pakfaizal.web.id proudly presents Introduction to Poetry Poetry is the most misunderstood form of writing. It is also arguably the purest form of writing. Poetry is a sense of the beautiful; characterized by a love of beauty and expressing this through words. Poetry is not easily defined. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure. Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience. Poetry generally has some structure that separates it from prose. Robert Frost's The Road Not Taken Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim Because it was grassy and wanted wear, Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I marked the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I, I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Eve Merriam’s metaphor Morning is a new sheet of paper for you to write on. Whatever you want to say, all day, until night folds it up and files it away. The bright words and the dark words are gone until dawn and a new day to write on. A PRAYER ALLAH, we thank Thee for the night And for the pleasant morning light For rest and food and loving care, And all that makes the world so fair. Help us to do the things we should, To be to others kind and good. In all we do, in all we say, To grow more loving everyday. ALLAH Say, Allah is ONE, Like HIM there is none. No son or daughter has HE, Nor born to any is HE. All things bright and beautiful, All creatures so, so wonderful. All things, big and small, Allah alone made them all. Elements of poetry Some important elements of poetry are: 1. Figurative language 2. Imagery 3. Rhythm 4. Rhyme and alliteration 5. Forms of poetry 6. tone Simile a comparison made between two objects of different kinds which have, however, at least one point in common (Wren & Martin, 1981:480). The words indicating simile are: like, as, so, appear, seem and more than. O my love, is like a red, red rose, That’s newly sprung in June. O my love is like the melody That’s sweetly played in tune. (Robert Burns) Emily Dickinson’s There is no frigate like a book There is no frigate like a book To take us lands away, Nor any coursers like a page Of prancing poetry: Note: frigate=kapal perang gerak cepat, courses=kuda2 pelari cepat, prancing=berjingkrak2 . Metaphor is an implied simile. It does not, like the simile, state one thing is like another or acts as another, but takes that for granted and proceeds as if two things were one (Wren & Martin 1981:489). Robert Herrick’s a meditation for his mistress (kekasih) . You are a tulip seen today But, dearest, of so short a stay(tak berumur panjang) That were you grow scarce man can say You are a lovely July-Flower, Yet one rude wind or ruffling shower(hujan gerimis yang mengganggu) Will force you hence, and in an hour. Personification is the attribution of personal nature or character to inanimate objects or abstract entities. 1. The old train crept along the narrow path 2. Flames ate the house 3. That leaves look pale, dreading (takut oleh)the winter’s near (Shakespeare) Apostrophe figure of speech in which some absent or nonexistent person or thing is addressed in a dialogue or conversation as if present and capable of understanding. John Donne’s Holy Sonnet Death, be not proud, though some have called thee (you) Mighty and dreadful, for you art(are) not so. . Hyperbola Is a statement which is made emphatic by overstatement . 1. why, man, if the River were dry, I am able to fill it with tears. 2. For a falling in love couple the attack of tsunami is just like a splash of water. 3. All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten the smell of bloods in this little hand. Paradox An apparent contradiction that is nevertheless somehow true (Perrine :1974:649) e.g.: 1.and death shall be no more: death thou shall die 2. The world’s laziest workaholic. 3.Silent scream Synecdoche Is a part is used to designate the whole. 1. He has many mouth to feed ”ia memberi makan banyak mulut” 2. A hundred wings(birds) flashed by. Symbol Something that means more than what it is (Perrine: 1974:628) Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake. The only other sound's the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. Note: *harness=pakaian kuda Basic elements of Rhythm 1. 2. 3. 4. Syllable (suku kata) Foot (pola syllable) Verse (verse) Stanza (bait) Syllable One syllable: I, go Two syllables: sym-bol, slen-der Three syllables: yes-ter-day, re-vol-ver Elements of syllable recitation: Loudness (keras-lembut suara) Duration (panjang-pendek suara) e.g: I will neeeeeeeever do it again. It soooooo awesome! It read it whoooooooooole night Timbre (kualitas suara) a.Monometer U -----Good night, U ----Fair one; U -----The day U ----Is done b. Dimeter U --U _____ Give me one word ----- U ------And no more; U ---- U ----If so be, this ------ U ------Makes you poor, c. Trimeter U --- U ----- U ---- U When I was one and twen- ty U ---U ----U ------I heard a wise man say, U ----U -----U ----- U Give crowns and pounds and gui neas U ----- U ----U -----But not your heart a- way d. Tetrameter U ---- U ---- U ------ U -----Some say the world will end in fire U ----U ---------Some say in ice U ----- U ---- ------ U ------ U ------From what I ’ve tes ted of de-sire U --U ---U --- U ---I hold with those who fa vour fire e. Pentameter U ---- U ---- U ---- U ----That time of year thou mayst in me U ----behold U --- U ---U ---- U ----- U -----When ye llow leaves , or none, or few, do hang U --- U --U ---U --- U ---Upon those boughs which shake againts the cold, U --- U --U ---- U ---U --Bare ruin - ed choirs where late the sweet birds sang The basic unit of poetry is the line. It serves the same function as the sentence in prose, although most poetry maintains the use of grammar within the structure of the poem. Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount of syllables; this is called meter. Lines are also often grouped into stanzas. The stanza in poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose. Often the lines in a stanza will have a specific rhyme scheme. Some of the more common stanzas are: Couplet: a two line stanza Triplet: a three line stanza Quatrain: a four line stanza Cinquain: a five line stanza Meter is the measured arrangement of words in poetry, the rhythmic pattern of a stanza, determined by the kind and number of lines. Meter is an organized way to arrange stressed/accented syllables and unstressed/unaccented syllables. Whose woods / these are / I think /I know Rhyme is when the endings of the words sound the same. Read the poem with me out loud. Dust of Snow by Robert Frost The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And save some part Of a day I had rued. Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming words at the end of each line. Not all poetry has a rhyme scheme. They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which words rhyme and which do not. Dust of Snow Poems of more than one stanza often repeat the same rhyme scheme in each stanza. by Robert Frost A B A B C D C D The way a crow Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And save some part Of a day I had rued. Repetition is the repeating of a sound, word, or phrase for emphasis. Inside ☺ Inside the house (I get ready) ☺ Inside the car (I go to school) ☺ Inside the school (I wait for the bell to ring) Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, and alliteration. Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usually not thought of as being alike. A simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as. The clouds looked like cotton candy. Grandpa was as stubborn as a mule Tom's head is as hard as a rock. A metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common. Clouds are cotton candy. They are fluffy. Grandpa was a mule. They are stubborn. Tom is a rock. They are hard. Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables, as in "on scrolls of silver snowy sentences" (Hart Crane). Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal. To find an alliteration, you must look the repetitions of the same consonant sound through out a line. Silvery _ _ snowflakes fall _silently _ Softly _ sheathing all with moonlight Until _ sunrise _ slowly _ shows _ Snow _ softening _swiftly. Now you try the one in your packet. Imagery is an appeal to the senses. The poet describes something to help you to see, hear, touch, taste, or smell the topic of the poem. Fog The fog comes on little cat feet. SEE, HEAR It sits looking over harbor and city SEE on silent haunches and then moves HEAR, SEE, on. FEEL Carl Sandburg Now do the poem in your packet. An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect is a hyperbole. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point. I’ve told you a million times not to leave the dirty glass on the table. The exaggeration in the number of times. In your packets, write two more hyperbole. Have your partner check them. An idiom is a phrase where the words together have a meaning that is different from the dictionary definitions of the individual words. This can make idioms hard for students to understand. A day late and a dollar short. This idiom means it is too little, too late. Write two more examples of idioms to share with the class. The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to is called an alliteration. It is a word or a grouping of words that imitates the sound it is describing, such as animal noises like "oink" or "meow", or suggesting its source object (these are the more important ones), such as "boom", "click", "bunk", "clang", "buzz", or "bang". SOUND OF NATURE by Marie Josephine Smith Ticking, tucking. Head is rocking. Tippy toeing. Quietly. Snap, crack. Crushing branch. Helter, shelter. Run for shelter. Pitter, patter. Rain starts to fall. Gathering momentum. Becomes a roar. Thunder booms. A figure of speech, which gives the qualities of a person to an animal, an object, or an idea is called personification. It is a comparison, which the author uses to show something in an entirely new light, to communicate a certain feeling or attitude towards it and to control the way a reader perceives it. A brave handsome tree fell with a creaking rending cry. The author is giving a tree the human quality of bravery and the ability ot cry. Free verse is just what it says it is - poetry that is written without proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter. In free verse the writer makes his/her own rules. The writer decides how the poem should look, feel, and sound. Winter Poem By Nikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower The simplicity of the limerick quite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists of five lines with the rhyme scheme a a b b a. The first, second, and fifth lines are trimeter, a verse with three measures, while the third and fourth lines are dimeter, a verse with two measures. Often the third and fourth lines are printed as a single line with internal rhyme. Old Man with a Beard Edward Lear There was an Old Man with a beard, Who said, 'It is just as I feared! Two Owls and a Hen, Four Larks and a Wren, Have all built their nests in my beard!' A A B B A A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain. The Ballade Of The Mistletoe Bough by Ellis Parker Butler I am standing under the mistletoe, And I smile, but no answering smile replies For her haughty glance bids me plainly know That not for me is the thing I prize; Instead, from her coldly scornful eyes, Indifference looks on my barefaced guile; She knows, of course, what my act implies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? I stand here, eager, and beam and glow, And she only looks a refined surprise As clear and crisp and as cold as snow, And as—Stop! I will never criticize! I know what her cold glance signifies; But I’ll stand just here as I am awhile Till a smile to my pleading look replies— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? Just look at those lips, now! I claim they show A spirit unmeet under Christmas skies; I claim that such lips on such maidens owe A—something—the custom justifies; I claim that the mistletoe rule applies To her as well as the rank and file; We should meet these things in a cheerful guise— But look at those lips! Do they hint a smile? Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.