Renewable Energy
Directive
Øyvind Vessia
Policy Officer
European Commission, DG Energy – Renewables and CCS Policy
Content
• The Renewable Energy Directive
• The biofuel debate
• The biomass debate (for heating and electricity)
Source: Eurostat
Targets for renewable energy have worked
Renewable sources accounted for 13% of the EU's energy
consumption in 2011
German PV
Content
• The Renewable Energy Directive
• The biofuel debate
• The biomass debate (for heating and electricity)
NREAPs: Technology breakdown in the
transport sector towards 2020
Development of renewable energy in transport in EU 27
35000
30000
2nd generation
25000
Hydrogen
ktoe
20000
Other Biofuels
Bioethanol
15000
Electricity in transport
Bioethanol
10000
Biodiesel
Biodiesel
5000
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
What land resources do we have?
World’s available land: 126 Mill Km2
Other land
Cropland
[12 Mill Km2]
[31 Mill Km2]
Pasture
Savannah
[12 Mill Km2]
[31 Mill Km2]
Forest
[40 Mill Km2]
Cropland
[12 Mill Km2]
Biofuels is not the only
user of land:
Cropland increases 20
times more in the
baseline (BAU) than what
is caused by the biofuel
demand (34 Mha)
IFPRI result: 0.017 Mill Km2 (1.7 Mha), equal
to 0.14 % of existing cropland
EU total vegetable oil trade and
biodiesel production
EU biodiesel
production
2002
2004
2006
2008
Feedstock specific results
Cereals and sugars
Vegetable oils
Source: Figure 18 of IFPRI-report
Commission's proposal
• 1) Limit to incentives for 1st gen biofuels (5%),
effectively creating a gap between 5% and 10%
• 2) Increased incentives for renewable fuels that
do not use land for its production (Annex IX)
through quadruple accounting (which is flexible)
• 3) Reporting of ILUC-estimates
Content
• The Renewable Energy Directive
• The biofuel debate
• The biomass debate (for heating and electricity)
Renewable energy outlook
(source:
National
Energy
Action
Plans)
Technology
Results
from the Renewable
National Renewable
Energy
Action
Plans
ktoe
250000
200000
Heat pumps
Biomass
150000
Wind
Bioenergy: key role to achieve 20% target
Tide, wave, ocean
100000
Solar
Geothermal
50000
Hydro
0
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
The forest cycle
Thinning
Ash
recycling
Timber harvest
Harvest of
residues
Regeneration
Thinning
Pre-commercial
thinning
The forest sector response to bioenergy demand is complex and varying
depending on forest properties, existing industrial structure and governance
structure. The outcome for forest C stocks is determined by the sum of all changes
in management and harvest regime that are introduced.
A
B
A and B denote two possible cases of forest bioenergy accounting. ’Project A’ would clearly appear to be much more
favourable for the climate than ‘project B’ in an evaluation that narrowly considers a distinct forest bioenergy project
(either A or B) and that uses a relatively short time horizon. Yet, both ‘project A’ and ‘project B’ are components of the
same forest management regime that have undisputable net substitution benefits.
Closing the bioenergy markets for individual forest operations, due to GHG performance below some threshold level,
is problematic since the different operations often presupposes each other. For example, if energetic use of small
stems from thinning operations is not possible then forest owners have little incentive to shift to higher density
planting and there will in general be reduced incentive for thinning operations improving stand conditions.
14
The concept of GHG emission space, which focuses on accumulated emissions up
to a given year, is relevant in relation to temperature targets since the peak
warming appears to be insensitive to the CO2 emissions pathway, i.e., timing of
emissions or peak emission rate
One critical strategic question is how society should use the remaining space for
GHG emissions
3500
50% probability of staying below 2 °C
Cumulative CO2 emissions
3000
75% probability of staying below 2 °C
2500
2000
Remaining emission
space up to 2050
1500
Fossil fuel use 1750-2006
Fossil fuel use since mid 1970s
1000
500
Land use change 1850-2005
0
15
Some of the emission space might be required for developing a bioenergy industry
capable of providing renewable and climate friendly energy services for the world
on a long term
Unless they are very high, forest C stock losses do not automatically disqualify
bioenergy options from being part of a long term solution to the climate problem
Remaining
emission space
Fill it up with
fossil carbon
...or use some
space for
developing
alternatives to
fossil fuels?
Bioenergy development
Non-fossil fuel related
Non-fossil fuel related
16
Conclusion
• The Renewable Energy Directive – a success
• Biofuel debate on-going with the co-legislators in the
Parliament and the Council
• Complex but emotional
• Food vs. fuel?
• GHG savings?
• Biomass debate on-going
• Carbon accounting
• Energy system development
Thank you for your attention
• [email protected]
• Renewable Energy:
• http://ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/index_en
.htm