CAN
capacity
poder
informal permission
PRESENT
Chelsea can solve that problem. (capacity)
No man! She cannot (can’t) solve it. (capacity)
Can you tell me why? (capacity)
Can I turn on the TV? (informal permission)
Of course, you can . (informal permission)
COULD
podia
capacity in the past
PAST
When I was younger I could stay up all night and not
get tired.
Last week Windows could not (couldn’t) start because a
configuration problem.
Could he have done a better job yesterday ?
BE ABLE TO
can
be able to
poder
ser capaz
PRESENT - PAST - FUTURE
PAST
PRESENT
You could do that.
You can do that.
You are able to do that.
You were able to do that.
FUTURE
You will be able to do that.
MAY
possibility
poder
formal permission
FUTURE
The explosion may have been caused by a malfunction. (possibility)
We'd better not interfere - she may not like it. (possibility)
May it cause a problem ? (possibility)
- May I come in?
- Yes, you may ! Please! Step inside! (formal permission)
MIGHT
possibility
possibility in the past
poderia
uncertain possibility
hypothetical possibility
FUTURE - PAST
Don't go any closer – it might/may be dangerous. (possibility)
Might he have come if you asked ? (possibility in the past)
I thought he might be hungry or maybe not. (uncertain possibility)
If you were older you might understand. (hypothetical possibility)
MUST
obligation
dever
strong necessity
deduction
PRESENT - FUTURE
You must help them. They're relatives of yours! (obligation)
Joan must pay attention to the class. (necessity)
John's been driving all day - he must be tired. (deduction)
MUST NOT
prohibition
dever (negative)
demand
PRESENT - FUTURE
You must not smoke. (prohibition)
You must not talk inside here. (prohibition)
You mustn’t behave that way. It’s against the rules dude! (demand)
You mustn't leave any stuff here.
There are rules folks! Obey them! (demand)
HAVE TO
must = have to
necessity
PRESENT– PAST- FUTURE
You must focus in the text. = You have to focus in the text.
You had to focus in the text. (past)
You will have to focus in the text. (future)
PRESENT - PAST - FUTURE
SHOULD
OUGHT TO
should = ought to
advice
PRESENT - FUTURE
They should stop doing that.
No man! They should not (shouldn’t) stop the thing.
Why? Should they try anything else ?
Ben ought to rethink everything.
I don’t think so! In my opinion Ben ought not to
rethink anything.
What? Ought he to repeat all the process?
Complete with the correct form of "can" and "may“ .
1.She ________speak
four languages. (capacity)
can
2.______I
May come in, Mr. president? (formal permission)
3._______
Can I press that key, teacher? (informal permission)
4.It_______happen
to everyone. (possibility)
may
5.He________be
telling the truth. (possibility)
may
6.He _______be
telling lies, too. (possibility)
may
7. _______you
read that sign from this distance? (capacity)
Can
8.The students_______do
it without your help Peter. (capacity)
can
9.____I
Can use your computer, please ? (informal permission)
10.You_______try
once more. (possibility)
may
Complete the sentences using the correct form of
have to.
1.We must call someone to help.
We________call
someone to help. (past)
had to
2.They must wait here for a while.
They ___________wait
here for a while. (future)
will have to
3.She must make a decision as soon as possible.
She___________make
a decision as soon as possible. (future)
will have to
4.You must follow the rules, man.
You _________follow
the rules, man. (present)
have to
5.He must send that e-mail message now.
He_________send
that e-mail message now. (present)
has to
6.We must handle this situation immediately.
We____________handle
this situation immediately. (future)
will have to
7.They must call the police. They are at risk!
They ________call
the police. They were at risk! (past)
had to
8.He must hurry otherwise he will be caught!
has to
He ________hurry
otherwise he will be caught! (present)
Fill the blanks using "should" or "ought" according
to the sentence.
1.You _______talk
to the dentist.
should
2._________they
to repair that machine?
Ought
3.He ________to
take those pills.
ought
should
4. Every American________know
that, forty years ago, it was against
the law in many states for a black person to sit in the front of a bus.
5.The counselor________have
helped that poor guy.
should
6.They__________to
do their best in order to win the prize.
ought
7.You________
ought to be kinder to him.
ought to be very, very low.
8. Keep in mind that this price _______
(FMU) - You__________play tennis better some
years ago.
a) can
b) had
c) ought
d) could
e) might
Test 1
(FMU) - They___________do this tomorrow.
a) is able to
b) can to
c) will be able to
d) would be able
e) could to
Test 2
(Makenzie) - In the sentence, "You may be wrong, but you
may be right." MAY means:
a) possibility
b) permission
c) ability
d) deduction
e) obligation
Test 3
(FECAP) - “I don’t know what these words mean. I
should have brought my dictionary”. “should” can be
replaced (substituído) by____
a) may
b) must
c) could
d) ought to
e) would
Test 4
(Unesp) - Indique a sentença que expressa um conselho.
a) When depressed, teens always ask for adult guidance.
b) Teens see more of what life has to offer and then they become
depressed.
c) Adolescents who never make new friends become depressed.
d) Adolescents don't try to make new friends when they feel depressed.
e) When teens become depressed, they should try to ask
an adult for help.
Test 5
(Unesp) - Assinale a alternativa correta:
Doctors and dentists should always ______ with their training.
a) continued
b) continue
c) continuing
d) will continued
e) have continue
Test 6
(Unirio) - Assinale a alternativa correta:
I'm sorry the train was late and I .......... arrive earlier
a) couldn't
b) ought not
c) don't
d) mustn't
e) wouldn't
Test 7
(Mackenzie) - Indicate the alternative that best
completes the following sentence.
"Look how wet the ground is! It _________ last night.
a) might be sunny
b) must have rained
c) should have been warm
d) may be snowing
e) ought to dry
Test 8
(Unesp) - Universities abroad may ________ a more recent result
when the IELTS was taken a long time ago.
a) requires
b) require
c) to require
d) requiring
e) required
Test 9
(PucCamp) - Assinale a letra correspondente à alternativa que preenche corretamente as
lacunas da frase apresentada.
Janet: Look, our boat is sinking!
Peter: Oh, dear! Can you swim?
Janet: Yes, but we won't have to, there's a life boat on board.
In the above dialogue, the verbs "CAN" and "HAVE TO" express respectively ....... and
........ .
a) ability - obligation
b) permission - prohibition
c) possibility - prohibition
d) permission - possibility
e) ability - necessity
Test 10