Presentation Plus! Glencoe Writer’s Choice: Grammar and Composition, Grade 6
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UNIT 13
Adverbs
Unit 13 Overview
Lesson 13.1:
Adverbs Modifying Verbs
Lesson 13.2:
Adverbs Modifying
Adjectives and Adverbs
Lesson 13.3:
Adverbs That Compare
Lesson 13.4:
Telling Adjectives and
Adverbs Apart
Lesson 13.5:
Avoiding Double Negatives
Grammar Review
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3
Unit Objectives
• To identify adverbs and the words they
modify in sentences 
• To recognize and use correctly
comparative and superlative adverbs 
• To understand the differences between
adjectives and adverbs and to use both
correctly in writing 
• To eliminate double negatives in sentences
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Objectives
• To recognize and apply the rules for using
adverbs 
• To identify adverbs and the words they
modify in sentences
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Adverbs Modifying Verbs
• Adjectives are words that modify, or
describe, nouns and pronouns. 
• They modify verbs, adjectives, and other
adverbs. 
• An adverb is a word that describes a verb,
an adjective, or another adverb. 
• In the example below, the adverb grandly
describes the action verb entertained. 
– Thomas Jefferson entertained grandly at the
White House.
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Adverbs Modifying Verbs (cont.)
• An adverb supplies one of three types of
information. 

• When modifying an adjective or another
adverb, an adverb usually comes before
the word.
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Adverbs Modifying Verbs (cont.)
• When modifying a verb, an adverb can
occupy different positions in a sentence. 
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Adverbs Modifying Verbs (cont.)
• Most adverbs are formed by adding ly to an
adjective, as in actively, fondly, and quietly. 
• Some adverbs are exceptions, however. 
• These include after, often, now, well, and
later.
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Exercise 1 Identifying Adverbs
Write the adverb to complete each sentence.
1. The federal government looked everywhere for
an architect. (build, eager, everywhere, official)
2. A committee finally chose James Hoban.
(decide, finally, happy, enthusiastic)
3. Hoban’s White House stood majestically on a
large plot of land. (proud, sit, majestically, to)
4. The Adams family eagerly moved into the
unfinished house. (eagerly, quick, had, grand)
5. They proudly gave visitors tours of their new
home. (glad, proudly, want, famous)
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Exercise 2 Identifying Adverbs
Underline the adverb and draw an arrow to the word the adverb
describes.
1. Thomas Jefferson lived happily in the White House.
2. Jefferson quickly sought the aid of another architect.
3. Fire nearly destroyed the mansion during the War
of 1812.
4. Theodore Roosevelt had it rebuilt completely.
5. Franklin Roosevelt further expanded it.
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Exercise 3 Writing Adverbs to Complete
Sentences
Write an adverb that describes the verb in each sentence.
1. Our class always goes to the White House when
visiting Washington, D.C.
2. We often visit the other attractions.
3. We quickly travel by bus to our nation’s capital.
4. Last year the seventh graders waited patiently in
line to see Congress in session.
5. The tour guide spoke proudly to us.
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Close
Write five sentences that include adverbs
modifying adverbs. Then rewrite each
sentence with the adverbs in as many
positions as possible.
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Objectives
• To recognize adverbs that describe
adjectives and other adverbs 
• To use adverbs to modify adjectives and
other adverbs
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Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and
Adverbs
• Adverbs are often used to modify
adjectives and other adverbs. 
• Most often they tell how. 
• Notice how adverbs intensify the meaning of
the adjectives in the following sentences. 
– Harry Truman used extremely direct language. 
– He became a very popular president.
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Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and
Adverbs (cont.)
– Harry Truman used extremely direct language. 
– He became a very popular president. 
• In the first sentence, the adverb extremely
modifies the adjective direct. 
• The adverb tells how direct Truman’s
language was. 
• In the second sentence, the adverb very
modifies the adjective popular. 
• The adverb tells how popular Truman was.
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Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and
Adverbs (cont.)
• In the sentences below, adverbs modify
other adverbs.
– Truman entered politics unusually late in life. 
– He moved through the political ranks quite
quickly. 
• In the first sentence above, the adverb
unusually modifies the adverb late. 
• Unusually tells how late Truman entered
politics.
