Chapter 18 Section 2
The Cold War Heats Up
Civil War in China
• During WWII- A
Japanese invasion
interrupted a long
Chinese Civil War
• Communists vs.
Nationalists
• Communist leaderMao Zedong
• Nationalist leaderChiang Kai-shek
Civil War in China
• US begins aiding
Nationalists during
WWII
Civil War in China
• US military officials
didn’t like Chiang
• Found his govmt
dictatorial, inefficient,
and hopelessly
corrupt
• Policies of Chiang
undermined the
Nationalists
Civil War in China
• collected a grain tax
from farmers during a
famine
• Secret police fired
against protesters
protesting against a
10,000% increase in
the price of rice
Civil War in China
• Communists skillful in
winning support of the
peasants
• Communists would
redistribute land to
peasants and reduce
rents
Fighting Breaks Out
• As soon as Japanese
left China-civil war
resumed
• Americans favored
the nationalists
because they
opposed communists
• 1944 to 47 US tried to
make peacemaker
between 2 groupswhile still supporting
nationalists
Fighting Breaks Out
• Truman refused to
commit American
soldiers
• US sent $2 billion
worth of military
equipment and
supplies
Fighting Breaks Out
• Nationalist problems:
– Weak military
leadership
– Corrupt
– Abusive practices
drove peasants to the
communists
Fighting Breaks Out
• May 1949- Chiang
and the remnants of
his govmt and army
fled to Taiwan
– An island east of
mainland China
America Reacts to Communist
Takeover
• American public
stunned
• Containment failed
• Congress attack
Truman for not
supplying enough aid
to Chiang
• Shouldn’t
containment be
important in Asia as
well as Europe?
America Reacts to Communist
Takeover
• State Department
said the only way to
help the Nationalists
was to go to war
• A war the US wasn’t
prepared to fight
– Most people accepted
this reasoning
– Some rejected it as
lame excuses
America Reacts to Communist
Takeover
• Many claimed the US
“lost” China
• Said American govmt
was riddled with
Communist agents
• American fear of
Communism grew
Koreans go to War
• Japan ruled Korea
until 1945
• Japanese north of
38th parallel
surrendered to
Russians
• South of 38th parallel
surrendered to the US
Koreans go to War
• 38th parallel not
intended as a
permanent boundary
• 2 different nations
emerged-one
communist, one not
• South Korea
becomes Republic of
Korea-headed by
Syngman Rhee
Koreans go to War
• North becomes
Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea
• Headed by Kim Il
Sung
• By 1949- US and
Soviets had left Korea
• Each govmt claimed
sole right to rule all
Korea
North Korea Attacks South Korea
• June 25, 1950 North
invades South-Begins
Korean War
• Americans alarmed
that another Asian
nation may fall to
communism
• Truman decides to
take military action
North Korea Attacks South Korea
• June 27, 1950-UN
pledges to help South
Korea
• 16 nations with 520,000
troops assist South Korea
– Under command of
Douglas MacArthur
US Fights in Korea
• NK unstoppable at 1st
• After 1 month- UN
troops forced to small
defensive zone
around Pusan
MacArthur’s Counterattack
• MacArthur launches
counterattack
• Sept 15, 1950 UN
troops land at Inchon
• Other troops move
north from Pusan
• North Koreans
trapped in the middle
MacArthur’s Counterattack
• Many NK troops
surrendered
• Many fled back
behind 38th parallel
• 10/7/1950- UN
recommends
MacArthur cross 38th
parallel and reunite
Korea
MacArthur’s Counterattack
• China warned that
they would not stand
by and let the
Americans come to
the border-the Yalu
River
• MacArthur dismisses
Chinese threat
The Chinese Fight Back
• 11/25/1950- 300,000
Chinese move into
NK
• By Christmas,
Chinese force UN
forces 100 miles
south of 38th parallel
• 2 more years neither
side able to make an
advance
MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
• Calls for extension of
war into China-to end
the stalemate
• Blockade Chinese
coast
• Use atomic bombs on
China
• Use Chiang Kai
Shek’s troops to
invade southern
China
MacArthur Recommends Attacking
China
• Truman rejects
MacArthur’s request
• Didn’t want US
involved in a massive
land war in Asia
• Soviets had a mutual
assistance pact with
the Chinese
– Could set off WWIII
MacArthur Recommends Attacking
China
• Instead of attacking
China – UN forces
advance against
Korean forces
• Retake Seoul
• Moved back up to the
38th parallel
Settling for a Stalemate
• Soviets suggest a cease-fire on June 23,
1951
• Truce talks began in July 1951
Settling for a Stalemate
• By following Spring,
opposing sides
agreed on 2 points:
• 1. Location of the
ceasefire line at the
existing battle line
• 2. Establish a
demilitarized zone
between the opposing
sides
Settling for a Stalemate
• July 1953- two sides
sign an armistice
ending the war
• Basically ended in a
stalemate
American Victory?
• Communism
contained without a
world war
• No use of atomic
weapons
– Although the threat of
using them helped
break a negotiation
deadlock
Communist Victory?
• North
Korea still
communist
• Still 2
Koreas
rather than
1
Effects of Korean War
• 54,000 Americans killed
• Cost between $20 and
$22 billion
• High cost of war led to
rejection of Democratic
party in 1952
– Election of Dwight D.
Eisenhower as President
– Increased fear of
communist aggression
– Prompted a hunt for spies
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Chapter 18 Section 2