Foodborne Illness HACCP Food Recalls Jeanne Aiello, SNS CDE Office of School Nutrition CSNA Fall Conference 2012 Objectives • Review common types of foodborne illness with an emphasis on norovirus • Review the Process Approach to HACCP in schools • Understand the steps that are followed when handling a food recall Introductions 1. Name 2. School District – where on the map? 3. What did you do the last time you had a day all to yourself? Or What would you do if you had a day all to yourself? The Problem: Foodborne Illness • 48 million illnesses • 184,000 hospitalizations • 3000 deaths Scallen et. al. The Burden of Foodborne Illness Annual number of cases reported by Scallon et. al. 2011 Bacterial and Viral: Illnesses Hospitalizations Deaths Salmonella 1,027,561 19,336 378 Clostridium Perfringens 965,958 438 26 Campylobacter 845,024 8463 76 Norovirus 5,461,731 14,663 149 Total Known 9,388,074 55,962 1350 47,780,778 127,839 1686 Total Unknown More than vomit and diarrhea Listeria monocytogenes – miscarriage, 20% mortality in immunocompromised E. coli O157– Hemolytic uremic syndrome Campylobacter – Guillian-Barré syndrome (nerve damage; extreme, paralysis) C. botulinum – respiratory failure, death Vibrio vulnificus – amputations, death Discussion activity for each table… • Have you ever had an incidence of foodborne illness in a kitchen/restaurant/school district where you have worked? Can be chemical, physical or bacterial/viral. Stomach Illness at School • “The Stomach Bug Book: What School Employees Need to Know” – NEA Health Information Network – USDA Food and Nutrition Service http://www.fns.usda.gov/fns/safety/pdf/stomach_bug_book.pdf Stomach Illness at School • Types: Viral, Bacterial or Parasitic Viral – norovirus and rotavirus Bacterial – Salmonella and E. Coli or from toxins produced by bacteria Parasitic – Giardia and Cryptosporidium Most Common: Norovirus • • • • • Sudden onset – often no warning Explosive vomiting, watery diarrhea and s stomach cramps Ill within 12 to 48 hours after exposure Contagious up to three days after recovery; possibly longer • Most recover without treatment Prevent the Spread • Wash hands frequently with soap and water – let’s do it! • Stay home when you are sick • Properly dispose of any food that an infected person may have prepared • Follow correct procedures for clean-up • Follow food safety rules… Definition of HACCP • A systematic approach to construct a food safety program designed to reduce the risk of foodborne hazards by focusing on each step of the food preparation process –from receiving to service. 7 Steps of HACCP 1. Establish Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) 2. Divide all food into three processes 3. Establish control measures for each of the three processes (CCPs) 4. Establish monitoring procedures 5. Establish corrective actions 6. Keep records 7. Review and revise periodically (at least once/year) Step 1: Develop and Implement SOPs • Step–by-step written instructions for food service tasks that affect food safety Step 2: Classify all Menu Items using the “Process Approach ” • Categorizes food preparation into three broad categories based on how many times each menu item moves through the temperature danger zone (between 41°F and 135°F). The Division of Foods is Based on: Complete Trips through the Temperature Danger Zone 135oF 2 0 1 1 3 41oF No Cook Process 1 Same Day Process 2 Complex Process 3 The “Other” category • “Other” foods do not fit into any of the 3 processes: Bread, desserts w/out fruit, plain gelatin, most condiments, cookies, cakes without custard and brownies. HINT: These foods do not have to be held above 135°F or below 41°F to be safe. Step 3 – Identify and document control measures and critical limits • Control measures prevent, eliminate, or reduce hazards. Control measures are SOPs which are outlined in each “process”. They include CCPs (cooking, cooling, reheating, holding) where Critical limits (times and temperatures) CCP for Process #1 – No Cook • Cold holding or limiting time in the danger zone to inhibit bacterial growth and toxin production. (Food that is held at room temperature for four hours “total” must be discarded.) CCPs for Process #2 – Same Day Service • Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria and other pathogens. • Hot holding or limiting time in the danger zone to prevent the outgrowth of sporeforming bacteria. CCPs for Process #3 – Complex Food Preparation • Cooking to destroy harmful bacteria & other pathogens. • Cooling to prevent the outgrowth of spore-forming bacteria. • Hot and cold holding or limiting time in the danger zone. • Reheating for hot holding. CCPs and their Critical Limits • Each CCP (cooking, cooling, reheating, holding) must include time and/or temperature limits. For example, when cooking raw chicken, the time/temperature limit is 165°F for 15 seconds. Documentation • You must assign CCPs (heating, cooling, hot/cold holding, reheating) and