Neanderthal
By:
Alex D,
Claire,
Dianna,
and Shaina
Introduction
We will teach you dates and places of
existence, how and where Neanderthals built
shelters, what materials were used to make
tools, their development of language and
more to be discovered!
Dates and Places
Neanderthals lived over a 100,000 to 40,000
years ago. 1.5 million years ago, scientists
believe that Neanderthals migrated from
Africa, Europe, and Asia. The Neanderthals
lived during the Ice Age, and the cold weather
might of explain how some of them got the
disease arthritis. [1]
Appearance
Neanderthals had stocky, short bodies, and
they had physical strength. They had a large
brow and large jaws. Neanderthals also had
large skulls, which could be as large as 92-97
cubic inches. The Neanderthals torso was
long, and they walked around with their knees
bent. They also were 4.5 feet tall. [2]
Housing
The Neanderthals were skilled in making
shelters. For huts, they would use mammoth
bones and tusks, and they would also use
animal skins to keep the drafts out. To keep
the skins in place, they would use bones.
Another way to build a Neanderthal house
was by making a hut by draping animal skins
by large rocks, making a fort-like structure. [3]
Food
Some of the animals the Neanderthals hunted
were reindeer, mammoths, cave bears, and
hares. When Neanderthals hunted
mammoths, they would make them go off a
cliff by chasing them with torches, and then, if
the mammoths weren’t dead, they would kill
them with a knife. Mammoths were useful for
them for their fur and meat, but mammoths
were difficult to catch. [4]
Daily Life
The Neanderthals were gatherers. Neanderthals
were also more advanced hunters, toolmakers,
and home builders. These skills were important
for surviving in cold surroundings. Neanderthals
used group hunting strategies to hunt the woolly
mammoth and other large animals that lived
during the Ice Age. They are probably the first
species to make clothing rather then just draping
and wrapping animal hides for warmth. [5]
Tools
Some tools the Neanderthals used were
bones, which were chipped until sharp and
were very useful for daggers and other tools.
[6] A type of tool they would use were stones
with a sharp tip to take pelts off of animals
and to cut meat. [7] Another one of the many
tools they used was a special type of stone,
which would be used to start fires. [8]
Fire
The Neanderthals were experts with fire. It
helped them manage to survive the cold weather,
especially when it was winter. Since they knew
how to use fire, there was a better chance of
them not getting food poisoning because they
could cook their food. [9] A way Neanderthals
made fire is by taking two stones made of pyrite
and hitting the rocks against each other over
twigs, wood, or dry grasses. Sparks would fly off
onto the twigs, wood, or dry grasses, and a fire
would form. [10]
Religion and Ceremonies
The Neanderthals only celebrated a couple of
ceremonies. For example, when someone
died, they would have a burial ceremony
which would consist of the dead person being
buried with tools, food, and showered with
flowers. Scientists said this might prove
Neanderthals might have believed in an
afterlife. This indicates it was possible the
Neanderthals had some form of religion. [11]
Development of language
There was no written language during the
Neanderthal’s time. The only reason scientists
know about the past is from artifacts. [12] A
way the Neanderthals communicated is by
cave drawings. [13] Neanderthals had some
way of communicating, but we are unsure
because there was nothing written at the
time.
Clothing
The Neanderthals were the first species to
make actual clothing instead of just wrapping
animal skins around them. They needed tools
to be able to punch holes to be able to tie
things together and had to able to have
strength from the animals they hunted. Being
able to have warm clothing had been
important for the Neanderthals because of
the cold weather surrounding them. [14]
Painting and Art
When it was the Paleolithic era, it was then
that people drew on cave walls, roofs, and
rocks. Neanderthals would use colored rocks
to make paints. They also made paintbrushes
with animal hairs. Although they did some
arts, Neanderthals were too busy trying to
survive to take the time to do art. [15]
Conclusion
We hope you learned as much about
Neanderthals as we did! As you can see,
Neanderthals were expert hunters, splendid
with fire, and they were hunters and
gatherers. Neanderthals helped us learn about
how we evolved today from early humans.
Questions
1. What are the four animals the Neanderthals
hunted?
2. How did scientists know about Neanderthals?
3. How did they make fire?
Answers
1. The animals the Neanderthals hunted were
reindeer, mammoth, cave bears, and hares.
2. The only reason scientists know about the
past is from artifacts.
3. A way Neanderthals made fire is by taking
two stones made of pyrite and hitting them
against each other over twigs, wood, or dry
grasses so that the sparks ignite the tinder,
creating a fire.
Endnotes
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
Early Humans Packet
A Day with Neanderthal Man (page 10)
Early Humans packet
A Day with Neanderthal Man (page 36)
Early Humans packet
A Day with Neanderthal Man (pages 14- 31)
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Ibid.
Early Humans Packet
California Vistas Ancient Civilizations (page 81-83)
Ibid.
Early Humans Packet
California Vistas Ancient Civilizations (page 83)
Bibliography
California Visits Ancient Civilizations.
Macmillan/McGraw Hill: New York,
NY, 2007.
Facchini, Fiorenzo, A Day with Neanderthals, Books:
Connecticut, Twenty-First Century, 2003.
Kearns, Marsha.“Neanderthal.” Early Humans.
Creative Teaching Press: CA, 1993.
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