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Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and
Adverbs (cont.)
• In the sentences below, adverbs modify
other adverbs.
– Truman entered politics unusually late in life. 
– He moved through the political ranks quite
quickly. 
• In the second sentence, the adverb quite
describes the adverb quickly. 
• Quite tells how quickly Truman moved
through the ranks.
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Adverbs Modifying Adjectives and
Adverbs (cont.)
• When modifying adjectives and other
adverbs, adverbs almost always come
directly before the word they describe. 
• Below is a list of some adverbs that are
often used to describe adjectives and other
adverbs. 
ADVERBS OFTEN USED TO DESCRIBE
ADJECTIVES AND OTHER ADVERBS
very
too
almost
quite
really
so
partly
extremely
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rather
nearly
barely
unusually
just
somewhat
totally
hardly
Exercise 4 Identifying Adverbs
Underline each adverb and draw an arrow to the word the
adverb modifies. Then write whether that modified word is a
verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
1. Truman’s career as vice president was unusually
brief. adjective
adjective
2. The extremely tragic death of Franklin D.
Roosevelt left the presidency in Truman’s hands.
verb
3. Truman established a new procedure almost
immediately. adverb
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Exercise 4 Identifying Adverbs (cont.)
Underline each adverb and draw an arrow to the word the
adverb modifies. Then write whether that modified word is a
verb, an adjective, or an adverb.
4. He arose quite early each morning for a walk.
verb
adverb
5. News reporters nearly always followed him.
verb
adverb
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Exercise 5 Writing Adverbs to Modify Adjectives
and Adverbs
Choose an adverb from the box to modify each word below.
Then write a sentence for each pair of words you form.
nearly somewhat just extremely hardly
very
unusually too rather
so
hardly ever
1. _________
We hardly ever go swimming.
2. _________
enough
just
Tom brought just enough food for lunch.
3. _________
unusually quiet
It was unusually quiet last evening.
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Exercise 5 Writing Adverbs to Modify Adjectives
and Adverbs
Choose an adverb from the box to modify each word below.
Then write a sentence for each pair of words you form.
nearly somewhat just extremely hardly
very
unusually too rather
so
so
4. _________
late
We arrived so late that we missed the boat.
5. _________
popular
very
The band’s new song is very popular.
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Close
Explain in your own words how adverbs
cam be used to modify adjectives or other
adverbs. Illustrate your explanations with
written examples.
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Objectives
• To use comparative and superlative
adverbs correctly in sentences 
• To identify various irregular comparative
and superlative adverbs
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Adverbs That Compare
• The comparative form of an adverb
compares two actions or things. 
• The superlative form of an adverb
compares more than two actions or things. 
• For most adverbs of only one syllable, add
er to make the comparative form and est to
make the superlative form. 
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Adverbs That Compare (cont.)
• For adverbs that end in ly or that have
more than one syllable, use the word more
to form the comparative and most to form
the superlative. 
• If an adverb already is comparative or
superlative, do not add more or most. 
• Never say, for example, more harder or
most hardest.
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
Adverbs That Compare (cont.)
• Some adverbs do not form the comparative
and superlative in the regular manner.
• Study the irregular forms below. 
IRREGULAR COMPARATIVE FORMS
ADVERB
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
well
badly
little (amount)
far (distance)
far (degree)
better
worse
less
farther
further
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best
worst
least
farthest
furthest
Exercise 6 Using the Comparative and
Superlative Forms
For each sentence, choose the correct form of the adverb in
parentheses.
1. Of all Theodore Roosevelt’s nieces, Eleanor
Roosevelt came (close, closest) to the presidency.
2. Many liked Mrs. Roosevelt (better, best) than they
had liked any of the previous first ladies.
3. Mrs. Roosevelt worked (more actively, most
actively) for human rights than for any other cause.
4. She fought (harder, hardest) of all for minorities.
5. She appeared at human-rights rallies (more
frequently, most frequently) than her husband.
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Exercise 7 Writing Comparative and Superlative
Forms
Use er, est, more, or most to make the needed form of the
adverb in parentheses.
