothing,
their skin was used for parchment and window covers and they were
an inexpensive source of meat
• Pigs were domesticated in the woodland regions
• Cattle were largely “farm animals” utilized most extensively in
Hungary and Bohemia
LAND – KEY RESOURCE
• Because agriculture was
the principal occupation of
Europeans, land was the
principal resource
• Most land was owned by
lords who rented it out in
various ways
• The land was divided into
manors, and the manor
lord, or seigneur, was
responsible for
maintaining order, justice,
and arbitrating disputes
THE MANOR
• On a manor there was a
village, church, lord's
house or castle, and the
farmland upon which the
people worked
• The peasants had
requirements they had to
fulfill in order to live there
which involved farming
the lord's land and paying
rents with food
PEASANTS AND THE LAND
• In western Europe,
peasants generally
owned between one-third
and one-half of the land
they worked
• In eastern Europe peasants
owned little if any land
• In return for rent, peasants
used the land as they saw fit
and could hand it down to their children
• While rent payment in the form of coin occurred, most
often the lord received a fixed amount of the crop yield or
labor (labor service called the robot in eastern Europe
and the corvee in France)
• German and Hungarian peasants owed 2-3 days per
week, while Polish peasants owed as much as 4 days of
labor
FARM WORK
• Farm work was ceaseless toil
• The draught animals were critical elements of any
farm and the birth of foals and calves were
celebrated more than the birth of a child and the
death of an ox or horse was a catastrophe
THE RHYTHM OF THE DAY
• Men and women worked to
the natural rhythm of the
day
• Up at dawn, at work in the
cooler hours, at rest in the
hotter hours
• Rain kept them idle, sun
busy
• In the summer the laborers
met at 4 a.m. and in the
winter 7a.m.
• Wages were paid by the
hours worked: 7 in winter
and as many as 16 in the
summer
GUILDS ORGANIZE LABOR
• In all towns there was an
official guild structure that
organized and regulated
labor
• Rules laid down the
requirements for training,
standards for quality, and
the conditions for
exchange
• Only those officially
sanctioned could work in
trades, and each trade
could perform only
specific tasks
ACUTE
POVERTY
• Urban poverty was
endemic and grew worse
as the century wore on
• In most towns, as much
as a quarter of the entire
population might by
destitute, living on day
labor, charity, or crime
• In the countryside
conditions could be
worse as no formal
agencies for relief existed
• The urban poor more
often suffered from
disease than starvation
LARGE TOWN VS. SMALL TOWN
• In larger towns a greater
variety of occupations and
a greater reliance of wage
earnings set it apart from
smaller towns
• Occupations were usually
organized geographically,
with metal or glass
working in one quarter of
town, brewing or baking in
another
• There was a strong family
and kin network to the
occupations, which were
handed down from parents
to children
WOMEN’S OCCUPATIONS
• Women in larger towns
had more job options than
their country counterparts
• Being mid-wives or nurses
were two options available
to women in larger towns
• Prostitution was officially
sanctioned in most large
towns in the modern era
• Brothels were subject to
taxation and governmental
control
MAJORITY: UNSKILLED
LABORERS
• Most town dwellers were
unskilled laborers
• Day laborers, hauling or
lifting goods on carts or
boats, stacking materials
at building sites, or
delivering food or water
were the main day-laboring
jobs
• As the century progressed
the number of laborers
exceeded the number of
jobs and many sought
servant jobs
DOMESTIC LABOR
• Domestic labor was a
critical source of
household labor
• Even those families of
marginal means employed
servants to help in the
numerous household tasks
• Commonly, household
servants did not advance
in status and frequently
changed employers in
hope of better conditions
IMPORTING
GRAIN
• Towns often survived
by importing grain from
rural communities
• All towns had municipal
storehouses of grain to
preserve their
inhabitants in time of
famine
• Grain prices were
strictly regulated and
subsidized
• The average laborer’s
diet consisted of meat,
soup, vegetables, wine
and beer
th
16
CENTURY POPULATION
INCREASE
• During the 16th century, the
European population increased
by about a third (from 80 million
to 105 million)
• Western European growth was
especially significant in the first
half of the century while eastern
European growth was steady
throughout the century
• Europe had finally recovered
from the plague and by 1600 its
population was at a high point
• Fifteen cities more than doubled
their populations, with London
increasing 400%
EFFECT OF POPULATION
GROWTH - POSITIVE
• Early in the century,
the growth brought
prosperity as the land
was not farmed to
capacity, and the extra