Critical Limits (temperatures/times) for each menu item you sorted into the three “processes”. • HOW? Recipes and SOPs Options to Record Process Number • Write the process number on each recipe • Make a poster for each process and list the foods that belong in each Process 1 – No Cook ALL RECEIVE STORE PREPARE Process 2 – Same Day • Write the process number on the menu or production record COLD HOLD SERVE Fruit and Veggie Bar Milk Step 4: Monitoring • Control measures (i.e., cooking times & temperatures) must be monitored and documented in writing. – How? – When and how often? – Who is responsible for monitoring? Monitoring Example • Cold foods must be kept at 41°F or below. – The temperature of the refrigerator must be recorded on a refrigeration temperature monitoring chart at least twice each day to make sure the temperature is 41°F or below. Step 5: Corrective Actions • Must be carried out immediately whenever a critical limit is not met. – Examples: • Continue to heat to required temperature • Rejecting food delivery • Discarding food held too long without temperature control Corrective Action Situation: The temperature in the refrigerator is above 41°F SOP – The equipment must be checked. The thermometer used to record the temperature should be calibrated regularly and checked to see if it is working properly. – Any PHF should be temped. If unable to determine if the food has been in the danger zone for less than 4 hours, discard. And another… The freezer temperature is 49°F when you arrive to work on Monday morning SOP – Take temperature of food in freezer – Any food above 41°F must be discarded – Any foods below 41°F shall be transferred to a refrigerator immediately and used within 2-3 days (never re-freeze) What would you do? Discuss at your table the last time you had to deal with a situation that required corrective action and what you did/how you handled it. Did you refer to the SOP? Did you document? Step 6 – Keep Records • Food Safety Plan & Training • Monitoring Temperatures of food, equipment & food storage areas and equipment • Calibration Records • Corrective Action Examples of Required Documentation • • • • • • • SOPs Time and Temperature charts Corrective Action records (when applicable) Verification/Review records Calibration records Training logs Receiving logs Step 7: Review & Revise Food Safety Program Periodically • Ongoing monitoring • Periodic – at least yearly – to reflect facility or equipment changes (i.e., new equipment and menu items) All Employees should have: • • • • Initial food safety training On-going food safety training Record of training kept by district Training standards monitored daily by manager • Review of SOP guidelines at least yearly HACCP Program Requirements 1. A written plan at each site that includes: a) Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) b) Assigning menu items to one of the three “processes”. c) Documenting times and temperatures at critical control points = cooking, cooling, hot and cold holding. d) Establishing and documenting corrective action. e) Recordkeeping (food and equipment temp. logs, thermometer calibration logs) f) Periodic review and revision of the overall food safety program. • Document Everything! Responding to a Food Recall Guide • A food recall notice for a USDA commodity food is issued through USDA/FNS, or government entity • A food recall notice is issued for a purchased food by the manufacturer or responsible government entity Process for USDA Foods Recall USDA Notifies State Distributing Agency Immediately SDA Notifies SFA (no later than 24 hours) SFA Notifies Individual Sites (Schools) Immediately SFA Identifies Locations, Isolates Affected Product, Takes Accurate Inventory SFA Reports Location and Quantity Information to SDA SDA Consolidates Information and Submits to USDA within 3 Working Days USDA Foods Recall Unique to USDA foods: • “Hold” and “Release” • Recall Classifications (hand-out) Purchased Food Recall 1. The food manufacturing company must provide a press release for public notification. The press release may appear in the newspaper, on the Internet, and/or be reported on television or radio. 2. The school district may receive direct notification from the wholesaler through a facsimile, telephone call, or letter. 3. Notification of the food recall may be provided by one or more State agencies such as the public health department or the agency that administers the Child Nutrition Program (CDE) Additional Information • Commodity Hold and Recall Process • Frequently Asked Questions • Mock Recall Notification Report and Mock Recall Press Release • Food Recall Action Checklist • Procedures for Conducting a Mock Food Recall • Problems with Food Products Email Notification of Food Recalls http://www.foodsafety.gov/recalls/alerts/ index.html Email Notification of USDA Foods Recalls https://www.envoyprofiles.com/USDAALERTS/ • Questions? Comments? • Enjoy the conference!