1. Of all of the first ladies, Eleanor Roosevelt gave
(freely) of her time. most freely
2. She traveled (readily) than any other president’s
wife to distant parts of the globe. more readily
3. She journeyed (far) in her later years than in her
youth. farther
4. She was (sympathetic) than many other people to
the plight of the poor. more sympathetic
5. Eleanor Roosevelt lived (long) than her husband.
longer
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Close
Create posters or pamphlets that show
correct usage rules for comparative and
superlative adverbs.
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Objectives
• To distinguish between adjectives and
adverbs in sentences 
• To determine whether an adjective or an
adverb should be used in a sentence
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Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart
• To tell whether a word in a sentence is an
adjective or an adverb you need to look
carefully at how the word is used. 
– Martha Washington was happy at Mount
Vernon. 
– Martha Washington lived happily at Mount
Vernon. 
• In the first sentence, happy is a predicate
adjective.
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Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart (cont.)
– Martha Washington was happy at Mount
Vernon.
– Martha Washington lived happily at Mount
Vernon.
• It follows the linking verb was and modifies
the subject. 
• In the second sentence, happily is an
adverb. 
• It modifies the action verb lived.
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Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart (cont.)
• People sometimes confuse the words bad,
badly, good, and well. 
• Bad and good are both adjectives. 
• They are used after linking verbs. 
• Badly and well are adverbs. 
• They are used after action verbs. 
• Well can also be used as an adjective after
linking verbs.
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Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart (cont.)
• At these times, well describes a person’s
health or appearance–for example in He
looks well. 
DISTINGUISHING ADJECTIVES FROM ADVERBS
ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
The sound is bad.
The band sounds good.
The actor sang badly.
The band played well. 
• Three pairs of modifiers often confuse
people: real, really; sure, surely; and most,
almost. 
• Real and sure are adjectives.
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Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart (cont.)
• Really, surely, and almost are adverbs. 
• Most can be an adjective or an adverb 
DISTINGUISHING ADJECTIVES FROM ADVERBS
ADJECTIVE
ADVERB
Music is a real art.
Music is really popular.
A pianist needs sure hands Piano music surely is
popular.
Most pianos have
Piano strings almost
eighty-eight keys.
never break.
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Exercise 8 Telling Adjectives and Adverbs
Apart
Underline the correct adjective or adverb in parentheses to
complete each of the following sentences.
1. Martha Washington lived (courageous,
courageously).
2. She managed the position of first lady (good,
well).
3. She supported her husband (active, actively).
4. President Washington must have felt (good, well)
about his wife’s support.
5. (Sure, Surely) he was appreciative.
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Exercise 9 Identifying and Using Adjectives and
Adverbs
Identify each word as an adjective or an adverb. Then write a
sentence using the word correctly.
1. good
adjective
2. really
adverb
3. sure
adjective
4. almost
adverb
5. real
adjective
Janet felt good about the
grades she earned.
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Close
Read a literary passage containing
adjectives and adverbs. As you read, make
one list of the adjectives in the passage and
another list of the adverbs.
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Objectives
• To recognize and avoid the use of double
negatives in writing 
• To eliminate double negatives in sentences
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Avoiding Double Negatives
• The adverb not is a negative word,
expressing the idea of “no” in a sentence. 
• The word not often appears in its
shortened form, the contraction n’t. 
CONTRACTIONS WITH NOT
is not = isn’t
have not = haven’t
could not = couldn’t
were not = weren’t
would not = wouldn’t
should not = shouldn’t
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cannot = can’t
was not = wasn’t
had not = hadn’t
do not = don’t
will not = won’t
did not = didn’t
Avoiding Double Negatives (cont.)
• Other words besides not may be used to
express the negative. 
• Each negative word has several opposites,
or affirmative words, that show the idea of
“yes.”
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Avoiding Double Negatives (cont.)
• Study the following list of negative and
affirmative words. 
NEGATIVE AND AFFIRMATIVE WORDS
NEGATIVE
AFFIRMATIVE
never
nobody
none
no one
nothing
nowhere
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ever, always
anybody, somebody
one, all, some, any
everyone, someone
something, anything
somewhere, anywhere
Avoiding Double Negatives (cont.)
• People sometimes mistakenly use two
negative words together, as in the sentence
Lincoln hadn’t never gone to college. 
• Avoid using a double negative such as
this. 
• You need only one negative word to
express a negative idea.
