GREEK ARTS AND OEDIPUS THE KING 2013-Introduction to Western Literature Greek Arts Oedipus The Golden Fleece 希臘藝術的特質 希臘人富於民主思想和創造精神的天性，個性 活潑開放情，崇尚運動，追求自由自在的樂 趣。因此藝術表現上呈現出充滿健康、自然、 樂觀、優雅等的特質，而有別於近東藝術那種 超自然的、宗教的神祕感。在同一個時代，近 東藝術中，作者只是奉命行事去完成，作品中 沒有個人的創意也不留名，可是到了希臘時 代，個人地位提昇，藝術品的製作者才逐漸受 重視並留有名字。 希臘藝術的特質 希臘人因其唯美、唯善觀及優美之地埋、氣候 環境，故追求完美，此種完美之要求亦及於人 體及生活；再因其有優美之氣候與環境，對於 戶外活動亦極為熱衷，於是有各種競賽、體能 活動及奧林匹克運動會。 Ex. 雕刻 早期希臘雕刻受到埃及和近東各國的影響 直到「黑暗時代」過後，希臘人的雕刻開始建 立自己的風貌，展開蓬勃的發展，並對往後歐 洲藝術產生極大的影響。 希臘雕刻的風貌，主要靠文獻上的記載和羅馬 時代的仿製品而得知；由於年代久遠、歷經戰 亂和人為破壞，大部份原作己所剩無幾。 雕刻 希臘的雕刻和 建築，是互為一體的，例如神廟 建築上的破風雕刻﹝山形牆雕刻﹞或浮雕飾 帶、 墓碑上的浮雕……等。 除了和建築相結合之外，獨立性的雕像也很可 觀， 其創作泉源來自「人體美」，是歷史上 「裸體雕刻」的創始。 http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/hlee/course /th9_1000/open-08-broadcast.htm 米隆﹝Myron﹞之擲鐵餅 者﹝Discus-Thrower﹞ 年代：450 B.C. 希臘之繪畫四個時期 由器皿上的彩繪來看 ﹝一﹞幾何形風格（約 11OO ─ 7OO B.C.） ﹝二﹞東方風格（約 75O ─ 6OO B.C.） ﹝三﹞黑體人像繪畫（約 7OO ─ 5OO B.C.） ﹝四﹞紅體人像繪畫（約5OO B.C.） http://vr.theatre.ntu.edu.tw/hlee/course/th9_1000/open-08broadcast.htm ﹝一﹞幾何形風格（約 11OO ─ 7OO B.C.） 這是希臘本土構成性 裝飾的表現，在陶甕 上畫滿告種簡單而有 規則的幾何圖飾，這 類型的作品起初都沒 有人物的裝飾圖案， 直到西元前第八世紀 才有明確的人物形象 出現。 ﹝二﹞東方風格（約 75O ─ 6OO B.C.） 早期的陶甕仍採用幾何圖案，由於當時希 臘和近東地區商務接觸而產生的風格，以 故事作為描繪的內容，人物、動物成為裝 飾的主題，輪廓明確，筆觸肯定，造型生 動，作品尺寸隨之增大。 ﹝三﹞黑體人像繪畫（約 7OO ─ 5OO B.C.） 此種畫風存在於古樸時期至公元前六世紀末葉。以雕刻家 埃司克埃斯﹝Exekias﹞之作品，題為「埃加士與艾契列 士下棋」﹝Ajax & Achilles Playing Draughts﹞之陶罐 為例，其特色為表面光滑、人體皆為黑色、尖鼻大眼、布 局均衡、人物之腳部均在同一半畫面上、無景深，並有幾 何形圖案。在公元前六世紀末葉左右，希臘陶工與畫工在 社會中已漸有相當地位、故多在其作品上署名。 埃加士與艾契列士下棋 年代：540 B.C. 說明：黑體人像繪畫 ﹝四﹞紅體人像繪畫（約5OO B.C.） 公元前五世紀左右，紅體人像繪畫逐漸取代黑 體人像繪畫。人物皆為紅色，所有人物之立足 點已非同在一水平線上，而係分布在並不規則 之層次，與重疊之人物共同產生遠近距離之感 覺，同時各人物皆有不同之動作，頗具動感。 對人體之處理方面，與黑人物畫風相較，較為 活潑、寫實，而非生硬、規律化。 14 Alice Y. Chang Earliest coinage: Electrum Electrum is a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver, with trace amounts of copper and other metals. It has also been produced artificially. The ancient Greeks called it 'gold' or 'white gold', as opposed to 'refined gold'. Its color ranges from pale to bright yellow, depending on the proportions of gold and silver. Oldest Lydian Lion electrum http://rg.ancients.info/lion/ Sophocles’ Antigone “Make your profits, import electrum from Sardis if you wish, and gold from India” (Anti 10371039). An Athenian Owl Silver Tetradrachm, with the Owl standing on a olive twig, a crescent on the upper left and "ΑΘΕ" in front and Athena wearing an ornamented helmet, 454 - 449 BC. c. 430 BC - 23 X 27 mm diameter, 16.5g OEDIPUS Story background Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex probably the most famous tragedy ever written. It is known by a variety of titles (the most common being Oedipus Rex), including Oedipus the King and Oedipus Tyrannus. Sophocles first produced the play in Athens around 430 B.C. at the Great Dionysia, a religious and cultural festival held in honor of the god Dionysus, where it won second prize. In the play Oedipus, King of Thebes, upon Translation (1) Thomas Francklin, 1759 – verse Edward H. Plumptre, 1865 – verse: full text Richard C. Jebb, 1904 – prose: full text Gilbert Murray, 1911 – verse Francis Storr, 1912 – verse: full text William Butler Yeats, 1928 – mixed prose and verse David Grene, 1942 (revised ed. 1991) – verse E.F. Watling, 1947 – verse Dudley Fitts and Robert Fitzgerald, 1949 – verse Translation (2) Theodore Howard Banks, 1956 – verse Albert Cook, 1957 – verse Bernard Knox, 1959 – prose H. D. F. Kitto, 1962 – verse Stephen Berg and Diskin Clay – verse Robert Bagg, 1982 (revised ed. 2004) – verse Robert Fagles, 1984 – verse Nick Bartel, 1999 – verse: abridged text Kenneth McLeish, 2001 - Verse George Theodoridis, 2005 – prose: full text Luci Berkowitz and Theodore F. Brunner, 1970 – prose Ian Johnston, 2004 – verse: full text Ancient