HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER
PLANT
INTRODUCTION
 The cheapest source which is to
generating power is water.
 Hydro-electric power plant main
aim was to generate power in
flowing water.
 The energy which is from hydel
plant is utilized to drive turbine.
 In India during 1987, the first
hydro-electric power station was
started near Darjeeling.
LAYOUT
COMPONENTS
 Water reservoir.
 Dam.
 Penstock.
 Fore bay.
 Surge tank.
 Water turbine..
WATER RESERVOIR
 In hydel electric power plant,
there must be continuous supply
of water.
 Water reservoirs main functions
are to store a net amount of
water in it during rainy season
and supply it throughout the
year.
DAM
 The dam is used in hydro power
plants to increase the capacity of
reservoir.
 It also helps to increase the
working head of the power plant.
PENSTOCK
 A pipeline fixed between the
surge tank and prime mover is
known as penstock.
 It is commonly made of
reinforced concrete or steel.
FOREBAY
 The main function is to regulating
the reservoir.
 In the plant when the load is
decreased initially then water
provided for increasing load.
SURGE TANK
 Surge tank is introduced in between
the power house and dam to avoid
sudden rise in the penstock.
 As the load is reduced then there will
be a backflow of water inside the
penstock.
 The back flow of water is known as
water hammer.
WATER TURBINE
 Water turbine converts kinetic
energy into mechanical energy to
produce electrical energy.
 Pelton turbine, Francis and Kaplan
turbine are the prime mover.
 The energy in the turbine shaft is
mechanical energy and this is
used to run electric generator.
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 There is supply of energy cycle
in hydroelectric power plant.
 The mechanical energy
converted into kinetic energy.
 In other words, at first the
potential energy is derived from
water it is converted into kinetic
energy to derive the turbine in
which the electric generated
coupled from the turbine shaft,
the mechanical energy is derived.
 The mechanical energy is
converted into electrical energy
and used to run electric generated
and thus the mutual energy
transformation is performed.
ADVANTAGES
 Water is cheapest source of energy. The
fuels needed for the thermal, diesel and
nuclear plants are exhaustive and expansive.
 Water is renewable source of energy.
 The fuel cost is totally absent.
 There is no problem of handling the fuel ash
and fuel.
 The installation of hydel power
plant is easy.
 Maintenance cost is low.
DISADVANTAGE
 Hydel power projects are capital
intensive with a low rate of return.
 Initial cost of the plant is high.
 Power generation is dependent on
the quantity of water available, which
may vary from season-to-season and
year-to-year.
QUESTIONS
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