IJMA’
(CONSENSUS)
ATOMOLOGY

Ijma’ (‫ )إجماع‬is an Arabic word derived
from an Arabic consonantal root “‫”ج م ع‬
Which means:
(1) Assembly
(2) Gathering together
(3) To add together
(4) Unanimity
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
2
DEFINITION
“Ijma’ is a unanimous agreement of Muslim
Jurists/ Scholars of the community of a
particular age on a certain religious issue
which has no clear verdict or more than one
possible interpretation in Quran and Sunnah”
AUTHENTICITY
Ijma’ and Qiyas are secondary sources of
Islamic Shariah, yet Ijma’ has superior status
than Qiyas and inferior status than Quran and
Sunnah/ Hadith
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
3
An Important Point:



Ijma’ in its spirit is like democratic principle
which says that all decisions are to be made on
the basis of “Majority”
Therefore, a perfect Ijma’ is possible but
difficult to achieve because of the divergence
in religious views.
Thus Ijma’ does not mean that there are no
different views after conducting Ijma’ but that
agreement exists among a great majority of
Muslims.
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
4
DETAILS
Time of Ijma’:
(1)
(2)
After the demise of Holy Prophet
(S.A.W.)
When no explicit instructions
concerning a new issue can be found
in Quran and Sunnah/ Hadith
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
5
Foundations of Ijma’:
Quran
Sunnah/ Hadith
(3) Reason
(1)
(2)
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
6
CONDITIONS
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
It must not be against Quran
It must not be against Sunnah/ Hadith
It must not be against any set principle of
Islam
It must not be against spirit of Islam
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
7
KINDS OF IJMA’
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
Ijma’-e-Sahaba: (Unanimity of the
Companions of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
Ijma’-e-Tabieen: (Unanimity of the
Companions of the Companions of Holy
Prophet (S.A.W.)
Ijma’-e-Foqaha: (Unanimity of the
Muslim Jurists)
Ijma’-e-Ummah: (Unanimity of the
Muslim nation)
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
8
EXAMPLES (1)
Ijma’ concerning issues which have no
clear Verdict in Shariah
(1)
(2)
(3)
Compilation of Holy Quran
Caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)
after demise of Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)
Jihad against defaulters of Zakat in the
caliphate of Hazrat Abu Bakar (R.A.)
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
9
EXAMPLES (2)
Ijma’ concerning issues which have
more than one possible
interpretations in Shariah

Culmination of Prophet hood
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
10
REFERENCES
(1)
HOLY QURAN
“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the
Messenger (Muhammad ), and those of you
(Muslims) who are in authority. (And) if you
differ in anything amongst yourselves,
refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if
you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That
is better and more suitable for final
determination”
(An-Nisa Ayah 59)
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
11
Continuation…
(2) “And whoever contradicts and opposes
the Messenger (Muhammad) after the
right path has been shown clearly to him,
and follows other than the believers'
way, We shall keep him in the path he has
chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an
evil destination” (An-Nisa Ayah 115)

Commentators of the Quran agree that Ijma’ is meant
by the phrase of “believers’ way” in above mentioned
Ayah
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
12
HADITH
‫ ومن شذ شذ في‬،‫ ويد هللا مع الجماعة‬،‫إن هللا ال يجمع أمتي على ضاللة‬
‫النار‬
Translation:
“Allah will never make my whole Ummah
unanimous on deviation, Allah’s favour is with
majority and whosoever will get separate from
(Muslim) majority, gets separate in the hell”
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
13
Continuation…
‫ فإذا رأيتم اختالفا فعليكم‬، ‫إن أمتي ال تجتمع على ضاللة‬
‫بالسواد األعظم‬
Translation:
“My whole Ummah will never be unanimous
on deviation, so when you see difference in
opinions, so it is binding upon you to be
the part of (Muslim) majority”
Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
14
Continuation…
“Follow the majority of the Ummah.
Whosoever will get separation from
[Muslim majority] will be sent to hell”

Monday, April 13, 2015
Islamic & Religious Studies
Instructor: Prof. Abid Naeem
15
Download

IJMA` (CONSENSUS) & QIYAS (ANALOGY)