KINDS OF TRANSLATION
&
KINDS OF TEXT
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
KINDS OF TRANSLATION
1.
Literal translation
2.
Communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic translation
3.
Free translation
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Literal Translation
Aku
I
ingin
berdansa
denganmu
want
to dance
with you
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Suaramu
begitu indah
Your voice
is so beautiful
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Ada sejumlah anak laki-laki sedang menunggu di luar
There are a number of boys waiting outside
Dia tidak percaya kalau hantu itu ada
He doesn’t believe that ghosts exist
Suharto telah meninggal dunia dengan tenang
Suharto has peacefully passed away
Bersatu kita teguh, bercerai kita runtuh
United we stand, divided we fall.
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Saya tidak tahu bagaimana dengan orang lain, tapi ketika saya
masih muda dan berumur 20-an, saya takut pada
pernikahan.
I don’t know with other people, but when I was young and about 20’s,
I was afraid of marriage.
Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan
kemerdekaan Indonesia.
We the people of Indonesia herewith to proclaim the independence of
Indonesia
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Pemindahan penduduk asli Amerika dari bagian timur Sungai
Mussissipi pertama kali diusulkan Presiden Thomas
Jefferson.
The relocation of the American natives from eastern Mississipi River
was firstly proposed by President Thomas Jefferson.
Burung laut Artik pernah lama berada di urutan teratas
sebagai burung dengan jarak migrasi terpanjang.
Artic seagulls (sea-birds) have long been on the top rank as the bird
with the longest distance of migration.
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Communicative/ Dynamic/ Idiomatic
(Communicative : Newmark) (Dynamic : Nida) (Idiomatic : Larsen)
Omong-omong
By the way
Tidak bisa!
Nggak mungkinlah!
No way!
Yang benar saja
Give me a break
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Sangat baik!
Never better!
Ini hal yang sangat gampang.
It’s a piece of cake.
Awas kaca!
Glass. Don’t touch!
Fragile!
Ayo, ambil keputusan bung!
Tetapkan pilihanmu!
Make up your mind man!
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Aquos, unmistakably Japanese
Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna
Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut
I don’t think I have to mention my name right know.
My name is not important right now.
Pamannya adalah warga banteng
His uncle is the member of PDIP
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
COMPARING LITERAL TRANSLATION WITH
COMMUNICATIVE-DYNAMIC-IDIOMATIC


When do we use literal translation?
When do we use communicative or dynamic translation?
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
When literal translation is strongly suggested.
You are what you read.
Kamu adalah apa yang kamu baca.
(literal)
Apa yang kamu baca itu akan menunjukkan siapa dirimu
sebenarnya.
(communicative)
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
When communicative & dynamic translation
is strongly suggested and highly recommended
It’s a piece of cake
Ini sepotong kue
Ini hal yang sangat gampang
Awas kaca!
Beware of glass!
Glass. Don’t touch!
Dia masih kosong
She’s still empty
She has no boyfriend
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
Aquos, unmistakably Japanese
Aquos, produk Jepang yang tak bisa salah.
Aquos, produk Jepang yang sempurna
Untuk saat ini namaku tak perlu kusebut
For this time my name is not necessary to mention
I don’t think I have to mention my name right know
My name is not important right now.
Pamanya adalah anggota banteng
His uncle is the member of buffalo
His uncle is the member of PDIP
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
“It is not easy to consistently translate idiomatically. A
translator may express some parts of his translation (words,
phrases, clauses, sentences) in very natural forms (idiomatic, dynamic,
communicative), and then in other parts fall back into a literal
form”
(Larsen, 1984: 17)
(Italic letter is addition)
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
A paragraph
Sentence 1
Sentence 2
Sentence 3
Sentence 4
Sentence 5
(Sentence 1)
translated by literal translation
(sentence 3)
translated
by literal
(Sentence 2)
translated by communicative/ dyn/ idio
(Sentence 4)
translated by literal
(Sentence 5)
Translated by communicative/ dynamic/ idiomatic
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
KINDS OF TEXT
(BASED ON THE FUCNTION)
EXPRESSIVE TEXT
INFORMATIVE TEXT
VOCATIVE TEXT
KINDS OF TRANSLATION AND TEXT
EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION
Emphasizing : author centered, personal use, self-oriented,
creative, subjective, etc
Used in
: poetry, speech, novel, drama, popular
writing, etc.
Translation
: mostly dynamic & communicative translation
INFORMATIVE FUNCTION
Emphasizing : the content the text, extra-linguistic
information, etc
Used in
: news, reports, agreement, academic
writing, science and technology, etc
Translation
: literal & dynamic/ communicative
VOCATIVE FUNCTION
Emphasizing : the readership, persuade readers to act as
expected by the author/ writer, etc
Used in
: advertising, propaganda, campaign,
announcement, instruction, regulation, etc.
Translation : mostly literal
COLLOCATION
COLLOCATION
DEFINITION
Semantically arbitrary restrictions which do not follow logically from the
propositional meaning of a word
(Baker, 1992: 47)
Habitual co-occurrence of individual lexical items
(Newmark, 1988)
Kolokasi merupakan kombinasi tetap beberapa kata dimana makna
masing-masing kata pembentuknya pada dasarnya dipertahankan
(Simatupang, 1999: 57)
COLLOCATION
Example:
verb and noun
The verb “pay” collocates with noun:
“attention”
in “to pay attention”
“respect”
in “to pay respect”
“visit”
in “to pay a visit”
COLLOCATION
COMMON COLLOCATION
•
verb plus noun
•
noun plus adjective
•
noun plus noun
•
verb plus adverb
COLLOCATION
The verb “deliver” collocates with noun:

