Solar, wind: technology, cost, potential,
applications
Palang Thai
May 17, 2009
MeeNet, Thailand
Solar PV
 Costs:
 Grid-connected:
 $3,000 to $6,000 per kW for grid-connected projects,
 (LCLT Common Ground is coming in at $6 for 36 kW)
 $0.15/kWh to $0.22/kWh (98% fixed cost) for grid-connected
 Off-grid
 Typically $8,000 to $10,000 per kW
 $0.25 to $0.45 per kWh (competitive with diesel)
 Industry trend: 70% growth in 2008. Over 40% average over past
decade
 Potential: 14 km x 14 km enough to meet Thai peak load
 Capacity factor: 0.15
 Issues: expensive, intermittent
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) -- costs
 $3,000/kW to $6,000/kW (depending on system size)
 $0.15/kW to $0.22/kWh in 2005 for 10 MW plant in Phoenix,
Arizona, USA in 2005.
Solar
13.7 km
TESCO Lotus, Rama I,
460 kWp, Cost: 75,165,000 baht
13.7 km
0.037% of
Thailand area 
100% peak load
(22,586 MW)
3 kW: 660,000 baht
How solar photovoltaics (PV) works
Solar photovoltaics
 fastest growing power generation technology, with a 70 percent
increase in existing capacity worldwide to reach 13 GW in 2008.
www.REN21.net
Solar Photovoltaic (PV)
 Capacity factor: 0.15
 Power production coincident with peak (air-conditioning) load
Thai government solar
home program
203,000 solar home systems
>20% failure rate within first year in Tak
Wind
• Costs:
– Grid-connected:
• EURO 1300 per kW for grid-connected projects,
• $0.09/kWh for large (80 to 200 MW installation)
– Off-grid
• Comparable with solar PV
• Industry trend: 29% growth in 2008.
• Potential: not great in SE Asia (but OK in Vietnam). China
excellent, especially north
• Capacity factor: 0.15
• Issues: expensive, intermittent. Some concerned about
bird kills, but is tiny fraction of kill from power lines, other
power plants
Wind -- Costs
 $0.09/kWh for 80 to 200 MW wind power
plant in Washington State, USA. (Source:
Energy Northwest)
 installed cost averaged €1,300 per kilowatt
in 2007 (source: www.gwec.net)
Wind energy potential world-wide
SE Asia low compared to much of the world
Thai wind
potential:
1600 MW (?)
Wind -resource
Wind - capacity factor
capacity
factor
installed capacity
mean power
MWe
MWe
60
23
38.1%
U.S. (total) [3] (a)
6740
1941
28.8%
U.K. (off-shore) [4] (b)
304
74
28.7%
U.K. (on-shore) [4]
1651
408
27.2%
Denmark (total) [2] [6] (c)
3128
755
24.1%
Spain (total) [2]
11615
2534
21.8%
Portugal (total) [2] [7] (d)
1022
202
19.8%
Netherlands (total) [2] [8] (e)
1219
236
19.3%
Germany (total) [5]
20622
3482
16.9%
India (total) [2] [9] (f)
4430
704
15.9%
Italy (total) [2] [10] (g)
1718
268
15.6%
Poland (total) [2]
153
22
14.6%
France (total) [2] [11] (h)
757
109
14.5%
World (total) [2] [12] (i)
59051
11559
19.6%
Morocco Amogdoul wind farm [2]
Source: http://lightbucket.wordpress.com/2008/03/13/the-capacity-factor-of-wind-power/
28.5 GW =
Thailand’s
peak load in
2007
Source: www.ren21.net
•Installed in Thailand: 1 MW
Windpower – top 10 countries 2008
Source: www.ren21.net
Wind energy – human scale
http://natee2007.thaiza.com
8,200 baht
17.7
baht/kWh
Thai wind
pioneers build
wind power
themselves.
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Solar Photovoltaic (PV) -- costs