hands increased
production
• As the rural areas filed
the spillover went to
small towns and cities
Initially, land was available in
the early 16th century
EFFECT OF POPULATION
GROWTH - NEGATIVE
• There is a natural limit to
the number of people that
could profit from a given
industry, and by midcentury Europeans were
experiencing saturation
in many industries
• Most apprenticeships
were limited and guilds
enforced restrictions on
new entrants
• By mid-century a glut in
the workforce forced real
wages (purchasing
power) to fall
PRICE REVOLUTION
• The fall of real wages took place
during a period of inflation
known as the Price Revolution
• For example, between 1500-1650
cereal prices increased 5 times
and manufactured goods
doubled in price
• Most of the increase took place
in the second half of the 16th
century as a result of population
increase and the import of gold
and silver from the New World
• The Price Revolution impacted
government finances and trade
throughout the continent
IMPACT OF PRICE REVOLUTION
• As a result of the steep
rise in prices, some
people became destitute;
others became rich
• Towns were especially
hard hit due to the
enormous increase in
grain
• Those who grew their
own food were more
insulated from the
effects, while those who
counted on their
subsistence from labor
were in greater peril
CYCLE NOW TURNS VICIOUS
• Those who had sold and left their land to seek prosperity in towns
were forced to return to the land as agrarian laborers
• In western Europe, they became landless poor, seasonal migrants
without the safety net of communal living – by 1600 many were
starving
• In eastern Europe, the landed nobility solidified their position
SOCIAL LIFE
• In the early modern era,
the group rather than the
individual was the
predominant unit in
society
• The first level of the
social order was the
family and the household
• Next, was the village or
town community
• Finally, the gradations of
ranks in society at large;
each group had its own
place and performed its
own functions
HIERARCHY
• Hierarchy was the
dominant principle of
social organization in
the early modern era
• Hierarchy at every
level existed; lords &
commoners, master
& apprentice,
government official &
citizen, landholder &
landless, husband &
wife, parent & child
SOCIAL STATUS
• Status, not wealth, determined
hierarchy in society
• Status was apparent everywhere
• It involved bowing and hat
doffing, clothing, and food
• Status was significant in titles
including nobles, goodmen and
goodwives, squires, and ladies
• The acceptance of status was
an uncomplicated, unreflective
act, similar to stopping at a red
light
• Inequality was a fact of
European social life that was
unquestioned
GREAT CHAIN OF BEING
• To reinforce the
social hierarchy,
images such as The
Great Chain of Being
were perpetuated
• The Great Chain of
Being was a
description of the
universe in which
everything had a
place, from God to
rocks
THE BODY POLITIC
• Another metaphor used to
reinforce societal hierarchy was
the idea of the Body Politic
• In this “body” the head ruled, the
arms protected, the stomach
nourished, and the feet labored
• The image depicted a small
community as well as a large state
• The king was the head, the Church
the soul, the nobles the arms, the
artisans the hands, and the
peasants the feet
• Each performed its own vital
function
• Both the Great Chain and the Body
Politic were conservative concepts
of social organization designed to
maintain the status quo
NOBLES
Arms of Hughes of Tipperary
• Nobility was a legal status
that conferred certain
privileges to its holders
• Rank and title provided a
well-defined place at the
top of the social order that
was passed from
generation to generation
• The escutcheon – coat of
arms – was a universally
recognized symbol of rank
and family connection
whether you were a prince,
duke, earl, count, or baron
POLITICAL CLOUT
• Among the most
important privileges
held by nobles involved
political influence
• In most countries the
highest offices of the
state and military were
reserved for members
of the nobility
• In Europe, various diets
and political bodies
were often composed
strictly of nobles
ECONOMIC CLOUT
• Additionally, nobles
enjoyed economic
privileges as a result
of their rank and role
as lords of their land
• In almost every
nation, nobles were
exempt from taxation
• The nobles of eastern
and central Europe
benefited greatly from
these exemptions
MILITARY OBLIGATIONS
• Initially, nobles were
considered a warrior class
that was expected to raise,
equip, and lead troops into
battle
• By the 16th century, military
needs of the state
surpassed the nobles ability
to provide it
• Warfare had become a
national enterprise that
required central
coordination
• Nobles had become
administrators as a new
“service” nobility emerged
GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS
• Nobles also had the obligation of governing
