Chapter 7 Airport Charts Chapter 7 Airport Charts §7.1 Introduction Formats of Airport Charts: • The “classic” chart format • The “Briefing StripTM” chart format Heading of “classic” chart format The “classic” chart format provides communication information on the right of the chart heading, with airport information on the left. Heading of “Briefing StripTM” chart format BriefingStripTM This chart format distributes the same information across the top of the chart so that you are reading it from left to right. It’s a widely used format of airport charts. §7.2 Airport Chart Information The airport chart contains four primary sections: • • • • Heading Plan view Additional runway information Takeoff and alternate minimums Heading Plan View Additional Runway Information Takeoff and Alternate Minimums §7.2.1 Heading The top of each airport chart provides standard information about airport, including the location and airport name, elevation, and communication frequencies. §126.96.36.199 Heading Border Distinct areas of the heading: • Location and Airport Name • Chart Index Number and Dates • ICAO Location Identifier and Airport Information • Communications Row Location and Airport Name Location Name/City Name Airport Name Select the right airport within a particular city Chart Index Number and Dates Chart Index Number Chart Date ICAO Location Identifier and Airport Information The airport identifier, unique to each airport, is a combination of the ICAO regional designation and the airport’s governing agency designation （IATA). Airport Identifier ARP Coordinates Airport Elevation Coordinates represent the airport location as provided by the controlling authority Communications Row ATIS Frequency Delivery Frequency Ground Frequency Tower Frequency Departure Frequency §7.2.2 Plan View The airport chart plan view portrays an overhead view of the airport, it can provide you with graphical information about the airport, such as its runways and lighting systems. Except the length and width of stop way and taxiway, lighting system, the other part of charts are portrayed on scale. §188.8.131.52 Scales, Coordinate Tick Marks and Magnetic Variation To help you measure distance, the plan view includes a scale showing both feet and meters. The scale a chart always use range from 1inch=1000feet to 1inch=6000feet. Scale of the plan view of this chart is 1inch=1000feet Latitude and longitude coordinate tick marks Magnetic Variation Longitude Runway Number RVR Tower Scale ARP Runway Elevation Runway Length Latitude Approach Light Magnetic Variation §184.108.40.206 Runway Information The Runway Information is focused on the following items: • Runway Numbers • Runway Elevations and Length • Displaced Thresholds, Stopways, Overruns • Runway Surface • Arrester Gear and Barriers • Non-Runway Landing Areas Runway Numbers and Magnetic Direction Runway number is magnetic unless followed by “T” for true in the far north. Runway number and, when known, magnetic direction unless followed by “T” for true in the far north. Seaplane operating area, or water runway. Closed runway. Temporarily closed runways will retain their length and runway numbers. Runway Elevations and Length Elevations of the runways’ entrance and the lengths of the runways are usually marked at the end and the middle of the runways. Runway number and Magnetic Direction Entrance elevation of 07L Length of 07R Displaced Thresholds and Stop-ways Displaced thresholds reduce the length of runway available for landings. This portion of runway prior to a displaced threshold is available for takeoffs in either direction, and landings only from the opposite direction. Stopways or overruns are areas beyond the takeoff runway at least as wide as the runway and centered upon its extended centerline. They may be used to decelerate an airplane during an aborted takeoff. Runway Surface In the plan view of the charts, different symbols are used to portray different runway surfaces. Paved runway Unpaved runway, such as turf, dirt, or gravel. The type of surface is usually printed on the chart next to the runway. Pierced steel planking (PSP) Seaplane operating area or water runway. Dashed lines indicate the operating area. Area under construction Arrester Gear and Barriers Unidirectional arrester gear Bidirectional arrester gear Jet barrier Non-Runway Landing Areas In addition to runways, the airport chart indicated landing areas as follows: Helicopter landing pad Authorized landing area (may be used on Australia charts with limited runway source information §220.127.116.11 Taxiways and Aprons Taxiway and apron Permanently closed Taxiway Designated stop bar or designated holding position Category Ⅱ/Ⅲ holding position § 18.104.22.168 Airport Facilities Buildings RVR with letter ARP Airport Identification Beacon Navids RVR Cone Tee Tetrahedron Buildings Buildings Large Buildings Airport Reference Point The airport reference point (ARP) is at the approximate geographic center of all usable runway surfaces, and is the point from which official latitude and longitude coordinates are derived. The center of the crosshairs marks the ARP’s exact location. When the ARP is on a runway centerline, an arrow points to its exact location. Navigational aids On-airport navaid, such as VOR ,NDB ,or LCTR (locators, other than locators associated with ILS). When navaids are offset from the runway, you may need to make significant adjustments in your final approach course, once the runway is in slight. RVR measuring devices RVR measuring site (transimissometer). The primary