Foodborne Illness
Food Recalls
Jeanne Aiello, SNS
CDE Office of School Nutrition
CSNA Fall Conference 2012
• Review common types of foodborne
illness with an emphasis on norovirus
• Review the Process Approach to HACCP
in schools
• Understand the steps that are followed
when handling a food recall
1. Name
2. School District – where on the map?
3. What did you do the last time you had a
day all to yourself? Or What would you do
if you had a day all to yourself?
The Problem:
Foodborne Illness
• 48 million illnesses
• 184,000
• 3000 deaths
Scallen et. al.
The Burden of Foodborne Illness
Annual number of cases reported by Scallon et. al. 2011
Bacterial and Viral:
Total Known
Total Unknown
More than vomit and diarrhea
Listeria monocytogenes – miscarriage, 20% mortality in
E. coli O157– Hemolytic uremic syndrome
Campylobacter – Guillian-Barré syndrome (nerve
damage; extreme, paralysis)
C. botulinum – respiratory failure, death
Vibrio vulnificus – amputations, death
Discussion activity for each
• Have you ever had an
incidence of foodborne illness
in a kitchen/restaurant/school
district where you have
worked? Can be chemical,
physical or bacterial/viral.
Stomach Illness at School
• “The Stomach Bug Book: What School
Employees Need to Know”
– NEA Health Information Network
– USDA Food and Nutrition Service
Stomach Illness at School
• Types: Viral, Bacterial or Parasitic
Viral – norovirus and rotavirus
Bacterial – Salmonella and E. Coli or from
toxins produced by bacteria
Parasitic – Giardia and Cryptosporidium
Most Common: Norovirus
Sudden onset – often no warning
Explosive vomiting, watery diarrhea and s
stomach cramps
Ill within 12 to 48 hours after exposure
Contagious up to three days after
recovery; possibly longer
• Most recover without treatment
Prevent the Spread
• Wash hands frequently with soap and
water – let’s do it!
• Stay home when you are sick
• Properly dispose of any food that an
infected person may have prepared
• Follow correct procedures for clean-up
• Follow food safety rules…
Definition of HACCP
• A systematic approach to construct a food
safety program designed to reduce the risk
of foodborne hazards by focusing on each
step of the food preparation process –from
receiving to service.
7 Steps of HACCP
1. Establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
2. Divide all food into three processes
3. Establish control measures for each of the three
processes (CCPs)
4. Establish monitoring procedures
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Keep records
7. Review and revise periodically (at least once/year)
Step 1:
Develop and Implement SOPs
• Step–by-step written instructions for
food service tasks that affect food
Step 2: Classify all Menu Items using
the “Process Approach ”
• Categorizes food preparation into three
broad categories based on how many
times each menu item moves through
the temperature danger zone (between
41°F and 135°F).
The Division of Foods is Based on:
Complete Trips through the Temperature Danger Zone
No Cook
Process 1
Same Day
Process 2
Process 3
The “Other” category
• “Other” foods do not fit into any of the 3
Bread, desserts w/out fruit, plain gelatin,
most condiments, cookies, cakes without
custard and brownies.
HINT: These foods do not have to be held
above 135°F or below 41°F to be safe.
Step 3 – Identify and document
control measures and critical limits
• Control measures prevent, eliminate, or
reduce hazards.
 Control measures are SOPs which are outlined in
each “process”.
 They include CCPs (cooking, cooling, reheating,
holding) where Critical limits (times and
CCP for Process #1 –
No Cook
• Cold holding or limiting time in the
danger zone to inhibit bacterial growth
and toxin production.
(Food that is held at room temperature for
four hours “total” must be discarded.)
CCPs for Process #2 – Same
Day Service
• Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria and
other pathogens.
• Hot holding or limiting time in the danger
zone to prevent the outgrowth of sporeforming bacteria.
CCPs for Process #3 –
Complex Food Preparation
• Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria &
other pathogens.
• Cooling to prevent the outgrowth of
spore-forming bacteria.
• Hot and cold holding or limiting time in
the danger zone.
• Reheating for hot holding.
CCPs and their Critical Limits
• Each CCP (cooking, cooling, reheating,
holding) must include time and/or
temperature limits.
For example, when cooking raw chicken,
the time/temperature limit is 165°F for
15 seconds.