at both the local and national level
• At the discretion of the ruler, a noble could be
called upon to engage in any governmental
occupation
• Additionally, they
expected to provide
for the needy and
maintain good
relationships with
the peasants that
worked their land
THE TOWN ELITE
The urban elite was largely a
western European phenomenon
• Over the course of the
16th century, a new urban
elite emerged
• They enjoyed many of the
same political and
economic privileges of
the rural nobles
• However, many members
of this new social class
were caught between the
nobles and the
commoners – despised
from above and envied
from below
THE GENTRY
• As the century progressed
the accumulation of large
estates by non-nobles
increased
• They received rents and
dues, administered their
estates, and provided for
their peasants – all without
the traditional “rank”
• In England, the group
came to be known as the
gentry, and there were
parallel groups in Spain,
France and the Empire
In England, the gentry had the right
to a coat of arms and could be
knighted, but the position was not
hereditary and the gentry could not
belong to the House of Lords
CITIZENS VS. NON-CITIZENS
• The order of rank below
the town elite, pertained
to the type of work that
one performed
• Citizenship was
restricted to membership
in certain occupations
and guilds
• While it could be
purchased, most
citizenship status was
earned through
mastering a profession
after a period of
apprenticeship
• Only males could
become citizens
The New Rich:
• During the early modern
period, traditional social
hierarchy changed
• Why? Population increase
meant more governors to
perform military, political
and social functions of the
state
• Second, opportunities to
accumulate wealth
increased dramatically
during the Price Revolution
– individuals could rapidly
increase their economic
position via gold, silver, or
selling commodities
• Profits from state service
(tax collection,
officeholding, law) proved
lucrative, too
TRANSFORMATION OF
THE TRADITIONAL
SOCIAL HIERARCHY
TRANSFORMATION OF
THE TRADITIONAL
SOCIAL HIERARCHY
Beggars soon became separated into the
“deserving poor” and the so-called
“sturdy beggars”
The New Poor:
• Social change was equally
apparent at the bottom of
the social scale
• Population increase
created a group of
landless poor who
squatted in villages and
clogged the streets of
towns and cities
• As many as one in four
Europeans were destitute
• Traditionally, local
communities (especially
the Church) cared for the
poor
• As the century
progressed, local efforts
at poor relief were
overwhelmed by the sheer
numbers of needy
• Crime increased
throughout the modern
era as well
PEASANT REVOLT
• One consequence of the
economic and social
changes of the 16th century
was an increase in violent
confrontations between
peasants and their lords
• Most revolts involved
peasant leaders, petitions,
and an organized rank and
file with moderate political
demands
• Peasant revolts were
viewed as such a threat to
social order that they were
put down with the severest
repression and brutally
Peasant revolts were usually
organized and well-planned, but
always met with disaster
GERMAN PEASANTS’ WAR
• By far the most widespread peasant revolt of the 16th century, the
German Peasants’ War involved tens of thousands of peasants and
combined a series of agrarian grievances with an awareness of
Luther’s new religious spirit
• Although he had a large following among peasants, Luther advised
them to passively accept their fate
• The peasants disregarded his advice and organized large armies led
by experienced soldiers
AGRARIAN
CHANGES
Nobles wanted the forest for their wild
game, while the peasants objected to
the game eating their crops
• Peasant frustration was not
typically aimed at their lords,
rather their anger was a
product of agrarian changes
brought on by population
increase and market
production
• Many of the traditional rights
and obligations of the lords
and peasants gave way to
the need for more land and
crops
• One important example was
forest rights
• As land became more
scarce, lords and peasants
battled over common forest
land and wild game
ENCLOSURES THREATEN
TRADITION
• Another conflict arose over the enclosure of crops
• Enclosure meant a fence or hedge that separated one parcel of land
from another
• The enclosure movement destroyed the tradition of communal farming
• It was yet another aspect of tradition losing out to economic progress
(in this case private enclosed estate farming)
• Enclosures were a source of resentment for the poorer peasants
GERMAN PEASANTS CRUSHED
• Some of the demands of the peasants included; a share
of the woodlands, more freedom for the peasant (serf in
some cases), stable rents fixed at fair rates,
and a return to the ancient
customs that had long
governed lords and
peasants
• The demands of the
peasants reflected a
traditional order that no
longer existed