instrument runways at major airports may have as many as three transimissometers providing RVR readings, which include touchdown RVR, mid-RVR, and rollout RVR. RVR RVR with letter Wind direction indicators Cone or wind sock. It is used at both towered and non-towered airports. It can provide the present wind conditions near the runway’s touchdown zone. Wind tee. Determine the wind direction from a wind tee, but it doesn't indicate wind intensity or gusty conditions. The tail of the tee aligns itself like a weather vane into the wind, so you can take off or land on the runway that most closely parallels the direction of the tee. Tetrahedron. It is a landing direction indicator, usually located near a wind direction indicator. It may swing around with the small end pointing into the wind, or it may be manually positioned to show landing direction. § 7.2.5 Lights and Beacons The majority of lighting symbols on the airport diagram are approach lights and beacons. • Approach Lights • Beacons Approach Lights Name Approach light system with sequenced flashing lights Abbreviation ALSF-I Chart Symbol Real Composing Name Approach light system with sequenced flashing lights and red side row lights the last 1,000′ Abbreviation ALSF-II Chart Symbol Real Composing Name Medium intensity approach light system with runway alignment indicator lights. Abbreviation MALSR Chart Symbol Real Composing Name Abbreviation Medium intensity approach light system with sequenced flashing lights MALSF Chart Symbol Real Composing Name Abbreviation Omni- directional approach light system ODALS Chart Symbol Real Composing Name Runway alignment indicator lights Abbreviation RAIL Chart Symbol Real Composing Name CALVERT Approach Lights Abbreviation CALVERT Chart Symbol Real Composing Name CALVERT （CATⅡ/Ⅲ） Approach Lights Chart Real Abbreviation Symbol Composing CALVERT （CATⅡ/Ⅲ） Beacons Beacons are depicted on the airport diagram as stars “ ”.When the depicted beacon is the airport identification beacon, the star is circled “ ” and may appear with its MSL elevation. Reference Points Unknown Structure Tower Man-made Reference Points Building Road Railway Pole Line Lighted Pole Nature Terrain Natural Reference Points Bluff Trees §7.2.3 Additional Runway Information Some required airport information, such as lighting systems and usable lengths, cannot be portrayed in enough detail in the airport chart plan view. These information appears below the plan view in the box titled “Additional Runway Information.” This table provides information for each runway charted in the airport diagram, except for permanently closed runways, ultralight runways, and ski strips. Additional Runway Information of Hong Kong INTL Runway Light System RVR Note Usable Length Runway Width The first column lists each runway, grouped in approach end pairs. Three types of information are provided for each runway: • Lighting systems and equipment • Usable lengths • Width §22.214.171.124 Lighting Systems and Equipment Runway light System includes HIRL 、CL、TDZ. The interval of HIRL is 60m；interval of CL is 15(30)m Runway Light System • • • • HIRL CL TDZ HST Approach Lights Approach light---ALSF-Ⅱ Approach Lights RVR §126.96.36.199 Usable Lengths Usable lengths §188.8.131.52 Runway Width You can also determine the runway width by counting the number of runway threshold stripes, as indicated in the following table: §184.108.40.206 Runway Restriction Notes Runway is grooved; PAPI of 07L is fixed at the left of runway , angle 3°; PAPI of 25R is fixed at the right of runway , angle 3°; HSTIL are located at High-speed taxiways A4 and A6. §7.2.4 Minimums The bottom part of an airport chart includes up to three separate sections: • Takeoff minimums • Obstacle departure procedures • Alternate minimums CL operative, centre line of the runway can be seen. One of the TDZ, middle and end of the runaway RVR inoperative, meanwhile the other two operative, the minimum for take off is RVR600FT. Minimum for adequate Vis Reference One or Two engines, RVR 50(5000FT) or VIS 1mile; Three or Four engines, RVR 24(2400FT) or VIS 1/2mile. Take off from 6R, keep Minimum climb grads 281FT/MIN until climb to 400FT. When take off from 6R, the light、visual reference couldn’t meet the standard, the take off minimum require ceiling to be 200ft,meanwh ile VIS 1.25SM. The following is a part of Hong Kong airport which is revised on October 28th,2005. The minimums for the air carriers which adopt JAA and FAR121 take off from Hong Kong are listed in the following chart. For all airports authorized Category Ⅱ/Ⅲ, if the RVR/VIS is below 400m, It is required to establish and apply LVP procedure when taking off . Takeoff minimums published under the title “AIR CARRIER (JAA)” are based on JAR OPS-1 Subpart E. These minimums are provided for operators not applying takeoff minimums as specified under AIR CARRIER .They are shown in the following table. The criterion of this table is the category of aircraft, but not according to the number of engines, as FAR dose. §220.127.116.11 Obstacle Departure Procedures §18.104.22.168 Alternate Minimums When preparing your IFR flight plan, you must consider the weather reports and forecasts for your destination airport at your estimated time of arrival, plus or minus one hour. If the weather conditions are poorer than those specified by the governing agency, you must list an alternate airport on your flight plan. To qualify as an alternate, the airport you select, and its forecasted weather for your arrival time, must meet certain conditions.