Greek Tragedy video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmSbqfy5Df0&fe ature=related Ancient Greek Theatre.flv Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vNAM3PzGcow &feature=related Three Theban plays: Not a trilogy Oedipus the King Oedipus at Colonus Antigone. Antigone was first performed in 442 BCE. Oedipus the King was first performed c. 429 BCE. Oedipus at Colonus was written shortly before Sophocles' death in 406 BC and produced by his grandson (also called Sophocles) at the Festival of Dionysus in 401 BCE. People and places to know: Oedipus Jocasta Laius Polybus Merope Sphinx Teiresias (Tiresias ) Apollo Delphi Cithaeron Thebes (the House of Cadamus) a winged female monster in Greek mythology having a woman's head and a lion's body and noted for killing anyone unable to answer its riddle an ancient Egyptian image in the form of a recumbent lion having a man's head, a ram's head, or a hawk's head 1 • Prologue and Parodos 2 • First Episode and First Stasimon 3 • Second Episode and Second Stasimon 4 • Third Episode and Third Stasimon 5 • Fourth Episode and fourth Stasimon 6 • Fifth Episode and Exodos Introduction • The setting of the Oedipus http://able media.com/ the King as in the case of ctcweb/nets most Greek tragedies, does not require a change of scene. hots/oedipu s.htm Throughout the play the skene with at least one door represents the facade of the royal palace of Thebes. PROLOGUE (1-150) OEDIPUS, PRIEST AND CREON Read (1) Prologue (Priest, Oedipus, Creon) The priests of Thebes appear before Oedipus as suppliants, entreating him to find some end to the plague. Oedipus has already sent Creon to Delphi, who arrives to report that the killer of Laius must be sought out and banished. Oedipus vows to find the killer and summons the people of the city. Prologue: Oedipus, Priest and Creon What is the dramatic purpose of the prologue? How does Oedipus characterize himself (8)? What is his attitude toward the suppliants (13-14)? Pollution/ miasma blood pollution that infects the family, and for a royal family the city itself The Plague of Thebes, oil on canvas, Charles François Jalabeat (French, 1819-1901) Oedipus "Oidi-pous“ in Greek means "swollen footed” But we can also analyze Oedipus in at least two other ways: oidi- to a Greek sounds like oida, oide = "I know, he knows" (a central theme in the play) -dipous to a Greek means the "two-footed one," with obvious associations to the riddle of the Sphinx (another central theme) Oedipus Man of action, caring but haughty: 7ff, 71ff etc. Revealer of the truth: 150 Solver of riddles: 443ff (e.g.) Parodos The Chorus of Theban citizens offer prayers to Zeus, Apollo, Athena for release from the plague. Parados (151-215) What is the reaction of the Chorus to the advice of Apollo ('the Delian Healer') to Thebes (154-157)? What conditions in Thebes does the Chorus describe)? Delphi The Pythia was the priestess at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus. Priestess of Delphi (1891) by John Collier chorus is an "act-dividing song": – allows for entrances and exits – allows for the scene to change – marks the passage of time – chorus comments directly or indirectly on what is going on FIRST EPISODE Part two First Episode Oedipus appeals for information and pronounces his curse on the murderer. Teiresias is summoned: at first he refuses to tell what he knows, but aroused by Oedipus' taunts he declares Oedipus the murderer. Oedipus declares a conspiracy by Creon. Teiresias declares that the murderer is present, and will be found son and husband to his mother. First Episode (216-462) - Oedipus, Chorus and Teiresias Irony Why does Oedipus summon Teiresias (278-287)? What