speechin “to deliver a speech”

news in “to deliver news”

blow in “to deliver a blow”

verdict

baby in “to deliver a baby”
in “to deliver a verdict”
COLLOCATION
When two words collocate, the relationship can hold between
all or several of their various forms, combined in any
grammatically acceptable order. (Baker, 1992: 47)
“achieve” and “aim”
achieving aims
aims having been achieved
achievable aims
the achievement of an aim
COLLOCATION
COLLOCATION AND TRANSLATION
Where there is an accepted collocation in the source
language, the translator must find and use its equivalent
in the target language if it exists.
COLLOCATION
verb and noun
SOURCE TEXT
TRANSLATION
BASED ON
LITERAL MEANING
TRANSLATION
BASED ON
COLLOCATION
- melakukan perjalanan
- do a trip
- make a trip
- membantu kelahiran
- assist a baby-birth
- deliver a baby
- melakukan kunjungan
- do a visit
- pay a visit
- menghasilkan uang
- generate money
- make (earn) money
- menciptakan perdamaian
- create peace
- make peace
- memandu orketra
- guide an orchestra
- conduct an orchestra
- minum obat
- drink medicine
- take medicine
- makan waktu
- eat time
- take time
- melakukan usaha
- do a effort
- make an effort
Verb plus Noun
Source Text
1. mengalami kecelakaan
2. mengejar bus
3. memberikan putusan
4. mencurahkan perhatian
5. menyampaikan pidato
6. pencipta perdamaian
7. pecahnya perang
8. meletusnya perang
9. dampak rumahkaca
10.penyakit mental
Translation based on
Literal Meaning
Translation based on
Collocation Meaning
COLLOCATION
verb plus noun
- mengalami kecelakaan
- experience an accident
- have an accident
- mengejar bus
- pursue a bus
- catch a bus
- memberikan putusan
- give a verdict
- deliver a verdict
- mencurahkan perhatian
- give attention
- pay attention
- menyampaikan pidato
- present a speech
- deliver a speech
- etc
- etc
- etc
COLLOCATION
NOUN PLUS NOUN
• pencipta perdamaian
peace-creator
peace-maker
• pecahnya perang
the break of war
the outbreak of war
• meletusnya perang
the eruption of war
the outbreak of war
• dampak rumahkaca
greenhouse impact
greenhouse-effect
• penyakit mental
mental disease
mental illness
• etc
etc
etc
COLLOCATION
NOUN AND ADJECTIVE
tinggi
tall man
high mountain
COLLOCATION
lebat
dense forest ---------- heavy/ hard rain
tebal
thick wood ---------- dense fog
cepat
quick response --- fast car --- rapid progress
COLLOCATION
rusak
broken chair
damaged item
jauh
far sight
long distance
kuat
strong motivation
powerful engine
COLLOCATION
VERB AND ADVERB
sangat
highly recommend - strongly suggest
etc
Download

Kinds-of-Translation and collocation