Review
 Classical
appeals: ethos,
pathos, logos
 Metaphors/Analogies
 Allusions
 Repetition
 Syllogism
 Anaphora
Ethos/Writer
Logos/Message
Pathos/Audience
Ethos
Logos
Pathos
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Martin Luther King, Jr., was a civil rights
leader known for non-violent protests.
He and his followers were jailed on Good
Friday in Birmingham, Alabama for breaking
the law against public demonstrations.
While he was in jail, a group of clergymen
published a letter in the newspaper
criticizing his presence and his strategies.
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King is an outsider and should not be
involved in local business.
He and his followers should negotiate for
change rather than demonstrate.
Their actions are “untimely.”
There is no justification for breaking the
law.
A chain of reasoning moving from general,
universal principles to specific instances. Parts of
a syllogism include a major premise, a minor
premise and a conclusion.
Example:
 All people are mortal. (major premise)
 Aristotle was a person. (minor premise)
 Therefore, Aristotle was mortal. (conclusion)
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What is the syllogism at work in the
argument the clergymen made that it was
wrong to King to be involved in their
community because he was an outsider.
 “Outsiders” should not be leading local protests
 King is an “outsider”
 Therefore, King should not be leading local protests
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King responded to the letter, at first on the
margins of the newspaper where the letter
appeared and then on a tablet his attorneys
got permission to give him.
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To persuade local clergymen of the
rightness of his action
To help unite the African-American
community
To reach out to the white political moderate
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Repetition of a word or phrase at the
beginning of two or more successive
clauses or sentences.
“I have a dream. . . . . I have a dream. . . I
have a dream. . . .”