• They were caught between
the jaws of an expanding state and a changing economy
• More than 100,000 peasants were slaughtered during and
after the war – the jaws had snapped shut
PRIVATE AND COMMUNITY LIFE
While the great events of the 16th
century dominate the headlines,
perhaps the key to
understanding Europeans is to
look at their family and
community life
• The great events of the 16th
century (New World
discovery, consolidation of
states, increased ferocity
of wars, religious reform)
did impact the lives of the
common European
• However, the lives of most
Europeans centered on
births and deaths, the
harvest, festivals, and
social relations in the
family and community
• Their strongest loyalties
were to family and
community rather than
church or state
THE
FAMILY
• Sixteen-century life
centered on the
family
• European families
were primarily
nuclear, especially in western Europe
• In Hungary and Muscovy, for example, taxation was based
on households and thus encouraged extended families
• The concept of family and family lineage created a sense of
stability and longevity in a world in which individual life
was short
FAMILY AS ECONOMIC UNIT
Van Gogh’s take on a peasant couple
going to work the field, 1890
• The family was also an
economic unit; the basic
unit for production,
accumulation, and
transmission of wealth
• Every member of the
family had his or her
own functions that were
essential
• Tasks were divided by
gender and age, but
there was far more
intermixture than is
traditionally assumed
FAMILY
AS
SOCIAL
UNIT
• The family was also the primary unit of social
organization
• In the family, children were educated and the social
values of hierarchy and discipline were taught
• At the top of the family was the father – the head of
household who ruled his wife, children and servants
• Next, the mother – who ruled the children who owed
obedience to both parents
• The wife also had authority over male apprentices
FAMILY SIZE AND
MARRIAGE AGE
• Though the population was
increasing, the typical
family size remained at 3-4
children
• Late marriages and breastfeeding helped control
family size
• Women married around age
25; men slightly later
• A woman could expect
about 15 fertile years and 78 pregnancies with 3-4
children surviving beyond
age 10
Peasant Mother and Child
by Mary Cassatt
WOMEN IN
THE ERA
Breton Peasant Women by Paul Gauguin
• Constant pregnancy and
child care help explain
some of the narrow
gender roles of the era
• Biblical injunctions and
traditional stereotypes
help explain others
• The woman’s sphere
was the household
• On the farm she was in
charge of food, domestic
animals, children’s care
and education, clothes
• In towns, women
supervised the shop that
was part of the
household, sold goods,
kept accounts, and
directed the work of
apprentices
MEN IN THE ERA
• The man’s sphere was the public
– the fields in rural areas, the
streets in towns
• Men plowed, planted, and did the
heavy farming
• They made and maintained the
farm equipment, took charge of
the large farm animals, and
made farm purchases
• Men attended court proceedings
and other affairs of the village
• Only men could be citizens of
the towns, full members of most
guilds, and participate in civic
governments
Man Smoking, Room XIII
by Van Gogh 1888, oil on
canvas
Pieter Brueghel - Peasant (aka Village)
Wedding Feast
• On the farm, the community was the village; in the
town, it was the ward, quarter, or parish
• The community was not a idyllic haven of love and
charity – violence and feuds were common on the
farm or in the town
• The community provided the culture and identity for
the European
LORD’S ROLE
• The two basic forces in the rural community
were the lord and the priest
• The lord set the conditions for work and
property arrangements
• However, use of
common lands,
rotation of labor service,
and the form in which
rents were paid were all
collective decisions
made by village headmen
and elders in conjunction with a lord’s agent
PRIEST’S ROLE
The priests served as a conduit for all
the news of the community and the focal
point for the village festive life
• The parish priest or
minister attended all the
important events of life –
birth, marriage, and
death
• The church was the only
common building of the
community; it was the
only space not owned by
the lord or an individual
family
• In rural communities the
church was the only
organization to which
people belonged
• Social ceremonies bound the community together
• For example, the annual perambulation involved a
walk around the village fields before planting began
• The priest would lead the walk and then bless the
fields
• Individuals reaffirmed their shared identity through
ceremonies like the perambulation
WEDDINGS
• The most common
ceremony was
the wedding
• The wedding was a
combination of a
religious event
and a community
procession with
feasting
and festivity
• The wedding was
