What are we learning?
We are learning about the importance of the kingdoms of
Kush and Aksum.
We want to understand the rise and fall of the kingdoms
of Kush and Aksum.
Let’s review what we learned yesterday about
 The Kingdom of Kush began around 2000 B.C. The Kushites were farmers, metalworkers, and
 The Egyptians grew amazing crops that they traded with Kush to get things like gold, ebony wood,
ivory, incense, and lion and leopard skins that came into Kush from western Africa and other parts
of the continent.
 Around 1500 B.C. the Egyptians invaded Kush… the Kushites fought a tough battle, but the
Egyptians won.
 Over the next five centuries, from 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C., the Kushite people lived under Egyptian
rule. They even seemed to become Egyptian, wearing Egyptian-style clothing and worshiping the
Egyptian Gods.
 Around 730 B.C., Egypt grew weak and Kush seized the opportunity to take back what had once
been theirs and attack… they won and ruled for a few decades.
 This rule didn’t last long though, because in 591 B.C. the Egyptians struck back and captured Kush’s
capital of Kerma.
 The Kush people moved their capital to Meroe (MuHR oh ee). It was here the Kushites began
producing iron. Meroe became a center of trade that extended for over 2,000 miles!
Are you are wondering…
what happened to Kush?
In the early fourth
century (301 A.D.
to 400 A.D.), Kush
was attacked by
another great
 Aksum was located in what is now Ethiopia and
The war between Aksum was the worst war of all
because it destroyed the Kush kingdom.
Aksum’s great warrior-king Ezana led this war.
After the victory, Ezana thanked the “Lord of
Heaven” and bragged of destroying the Kushite’s
Ezana had converted to Christianity, and Aksum
would become a Christian civilization.
After Aksum conquered Kush… what
The trade routes through Kush were ignored and traders began to travel to Aksum
by sea instead of trekking to Kush by land.
Aksum’s busy port of Adulis on the Red Sea, traders exchanged cloth made by
Egyptians for cloth made by people living in North Africa and the Sahara.
They also traded cloaks, flint glass, brass, copper, and iron.
Aksum became the strongest power in East Africa.
Aksum prospered for many centuries.
Its king built many monasteries and churches, and the Bible translated into their
Aksum conquered neighboring lands, including part of the Arabian Peninsula.
After such tremendous success, how did
Aksum fall, you ask!?!?
During the 700s A.D., Muslims began moving off the Arabian Peninsula and into Africa.
The Muslims gained control of much of the land along the shores of the Read Sea and took
over the trade routes.
Eventually, the Muslims took over the seaport of Adulis and the Aksumite Christians were
forced to retreat to the mountains.
The Aksumites lived on for many years in the mountains in isolation surrounded by the Muslim

Power Point on Kush & Aksum