is Teiresias's reaction to Oedipus's request for help (316-344)? I must know. Know thyself! But knowing is itself problematized in the Oedipus the King: central to the text is not only what is known and by whom, but what it means to "know"-- what is "true" knowing. Insight and blindness Apollo versus Oedipus: • • divine versus human knowledge Apollo sun, day, clear, blazing, burning – fever, blazing, burning: sender of plague and the Healer – intelligence, clear, seeing – brilliance, poetry – truth (knowledge), clear, seeing – divine prophecy, clear, seeing – Prophet/ Tiresias Teiresias, the seer of Oedipus the King: Sophocles’ and Seneca’s versions http://www.leeds.ac.uk/classics/lics/ 2003/200305.pdf South Italian Red-figure bowl. Detail: Tiresias seated holding sacrificial knife as Odysseus (left) stands by him First Stasimon What is the Chorus’s view of Teiresias's accusations against Oedipus? Suffering= pathos What has Oedipus done to deserve such awful suffering? Why must he suffer? Tragedy=an aesthetic question mark The dramatic expression of an enquiry into suffering, an aesthetic question mark performed in enacted pain. While representing an instance of suffering in dramatic form, always asks why it has occurred. Pathology= the study of diseases Etiology= the causes of diseases or a study of causes hubris "ungodly pride" (hubris) or "tragic flaw" (hamartia) p. 9 Know thyself, Oedipus. You denounce me, but you do not yet know yourself. SECOND EPISODE (CREON, OEDIPUS, CHORUS; JOCASTA) Part three Second Episode , 513-862. (Creon, Oedipus, Chorus; Jocasta) Creon is indignant at Oedipus' accusations. They argue over the charge. Jocasta tries to intervene. Kommos. The Chorus advise restraint and Oedipus lets Creon go, though he declares him an enemy. Oedipus tells Jocasta the source of the dispute. Jocasta tells the story of Laius' death, and Oedipus recognizes many details: but he was a lone killer, whereas a band of killers was reported. Oedipus worries about the oracle; Jocasta denounces its veracity, adducing the prophesy about her son. Second Stasimon (Chorus) Ode to the sanctity of divine law. The tyrant who ignores justice and reverence for the gods will fall. The oracles must be true. Third Episode , 911-1085. (Jocasta, Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus) A messenger arrives from Corinth announcing the death of Polybus and Oedipus' ascension. He allays Oedipus' fear of the oracle (that he will marry his mother) by telling him of his true birth. Over Jocasta's objections Oedipus vows to continue his search for the truth. Jocasta runs into the palace. THIRD EPISODE AND THIRD STASIMON Part four Third Stasimon , 1086-1109. (Chorus) Ode to Mt. Cithaeron: we will soon know the parentage of Oedipus. Part Fifth: Fourth Episode (Oedipus, Shepherd, Chorus) The shepherd arrives who exposed the infant of Laius and escaped when Laius was killed. Oedipus' parentage becomes clear. Oedipus rushes into the palace. Fourth Stasimon (p.27) (Chorus) No man is blest: happiness is but an illusion, for even the great power and blessings of Oedipus have come to a fall. Your example, Oedipus, Your example, your fate, your disaster, Show that none of us mortals Ever knew, ever felt what happiness truly is. FIFTH EPISODE AND EXODOS The sixth part: p.28-32 Exodos , 1223-1530. (Messenger, Chorus; Oedipus, Creon) A messenger announces the suicide of Jocasta and the self-inflicted blinding of Oedipus. Oedipus appears to lament his fate. Creon appears. Oedipus begs him to take care of his children; Antigone and Ismene (mute) arrive to comfort their father. Creon persuades Oedipus to return to the palace, and assumes the kingship. Chorus