celebrated as the
moment when the
couple entered fully
into the community
• Parents were a central feature of the event as they
approved the union and planned the dowry and
inheritance
PROPERTY AND WEDDINGS
• Traditional weddings
involved the formal
transfer of property
• The bridal dowry and the
groom’s inheritance
were formally exchanged
during the wedding
• The public procession –
“the marriage in the
streets” – was as
important as the
religious service
• It was followed by a feast
as abundant as the bride
and groom could afford
SEXUAL
LEGITIMACY
• Weddings also
legitimated sexual
relations
• Many of the dances and ceremonies that
followed the feast symbolized the sexual
congress
• Bridal beds were often passed from mothers to
daughters
• Consummation was a vital part of the wedding,
for without it the union could be annulled
• Finally, the wedding served to elevate the couple
to full status as adults in the community
SEASONAL FESTIVALS
• In town and country,
the year was divided by a
number of festivals that
defined the rhythm of toil and
rest
• They coincided with both
agricultural life and the
Christian calendar
• Christmas and Easter were the
two most widely observed
Christian holidays
• Carnival, which preceded Lent,
was a rowdy series of feasts
and parties
• Others included, The Rites of
May and All Hallows Eve
Battle of Carnival and Lent, Brueghel, Pieter the Elder
PURPOSE OF FESTIVALS
• Festivals helped maintain
the sense of community
that might have been
weakened during the long
months of work
• They were first and
foremost celebrations in
which feasting, dancing
and play were central
• But they also served as
safety valves for the
pressure and conflicts
built up over the year
• They served to reinforce
social hierarchy and
deference and community
mores
The stress of a bad harvest, famine or
any number of other maladies, was
released during the various festivals
PUNISHMENT AND FESTIVALS
• Festivals also served to publicly
punish various offenders
• For example, a promiscuous men
or women by placing horns on
their head
• Or a man who had failed to control
his wife might be force to ride
backwards on a horse to
symbolize the backwardness in the
family
• Such forms of community shaming
rituals worked not only to punish
offenders but also to reinforce the
social and sexual values of a
village as a whole
• In this preliterate
society, the people’s
beliefs blended
Christian teaching and
folk wisdom with a
strong strain of magic
• Popular belief in magic
was prevalent all over
Europe and operated in
much the same way as
science does today
• Only skilled
practitioners could
perform magic and they
had their own language
• Some focused on herbs
and plants, others on
diseases of the body
MAGICAL
BELIEFS
Alchemists (above), worked with rocks
and minerals, astrologers with the
movement of stars
PURPOSE OF MAGIC
• The wealthy favored
astrology and paid for
advice on the best day to
marry or invest
• Poorer villagers sought
the help of herbalists to
help control the aches
and pains of daily life
• Sorcerers and wizards
were called upon in more
extreme situations such
as bad harvest or
matters of life and death
VILLAGE
MAGICIANS
• Most village magicians were
women because it was
believed that women had the
unique knowledge and
understanding of the body
and “magical” herbs
• Magicians also advised the
lovesick on potions and
spells that would gain them
the object of their desires
• Magic was believed to have
the power to alter nature,
and it could be used for
good or evil
THE WITCH
CRAZE
• Magic for evil was black
magic, or witchcraft
• Witches were believed to
possess special powers
that put them in contact
with the devil and the
forces of evil
• This belief in the
presence of good and
evil was Christian as well
as magical
• Beginning in the late 15th
century, Church
authorities began to
prosecute large numbers
of suspected witches
• By the end of the
16th century
there was a
continentwide
witchcraze
WOMEN PERSECUTED
• Unmarried or widowed women
were usually targeted for
persecution as witches (80%)
• A fear of those not under male
control was evident from the
above figures
• The sexual element of union
between a women and a devil
serves as one possible
explanation
• More likely, women’s unequal
status in society played a
larger role – they were an easy
target
• Misfortunes that occurred
were blamed on the activities
of witches
Women’s role as healers led in
part to their persecution
WESTERN EUROPE: HOTBED FOR
PERSECUTION
• Because there was such
widespread belief in the
presence of diabolical
spirits and in the
capabilities of witches to
control them, Protestant
and Catholic church
courts easily found
witnesses to testify
against suspected
witches
• Interestingly, Calvinist
Scotland had more trials
for witchcraft than Spain
and France combined
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Unit 3 PPT - Coeur d`Alene School District