The Prophetic Sunnah
An Introduction to its
Preservation, Compilation,
Classification, and Application
Course Outline
•
Introduction to the Sunnah and Hadith
•
History of Hadith Compilation and Books
•
Hadith Terminology (Mustalah)
•
Fiqh of Hadith
Course Objectives
• Understanding the History of Hadith Narration
• Understanding the Major Books and
Personalities
• Learn the Basics of Hadith Classification
• Understand the Application of Hadith in Islamic
Law
Introduction to the Sunnah and Hadith
•
Understanding Mustalah
– Mustalah (Technical Term): The agreement
of a specific group of people with regards to
a specific thing.
What Does Sunnah Mean?
•
Depends Who you ask…
–
–
–
–
–
Linguistically
» customary action
» habitual practice
» norm
Fiqh
» Mustahab / Mandoob – Recommended Action.
History
» Anything to Do with the Prophet’s Life.
Usool
» A statement, an action, or confirmation given by the
Prophet. (Has ramifications in Islamic Law and Legal
Theory)
» One of the four main sources of deriving laws.
Hadith
» A statement, an action, or confirmation given by the
Prophet.
Conclusion
• The terms Sunnah and Hadith are
synonymous in the field of Hadith
Sciences.
• However, they may vary in other fields (i.e
fiqh)
The Prophet and His Sunnah
• Two Types of Wahi (Divine Revelation)
1. Quran
» Words of Allah (the Mushaf)
» Any recitation is an act of worship
2. Sunnah
» Words of the Prophet
» Some recitation is an act of worship
» Guided by Allah
Authority of the Sunnah
•
Proof that the Sunnah is from revelation
‫إن هو إال وحي يوحى‬.‫ وما ينطق عن الهوى‬-
•
Incidents from the Quran
1. Changing of the Qibla (al Baqara)
2. The Honey of Zainab (al Tahreem)
3. Command to marry Zainab (al Ahzaab)
‫‪Necessity of the Sunnah‬‬
‫‪Explaining the Quran‬‬
‫وأنزلنا إليك الذكر لتبين للناس ما نزل إليهم ولعلهم‬
‫يتفكرون‬
‫)‪(16:44‬‬
‫هو الذي بعث في األميين رسوال منهم يتلو عليهم آياته ويزكيهم‬
‫ويعلمهم الكتاب والحكمة وإن كانوا من قبل لفي ضالل مبين‬
‫)‪(62:2‬‬
‫‪Verses in the Quran Commanding Adherence to the Sunnah‬‬
‫قل إن كنتم تحبون هللا فاتبعوني يحببكم هللا ويغفر لكم ذنوبكم وهللا غفور رحيم‬
‫قل أطيعوا هللا والرسول فإن تولوا فإن هللا ال يحب الكافرين‬
‫)‪(3:31-32‬‬
‫يا أيها الذين آمنوا ال تقدموا بين يدي هللا ورسوله واتقوا هللا إن هللا سميع عليم‬
‫يا أيها الذين آمنوا ال ترفعوا أصواتكم فوق صوت النبي وال تجهروا له بالقول كجهر‬
‫بعضكم لبعض أن تحبط أعمالكم وأنتم ال تشعرون‬
‫)‪(49:1-2‬‬
‫وما كان لمؤمن وال مؤمنة إذا قضى هللا ورسوله أمرا أن يكون لهم الخيرة من أمرهم ومن‬
‫يعص هللا ورسوله فقد ضل ضالال مبينا‬
‫)‪(33:36‬‬
‫من يطع الرسول فقد أطاع هللا ومن تولى فما أرسلناك عليهم حفيظا‬
‫)‪(4:80‬‬
‫فال وربك ال يؤمنون حتى يحكموك فيما شجر بينهم ثم ال يجدوا في أنفسهم حرجا مما‬
‫قضيت ويسلموا تسليما‬
‫)‪(4:65‬‬
The Sunnah Explains Islam
• Matters of Belief (Aqeedah)
– Details about the Day of Judgement
– About Paradise and Hell
– Understanding our Creator
• Legal Issues – Acts of Worship, Transactions
–
–
–
–
Prayer
Hajj
Marriage
Buying/Selling
Hadith During the Life of the Prophet
• The Prophet taught the companions formally
– The Prophetic Academy of Scholars and Dawah
– Testing them on Hadith
– Commanding them to Convey his words
‫‪Ashaab al Suffa‬‬
‫وما كان المؤمنون لينفروا كافة فلوال نفر من كل فرقة منهم طائفة‬
‫ليتفقهوا في الدين ولينذروا قومهم إذا رجعوا إليهم لعلهم يحذرون‬
‫‪• 80 Companions studying full time‬‬
‫‪• Living in the Masjid‬‬
‫‪• Example of Abu Huraira‬‬
How Did the Companions Preserve
the Hadith?
1. The Arab Civilization and Importance of
Memorization
2. Writing
3. Real Life Application
Memorizing the Hadith
• The Power of the Mind and Ability to Memorize
– Photographic Memory
– Arabs Used to memorize Hundreds of Poems in Jahiliya
• Modern Day Examples
– Andriy Slyusarchuk (Ukrainian professor) memorized the first 30
million places of pi, which were printed in 20 volumes of text.
– Sergei Rachmaninov (composer and pianist) recalls a musical
score after sight reading twice.
– Stephen Wiltshire was able to draw a skyline in detail after a
single helicopter ride.
– Philosopher Swami Vivekananda was able to memorize ten
volumes of the encyclopedia in only a few days.
– Case of Solomon Shereshevskii
Were the Hadith Written Down?
• Initial Prohibition…Why?
– Fear of Mixing Quran and Hadith
• Abrogation and Command to Write Hadith
– Example of Abdullah bin Amr bin Aas
Preservation through Application
• Results of Memorizing w/o application
– A look into our own lives
• Results of Memorizing w application
– A glimpse into the method of the companions
Permission to Write Hadith
•
“Seek help from your right hand,” and pointed to
something written. (Tirmidhi)
•
The Prophet told Rafi bin Khadij: “You may write.
There is no harm.” (Tadrib ar Rawi)
•
Anas narrated that the Prophet said, “Preserve
knowledge by writing it. (Jami’ al Bayan)
•
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al Aas was commanded to write
hadith. “Shall I write everything you say? Yes.
“Whether you are content or angry?”…yes…
The Compilations of the
Companions
• Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Aas – 5000+
– The Sheets of Truth (al Saheefa al Sadiqa)
• Anas ibn Malik - 2000+
– He wrote and reviewed with the Prophet
• Jabir bin Abdullah – 1500+
– Used to write and teach his hadith in the Prophet’s masjid
– Book of Hajj (much of it found in Saheeh Muslim)
• Aisha– 2000+
– Urwa bin Zubair wrote her hadith
– Amra bint Abdillah – her hadith were written (command of the Khalifa)
• Abdullah ibn Abbas
– His hadeeth were written in his life (by the People of Taaif)
– Saeed ibn Musayyib wrote his hadeeth as well.
• Abdullah ibn Omar – 1500+
– Nafi’ used to write his hadith.
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