Poetry and Figurative Language Monday Stanza, Repetition, & Rhyme Scheme Stanza • A stanza is a group of lines which form a division of a poem • Stanzas are usually set off from one another by a space • Stanzas are two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem • The stanzas of a poem are usually the same length and follow the same pattern of meter and rhyme The Dragon of Grindly Grun I’m the dragon of Grindly Grun, I breathe fire as hot as the sun. When a knight comes to fight I just toast him on sight, Like a hot crispy cinnamon bun. When I see a fair damsel go by, I just sigh a fiery sigh, And she’s baked like a ‘tater— I think of her later With a romantic tear in my eye. I’m the Dragon of Grindly Grun, But my lunches aren’t much fun, For I like my damsels medium rare, And they always come our well done. Repetition • Repetition occurs when sounds, words, phrases, sentences, etc. are used more than once in a piece of writing like poetry • When a writer wants to be sure the reader understands what he or she intended to say, repetition is often used • …Let’s look at an example: Rock ‘N’Roll Band If we were a rock ‘n’ roll band, We’d travel all over the land. We’d play and we’d sing and wear spangly things, If we were a rock ‘n’ roll band. If we were a rock ‘n’ roll band, And we were up there on the stand, The people would hear us and love us and cheer us, Hurray for that rock ‘n’ roll band. If we were a rock ‘n’ roll band, Then we’d have a million fans. We’d giggle and laugh and sign autographs, If we were a rock ‘n’ roll band. Rhyme Scheme • The rhyme scheme of a poem describes th pattern of rhyming words • The last word of the first line receives the letter “a” • The last word of the second line receives the letter “a” if it rhymes with the first line • If the last word of the second line does not rhyme with the first line, it receives the letter “b” • The next new rhyme receives a “c” Backward Bill Backward Bill, Backward Bill, A He lives way up on Backward Hill, Which is really a hole in the sandy ground (But that’s a hill turned upside down). A B B Backward Bill’s got a backward shack With a big front porch that’s built out back. You walk through a window and look out the door And the cellar is up on the very top floor. C C D D Backward Bill he rides like the wind Don’t know where he’s going but sees where he’s been. His spurs they go “neigh” and his horse it goes “clang” And his six-gun goes “gnab,” it never goes “bang.” E E F F Let’s look at one more… To Be Said of Ed There once was a man named Ed Who had brain cells galore in his head And though he was older He became even bolder About saying what had to be said A A B B A Stanza, Repetition, Rhyme Scheme • Prior Knowledge: Can you identify stanza, repetition, and rhyme scheme in a poem? In your learning clubs, you will: 1. count and label stanzas 2. find and label examples of repetition 3. identify and label the rhyme scheme Tuesday Poetry and Figurative Language Simile • A simile is a type of figurative language which involves comparing two unlike things • A simile usually used the words “like” or “as.” ***Remember, figurative language is used by the author to help the reader visualize what is happening in the poem or story. Let’s look at some examples of simile… *His feet were as big as boats. We are comparing his feet to boats. *The cricket’s chirp was as soothing as a lullaby. We are comparing the chirp to a lullaby. *The burnt toast was black like charcoal. Toast is being compared to charcoal Simile example by a student… BUTTERFLIES by CLAIR Butterflies are as light as feathers They are like paper bags floating in the air And are as beautiful as dancing spirits I think they are as small as stars in the sky. Sometimes they are as blue as tear drops I bet they love flowers swaying in the breeze Butterflies are so cool! One more example… Flint An emerald is as green as grass, A ruby red as blood; A sapphire shines as blue as heaven; A flint lies in the mud. A diamond is a brilliant stone, To catch the world's desire; An opal holds a fiery spark; But a flint holds a fire. • Christina Rossetti 1830-1894 Simile • Prior Knowledge: – Can you identify the ideas compared using simile? **You will be given a beginning of a simile and will work with a partner to complete the simile. Be ready to share! Wednesday • Poetry and Figurative Language Metaphor A metaphor is a figurative language tool used to make a comparison between two things that wouldn’t normally be connected. A metaphors are similar to similes, but they DO NOT use the words like or as. Try to see the visual picture the author is creating in the examples… What is being compared? • The tornado was a raging bull, crushing everything in its path. • The stars were sky jewels twinkling overhead in the night sky. • I was grounded for a week and my bedroom was a prison of despair. Poems with Metaphors: A Book Is A book is an open flower scented pages, fragrant hours I AM A SWORD I am a sword, Sharper than a tongue Nobody can defeat me, Because I am a sword, I can not be hurt by what people say About me, I will not show my anger Against Someone else. • By Alex a crafty fox surprising in its clever plots a fairy's wings with princesses, enchanted kings a windowsill where breezy thoughts are never still an hour glass whose pages flow as hours pass a lock and key that opens doors and sets minds free an ancient clock that speaks the times but never talks an open letter when read again the friendship's better an apple core with seeds inside for growing more a trusted friend that keeps its secret to the end Metaphors • Prior knowledge: – What is the difference between a simile and a metaphor? Guided Practice: You will be given examples of metaphors. You and a partner will write your own comparisons using metaphors. Thursday Poetry and Figurative Language Personification • Personification is a form of figurative language that gives an inanimate object (an idea, object, or animal) human qualities. Examples 1. The large rock refused to budge. The word refused describes what a person might do. 2. The warm breeze wrapped its arms around me. A person would wrap their arms around another person. Ladybug, Ladybug Ladybug, Ladybug Stay right here. Don’t fly home, You have nothing to fear. Your children are sleeping. Your husband is shopping. Your father is sweeping. Your mother is mopping. Your grandma is strumming. Your grandpa is clapping. Your auntie is humming. Your uncle is napping. Your brother is riding. Your sister is cooking. Your niece is hiding. Your nephew is looking. Ladybug, Ladybug Stay right here. Don’t fly home, You have nothing to fear. ~John Himmelman Personification • Prior knowledge: What human characteristics are given to an object, animal, or idea? Guided practice: You and a partner will assign a human characteristic to a non-human item and write an example of personification.