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Avoiding Double Negatives (cont.)
• You can correct a double negative by
removing one of the negative words or by
replacing it with an affirmative word, as in
the following sentences.
– Lincoln had never gone to college.
– Lincoln had not ever gone to college.
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Exercise 10
Expressing Negative Ideas
Underline the correct word in parentheses in each sentence so
that it correctly expresses a negative idea.
1. Lincoln didn’t (never, ever) have a speech writer.
2. Nothing (didn’t make, made) him bitter during the
war.
3. Lincoln wasn’t dishonest with (no one, anyone).
4. The president didn’t (never, ever) become
discouraged.
5. A strong leader, Lincoln wasn’t afraid of (nobody,
anyone).
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Exercise 11
Writing Sentences to Express
Negative Ideas
Write five sentences to express negative ideas. In each
sentence, use the word from Column A and one of the words
from Column B.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Column A
Column B
couldn’t
has
doesn’t
can
nothing
ever, never
anything, nothing
any, no
anywhere, nowhere
anybody, nobody
Allen couldn’t ever find anyone from his group.
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Close
Write a paragraph or two explaining how to
avoid using double negatives. Imagine that
you are writing your explanation for a
person who knows none of the rules for
using negatives in a sentence.
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Adverbs
• The action in Irene Hunt’s Across Five
Aprils takes place during the Civil War,
which began in April 1861 and ended in
April 1865. 
• The Literature Model on page 405 of your
textbook focuses on a letter sent by a
character named Shadrach Yale to a
younger boy named Jethro. 
• The passage has been annotated to show
some uses of the adverb covered in this
unit.
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Review: Exercise 1
Writing Adverbs to Modify Verbs
Write an adverb to complete each sentence correctly .
1. Librarians always order new copies of Across
Five Aprils because of the book’s popularity.
2. Occasionally
__________ our teacher assigns a group book
report to the class.
3. My friends and I once volunteered to write
about Across Five Aprils.
here
4. I thought I left my copy of Across Five Aprils ____.
5. Irene Hunt was very
honored when she
received the Newbery Award for her book.
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Review: Exercise 2
Identifying Adverbs That Modify
Verbs
Underline the adverb in each sentence and write whether it tells
how, when, or where.
1. Soon Shadrach would write to his friend Jethro.
when
2. He proudly described his experience.
how
3. War can age a president rapidly.
how
4. Shadrach saw President Lincoln there.
where
5. Grant was often criticized.
when
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Review: Exercise 3
Identifying Adverbs and the Words
They Modify
Underline each adverb. Then draw an arrow to the word that the
adverb describes and write whether that word is a verb, an
adjective, or an adverb. (Some sentences have more than one
adverb.)
1. Jethro read the letter, and he placed it carefully in
verb
a big envelope.
verb
2. Shadrach wrote thoughtfully; he described events
in Washington.
3. The large crowd cheered loudly for the popular
General Grant. verb
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Review: Exercise 3
Identifying Adverbs and the Words
They Modify
Underline each adverb. Then draw an arrow to the word that the
adverb describes and write whether that word is a verb, an
adjective, or an adverb. (Some sentences have more than one
adverb.)
verb
4. Lincoln was very pleased that the crowd reacted
enthusiastically. adjective
adverb
5. Union troops fought extremely well under
General Grant. verb
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Review: Exercise 4
Writing Adverbs in Sentences
In the blank, write an adverb that describes the underlined word
in each sentence.
1. As a boy, Lincoln was a very
gifted speaker.
2. He worked extremely hard as a clerk in a store.
3. In 1832 Lincoln finally
with a partner.
bought a grocery store
4. Eventually
________ the grocery store failed.
5. Even though his partner died, Lincoln determinedly
__________
paid off the unpaid debts from the store.
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Review: Exercise 5
Using the Comparative and
Superlative Forms
Underline the correct comparative or superlative form in
parentheses found in each sentence.
1. The crowd applauded (more loudly, loudlier) than
they had for any other Union general.
2. The North fared (worse, worst) than the South
until Grant took command.
3. Grant drove his armies (farther, farthest) into the
South than they had gone before.
4. Grant commanded (better, best) than the other
Union generals.