p.33 There goes Oedipus— He was the man who was able To answer the riddle proposed by the Sphinx. Mighty Oedipus— He was an object of envy To all for his fortune and fame. There gores Oedipus— Now he is drowning in waves of dread and despair. conclusion Look at Oedipus— Proof that none of us mortals Can truly be though of as happy Until he is granted deliverance from life, Until he is dead And must suffer no more. Recommended Greek Tragedy http://classics.uc.edu/~johnson/tragedy/ http://memo.cgu.edu.tw/yu-yen/oedipus.htm http://classics.uc.edu/~johnson/tragedy/summaries /oedipusrex.html SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS: PHILOCTETES Themes and discussion 71 Philoctetes Alice Y. Chang 72 Philoctetes is leaving the island of Lemnos A cave had been Philoctetes’ home since the Greeks abandoned him on Lemnos. Philoctetes sits clutching his magic bow in his left hand. Above right is Odyssues. To the left are Athene and Neoplotemos. Alice Y. Chang Lemons Lemnos or Limnos is an island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. It is part of the Greek prefecture of Lesbos and has a considerable area, about 477 km². A sacred island For ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus, god of metallurgy, who— as he tells himself in Iliad I.590ff— fell on Lemnos when his father Zeus hurled him headlong out of Olympus. There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad or by Thetis (Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I:3.5), and there with a Thracian nymph Cabiro (a daughter of Proteus) he fathered a tribe called the Cabiroides. Sacred rites dedicated to them were performed in the island. Lesbos The frequency with which their identity might change is a symptom of its strategic importance to the Hellenic would throughout its history. The island is now administered under the nomos of Lesbos. Two sectors Lemnos has an area of 476 sq km and, like a number of the Aegean islands, its shape indicates its volcanic origins, two bays to north and south almost dividing the island in two; the smaller, eastern, sector was where the capital of the island in antiquity, Hephaestus, was situated, while on the coast of the western sector, larger and much more mountainous with the highest peak of Mount Skopia reaching 430 m, the medieval and modern capital of Myrina is located. Lemnian earth The low-lying and flatter areas of the island are quite fertile, and produce a variety of crops. A tradition, already current in antiquity and still existing in the 20th century, credited Lemnian earth, excavated on one day each year, with the power of healing many kinds of wounds; it was exported all over the Hellenic world. figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history In antiquity Lemnos figured both in Homeric legend and in Hellenic history. Herodotus (4.145) related how the Argonauts, who according to legend had arrived on the island and left progeny there, were driven out of Lemnos three generations later by the Pelasgi. Philoctetes on the island of Lemnos. Marble. Victoria and Albert Museum, London. ARGONAUTS When the ARGONAUTS, in their way to Colchis, came to Lemnos, they found out that all males had been murdered. For the Lemnian women, having learned that their husbands had taken Thracian wives, resolved to kill all men in Lemnos. Philoctetes and Odysseus http://homepage.mac.com/cparada/GML/Philoctetes. html Only Philoctetes excelled me with the bow in the land of the Trojans, when we Achaeans shot." (Odysseus to the Phaeacians. Homer, Odyssey 8.220). "Destruction shall have end when you are dead, the author of our bane." (Philoctetes to Paris. Quintus Smyrnaeus, The Fall of Troy 10.229).