• You must assign CCPs (heating, cooling,
hot/cold holding, reheating) and Critical
Limits (temperatures/times) for each menu
item you sorted into the three “processes”.
• HOW? Recipes and SOPs
Options to Record Process Number
• Write the process
number on each recipe
• Make a poster for
each process and list
the foods that belong
in each Process 1 – No Cook
Process 2 – Same Day
• Write the process number on
the menu or production record
Fruit and Veggie Bar
Step 4: Monitoring
• Control measures (i.e., cooking times &
temperatures) must be monitored and
documented in writing.
– How?
– When and how often?
– Who is responsible for monitoring?
Monitoring Example
• Cold foods must be kept at 41°F or below.
– The temperature of the refrigerator must be
recorded on a refrigeration temperature
monitoring chart at least twice each day to
make sure the temperature is 41°F or below.
Step 5: Corrective Actions
• Must be carried out immediately whenever
a critical limit is not met.
– Examples:
• Continue to heat to required temperature
• Rejecting food delivery
• Discarding food held too long without temperature
Corrective Action Situation:
The temperature in the refrigerator is above 41°F
– The equipment must be checked. The thermometer
used to record the temperature should be calibrated
regularly and checked to see if it is working properly.
– Any PHF should be temped. If unable to determine if
the food has been in the danger zone for less than 4
hours, discard.
And another…
The freezer temperature is 49°F when you
arrive to work on Monday morning
– Take temperature of food in freezer
– Any food above 41°F must be discarded
– Any foods below 41°F shall be transferred to a
refrigerator immediately and used within 2-3 days
(never re-freeze)
What would you do?
Discuss at your table the last time you had to
deal with a situation that required corrective
action and what you did/how you handled it.
Did you refer to the SOP?
Did you document?
Step 6 – Keep Records
• Food Safety Plan & Training
• Monitoring Temperatures of food,
equipment & food storage areas and
• Calibration Records
• Corrective Action
Examples of Required Documentation
Time and Temperature charts
Corrective Action records (when applicable)
Verification/Review records
Calibration records
Training logs
Receiving logs
Step 7: Review & Revise Food Safety
Program Periodically
• Ongoing monitoring
• Periodic – at least yearly – to reflect
facility or equipment changes (i.e., new
equipment and menu items)
All Employees should have:
Initial food safety training
On-going food safety training
Record of training kept by district
Training standards monitored daily by
• Review of SOP guidelines at least yearly
HACCP Program Requirements
1. A written plan at each site that includes:
a) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
b) Assigning menu items to one of the three
c) Documenting times and temperatures at critical
control points = cooking, cooling, hot and cold
d) Establishing and documenting corrective action.
e) Recordkeeping (food and equipment temp. logs,
thermometer calibration logs)
f) Periodic review and revision of the overall food
safety program.
• Document
Responding to a Food Recall
• A food recall notice for
a USDA commodity
food is issued through
government entity
• A food recall notice is
issued for a purchased
food by the
manufacturer or
government entity
Process for USDA Foods Recall
USDA Notifies State Distributing Agency Immediately
SDA Notifies SFA (no later than 24 hours)
SFA Notifies Individual Sites (Schools) Immediately
SFA Identifies Locations, Isolates Affected Product, Takes Accurate Inventory
SFA Reports Location and Quantity Information to SDA
SDA Consolidates Information and Submits to USDA within 3 Working Days
USDA Foods Recall
Unique to USDA foods:
• “Hold” and “Release”
• Recall Classifications
Purchased Food Recall
1. The food manufacturing company must provide a press
release for public notification. The press release may
appear in the newspaper, on the Internet, and/or be
reported on television or radio.
2. The school district may receive direct notification from
the wholesaler through a facsimile, telephone call, or
3. Notification of the food recall may be provided by one or
more State agencies such as the public health
department or the agency that administers the Child
Nutrition Program (CDE)
Additional Information
• Commodity Hold and Recall Process
• Frequently Asked Questions
• Mock Recall Notification Report and Mock
Recall Press Release
• Food Recall Action Checklist
• Procedures for Conducting a Mock Food
• Problems with Food Products
Email Notification of Food
Email Notification of USDA
Foods Recalls
• Questions? Comments?
• Enjoy the conference!