By Rachael Ladele, Taylor Mitchell, Brian Wolfe, Copeland
Hanshaw, MacKenzie Cleary, and Corinne Barber
PERIOD 2: 600 B.C.E- 600 C.E
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS
Rome
 S: Social orders were established in Rome. The Patricians

were the wealthier of the two. The Patricians were upper
class while the Plebians were considered low class. The
Senate was made up of Patricians while the Assembly was
made up generally of Plebians.

P: “Innocent until proven guilty” originated in the Roman
Judicial system. On court issues, not everyone had to vote.
Instead, they elected representatives to make the decision.
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS

R: After the reign of Augustus Caeser, Christianity began to
develop within the Roman Empire. The Roman powers used
to see Christianity as a threat because they had set rules
and expectations for their people and did not like them
getting new ideas and feeling equal to higher powers.

I: The Pax Romana was “Roman Peace” and that is when
they didn’t focus so much on military power but put more
interest in arts, science, and math. Since they weren’t
spending so much on the military, they had more money to
invest in intellectual Rome.
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS

T: Romans made a large contribution to the technology in
the world during the 2nd period. They introduced structures
like the aqueduct that carried water from higher elevation to
lower. This made it easier to get water to civilizations and
also helped agriculture.

E: As the Roman empire declined economically, small
landowners were frequently forced to sell their land to the
owners of large estates. The economic self-sufficiency of the
estates discouraged trade among the various parts of the
empire. The decline in trade eventually produced a decline in
urban population.
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS
Han China
 S: The emporer was the highest authority in the Han society

and government. Even still, the emporer was often ruled over
by the empress or one of her male relatives. The rank below
emporer were the kings. Below that is the nobles and then
slaves.

P: After 92 CE, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved
themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power
struggles between the various clans of the empresses and
empress, eventually leading to the Han’s downfall.
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS

R: Daoism gained a new popularity during the 2nd period. In
184, the Yellow Turbans, a Daoist revolutionary movement,
promised a new age of prosperity and security. Buddhism
was also spread as Chinese cultural unity was dissolving.

I: The imperial examination was an examination system in
Imperial China designed to select the best administrative
officials for the states’ bureaucracy. This system had a large
influence on both society and culture in Han China.
GEOGRAPHICAL SNAPSHOTS

T: The Han Dynasty invented the ban liang coin type. In the
beginning of the Han, Emporer Gaozu closed the government
mint in favor of private minting of coins. Later his widow
Grand Empress Lu Zhi abolished private minting giving rise
to the ban liang coin type.

E: The invention of coins for currency in the early 6th century BCE
was a significent development for the economy because it made
trade easier and also made it easier to value trade items based
on the value of the currency. Coins were generally made of silver,
gold, or bronze. The invention of coins stimulated trade and
increased the total wealth of the society.
CHANGE OVER TIME

1.
o
-
-
-
South Asia
The Mauryan Empire in India (321- 180 B.C.E)
Chandragupta Maurya founded the Mauryan Empire, and he unified the
smaller Aryan kingdoms into a civilization.
His grandson, Ashoka Maurya, took the civilization to new heights.
This empire became very powerful because of trade in which they traded silk,
cotton, elephants to Mesopotamia and Eastern Roman empire. Also, their
military was very strong.
Ashoka saw the military in the battles, and converted to Buddhism and
preached non-violence, and moderation.
-Example: Rock and Pillar Edicts
After Ashoka’s death in 232 B.C.E, the empire declined due to economic
problems and pressure from attacks in the northeast.
CHANGE OVER TIME
The Gupta Dynasty in India (320-550 C.E)
o After the death of Ashoka, and the decline of the Mauryan,
Chandra Gupta created the Gupta Empire.
- The empire was more decentralized and smaller.
- It was referred to as a golden age because it enjoyed relative
peace and saw significant advances in the arts and sciences.
- The Gupta Dynasty renewed Hinduism to become the dominant
religion in India.
-Hinduism also brought back the caste system which lowered
women’s rights.
The Gupta Dynasty fell because they were under pressure
from the White Huns in 550 C.E.
2.
CHANGE OVER TIME
 SPRITE
o

o
-
Analysis
Social :
Urbanization
Patriarchal Societies
Political:
Community Planning
Mauryan and Gupta Dynasties
Religion:
Buddhism
Hinduism
- Intellectual:
- Concepts of pi&zero
- Arabic numerals
- Technological:
-same as Intellectual
- Economic:
-grains
- Indian Ocean Trade
CHANGE OVER TIME
Changes
- Hinduism and Buddhism: As the Mauryan Empire fell, Buddhism became less
-
-
popular, while Hinduism rose to its amount of followers in the Gupta Empire.
Caste system: When Hinduism was reinforced it also brought back the caste system
which lowered women's rights.
Dynasties: Mauryan- big civilization with a powerful system of trade, and military, and
used Buddhism as their main religion
Gupta- smaller, decentralized, and had Hinduism as their main religion.
Continuities
-
Active Trade: The Indian Ocean Trade was very popular in this time period. It sent
spices, tropical fruits, pearls, etc. to Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Middle East.
The monsoon winds controlled the trade routes.
COMPARE AND CONTRAST

Compare Greece and Rome

Social
status of women
 class separation
 slaves = important part of society


Political
city states
 representative governments
 only adult males in politics


Religious


polytheistic
Intellectual

Golden age v. Pax Romana
COMPARE AND CONTRAST

Greece –

Rome
Political –



Democracy
Technological –
Not agriculturally advanced
because of mountains
 Dependent of rainfall

Republic
 Tenant farmers
 Emphasis on unifying laws
 Colosseum = political (and
social) display of power


Aqueducts and roads
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Period 6: 600 B.C.E- 600 C.E