5. Crops in the North suffered (less, lesser) from the
war than crops in the South did.
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Review: Exercise 6
Using Comparative and Superlative
Adverbs
Write the comparative or superlative adverb form of the word in
parentheses.
1. Which is the (frequently) visited building in the
city? most frequently
2. Who entertained (grandly), Dolley Madison or
Elizabeth Monroe? more grandly
3. Of the two, who guarded her privacy (carefully)?
more carefully
4. Of all the presidents, who enjoyed the White
House the (little)? least
5. Who lived there (long) of all? longest
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Review: Exercise 7
Telling Adjectives and Adverbs Apart
Underline the correct word from parentheses. Then write
whether the word is an adverb or adjective.
1. Dolley Madison gave (lavish, lavishly) parties.
adjective
2. She entertained (good, well).
adverb
3. She (proud, proudly) wore rich silks.
adverb
4. She was (great, greatly) admired.
adverb
5. Her parties were (most, almost) always a
adverb
success.
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Review: Exercise 8
Using Adverbs and Adjectives
Correctly
Choose an adjective or adverb from the list below to go in each
blank. Write adjective or adverb to identify each word you add.
difficult good least best
very
less better easily
easy
quite great eventually
Elizabeth Blackwell had a(n) 1 _____________
great (adjective)
desire for a medical education. Her goal was
easy (adjective) one. She faced a(n) 3
not a(n) 2 _____________
difficult (adjective)
_______
________ struggle to become a doctor.
Blackwell began by writing letters to doctors all over
4 ___________
the country.
few answered her. Most
Very
(adverb)
people thought it was 5 ____________
quite (adverb) foolish for a
woman to think of becoming a doctor, but Blackwell
(adverb) discouraged.
was not 6 easily
____________
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Review: Exercise 9
Avoiding Double Negatives
Underline the correct answer, which completes each sentence so
that it correctly expresses a negative idea.
1. No one (ever, never) forgets our twenty-sixth
president.
2. I can’t find (anyone, no one) else in history like
Theodore Roosevelt.
3. I didn’t know (nothing, anything) about him until
recently.
4. I wasn’t (ever, never) expecting to be so impressed.
5. I didn’t expect to find (any, no) books about Teddy
Roosevelt at the library.
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Review: Exercise 10
Expressing Negative Ideas
Rewrite each sentence to correctly express a negative idea.
(There is more than one correct way to rewrite most sentences.)
1. The Browns weren’t never planning to go to the
capital.
The Browns weren’t ever planning to go to the
capital.
2. Margie Brown had never met no one who had
been there.
Margie Brown had never met anyone who had
been there.
3. They hadn’t gone nowhere near Washington
before last summer.
They hadn’t gone anywhere near Washington
before last summer.
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Review: Exercise 10
Expressing Negative Ideas (cont.)
Rewrite each sentence to correctly express a negative idea.
(There is more than one correct way to rewrite most sentences.)
4. Little Billy hadn’t known nothing about the
surprise trip.
Little Billy had known nothing about the surprise
trip.
5. The family hadn’t never seen nothing as
impressive as the White House.
The family had never seen anything as
impressive as the White House.
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Review: Exercise 11 Proofreading
The following passage is about American artist Roger Brown,
whose painting Lost America appears on page 411 of your
textbook. Rewrite the passage, correcting the errors in spelling,
capitalization, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation.
1Born
in 1941, Roger Brown a painter who lives in
Chicago. 2His works, such as Lost America, have sure
made him influential in the art world. 3Brown has
develop a highly individualized style over the past
twenty years. 4Lost America clear exhibits many of the
characteristics of his work.
5The painting is immediate recognizable as a
portrait of Abraham Lincoln. 6It’s not nothing as simple
as that. 7Lincoln is silouetted agenst a sky full of
threatening clouds lined up in tightly packed rows. 8At
the bottom of the painting is vegetation that resembles
the kind of fence that soldiers’ erect in battle.
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Review: Exercise 11 Proofreading (cont.)
The following passage is about American artist Roger Brown,
whose painting Lost America appears on page 411 of your
textbook. Rewrite the passage, correcting the errors in spelling,
capitalization, grammar, and usage. Add any missing punctuation.
1Born
in 1941, Roger Brown is a painter who lives in
Chicago. 2His works, such as Lost America, have surely
made him influential in the art world. 3Brown has
developed a highly individualized style over the past
twenty years. 4Lost America clearly exhibits many of the
characteristics of his work.
5The painting is immediately recognizable as a
portrait of Abraham Lincoln. 6It’s not anything as simple
as that. 7Lincoln is silhouetted against a sky full of
threatening clouds lined up in tightly packed rows. 8At
the bottom of the painting is vegetation that resembles
the kind of fence that soldiers erect in battle.
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70
Review: Exercise 12
Mixed Review
Replace the underlined word with an adverb that makes sense.
1. Claiming to be emperor of the United States
would certain be considered eccentric
behavior. certainly
2. In the middle of the nineteenth century, Joshua
Norton actual claimed to be Norton I, Emperor of
the United States. actually
3. The people of San Francisco willing accepted his
claim. willingly
4. Emperor Norton took his job quite serious. seriously
5. The best clothing store in the entire city made
clothing special for him. specially
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71
Close
Write a paragraph comparing two United
States presidents. Use adjectives and
adverbs correctly to make vivid
comparisons.
72
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This time my pet mouse won’t get out so easily.
I patched up his box and did the repair carefully.
Now he sits quietly and looks curiously for that hole.
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Yes, adverbs can modify verbs.
They can, of course, also modify adjectives.
I hope you understand that, my friend.
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Which will be faster, the plane or the train?
Well, the plane certainly flies more swiftly.
However, we can get to the train station more quickly and
easily.
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His statement wasn’t nice, but he said it nicely.
If you won’t comb your hair neatly, at least get a neat
haircut.
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Didn’t anybody tell you that I was coming over?
I couldn’t call because I found no phone anywhere.
You weren’t planning anything for tonight, were you?
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We traveled more quickly by train than by car. We
arrived earlier than usual. Tom traveled farther to
get there than we did.
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Each sentence has a double negative.
We didn’t ever hear the president speak. There
was no radio where we stayed. We never read any
of the speech in the paper, either.
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correct
worse
longest
correct
correct
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Adverbs in Writing
• In this excerpt from Betsy Byars’s novel Coast to Coast, 13year-old Birch tries to convince her grandfather to take her
up in his 1940 airplane. As you read, pay special attention to
the underlined words. 
“I really want to go!” As she said it, she realized it was true. She
needed to get away from this world, and this was the way to do it.
“What are we waiting for?”
“I don’t guess it would hurt to fly to the beach and back.”
“Then get in! Let’s go!”
“Don’t get in too big a hurry.” Her grandfather smiled. It was his
first real smile of the afternoon.
Birch followed him around the plane. “What are you doing?”
“Well, right now, I’m doing a preflight inspection. I check the tires,
the control surfaces, move them for freedom and cable looseness.”
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Techniques with Averbs
• Try to apply some of Betsy Byars’s writing
techniques when you write and revise your
own work. 
• To make your writing more vivid, add adverbs to
tell exactly when the action is occurring.
Compare the following:
– GENERAL WORDS Well, I’m doing a preflight inspection.
– BYARS’S VERSION Well, right now I’m doing a preflight
inspection.
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Techniques with Pronouns
• Use adverbs to reinforce the mood and tone of your
writing. 
– UNSPECIFIED TONE I want to go.
– BYARS’S VERSION I really want to go.
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Practice
Practice the techniques with adverbs by revising the following passage.
Remember that adverbs can modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs.
Many people read Betsy Byars’s books. She is one of the
popular young adult authors of our time. In her book Coast to
Coast, Ms. Byars’s love of flying comes across to her readers.
Thirteen-year-old Birch does not want her grandfather to sell
his plane. She is sure the plane can keep him young at heart.
Birch talks her grandfather into letting her get into the plane.
He shows her how to operate it. He gets into the plane with
her. Will Birch and her grandfather fly the old airplane? You’ll
have to read this exciting book to find out.
Explore online information about the
topics introduced in this unit.
Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the
Writer’s Choice Web site. At this site, you will find unit overviews,
interactive activities, and Web sites correlated with the units and
lessons in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the
browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience
difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web
browser and go to http://writerschoice.glencoe.com
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