青岛滨海学院精品课程
英语精品课程
孙敏副教授
英语精品课程
第一章 翻译的性质,标准及要求
第二章 翻译的过程
第三章 英汉语言对比分析
第四章 英汉文化对比分析
第五章 辨证施治
第六章 重在交际
第七章 慎与修辞
第八章力戒“翻译体”
第二章 翻译的过程
• 2.1
• 2.2
• 2.3
正确理解
如何实现正确理解
充分表达
目录
2.1.1
正确理解
• Part One 理论
• 一.正确理解:即正确把握原文的思想内容、感情和风格
等的过程。
• 方法:
• (1)从整体到局部
• (2)从局部到整体
• 即先进行宏观分析,再进行微观研究,微观和宏观相结合。
试译下述句子:
• I had not known him for 20 years without learning that he
always kept in the upper left pocket of his waistcoat the
little book in which he put down his engagements
目录
2.1.1
正确理解
二.正确理解过程:
• 分析句子的结构框架弄清各部分之间的语法关系;
•
此句由一个主句 “I had not known him for 20 years ”
和 两个分句 “that he always kept in the upper left
pocket of his waistcoat the little book”和 “in which he
put down his engagements”组成。
• (2) 分析各部分在整个框架中的语义关系;
• 第一个分句是“learning”的宾语从句,第二个分句是定语
从句,修饰限定 “book”。
• (3) 根据汉语表达习惯将全文译出:
• 我认识他已20年之久,知道他马甲左上方的那个口袋里,
总是放着一个小本本,里面写着他的约会安排。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
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实践 1
实践 2
实践 3
实践 4
实践 5
实践 6
实践 8
实践 9
实践 10
实践 11
实践 12
实践 13
实践 14
实践 15
实践 16
实践 17
实践 18
实践 19
实践 20
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
• 1、After repeated failures and
disappointments he was tempted to throw
up the sponge, but continued
perseverance finally brought success.
• 多次的失败和失望险些让他自暴自弃,但
是坚持不懈的努力最终给他带来了成功。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
• 2、The passenger declared that he had
lost his ticket, but the inspector suspected
that he was trying it on, and that actually
he had not paid for fare.
• 这位乘客声称丢失火车票,检票员怀疑他
实际上没有买票,而想蒙混过关。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
•
3.The discussion as to whether or not the
defaulting company was liable to pay
damages turned upon the meaning of a
word in the contract.
关于该违约公司是否赔偿顺势的讨论,取
决于合同中一个词的含义。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
•
4、If he refuses to take my advice on
this occasion, as he has done so often
before, I shall wash my hands of the
affair, and he can fend for himself.
如果他此时像往常那样拒不接受我的建议,
我将不再插手此事,他可自行处理。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
5、There are a few creases in the jacket,
where it has been folded up in a suitcase,
but they will wear out.
•
由于在箱子里折迭存放,夹克衫留下了几
道折痕,但是这些折痕会消失的。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
6、A reward of £5 will be paid to anyone
who shall give information leading to the
apprehension of the thief.
•
凡提供缉拿小偷的线索者,均可获赏金5
英镑。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
7、There are still those who are proud of
their old school tie; band who shall say
that their pride is not justified?
•
有些人为老校友的情谊而自豪;谁能说他
们的这种自豪感不在情理之中呢?
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
8、Thing always went smoothly in the
office because the three or four clerks
that were employed worked in with one
another.
•
办公室里的工作有条不紊,因为三四个雇
员配合得很默契。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
9、Details of the train alterations were
written up inside the main entrance to the
station.
•
列车时刻的变动情况贴在火车站的入口处。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
10、I used to see him quite frequently,
but since he became wrapped up in
business, I have lost touch with him.
•
以前我常常见到他,可自从他经商后,我
们便失去了联系。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
•
11、I know it is late to be asking you to reserve places
for my three children in your fall class but I trust that in
considering this request you will not overlook the
outstanding achievements of my two sons during their
earlier time with you, and I can assure you that my
daughter is in every way their equal.
我知道,请你在你的秋季开学的班里为我的三个孩子保
留位子,为时已晚。但是,我相信你在考虑我的这个请
求时,不会忽视这个事实,以前我的两个儿子在你身边
时成绩出众;我还可以想你保证,我的女儿与我的儿子
相比,在哪个方面也不逊色。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
12、I will be here for another two weeks
and would appreciate a confirming letter
from you before my departure.
•
我还将在此停留两周,离开之前如能受到
你的确认书,我将不胜感激。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
13、I still treasure your sketch of the fat
German tourists staring with such visible
lack of appreciation at the Mona Lisa.
•
至今我仍珍藏着你那几张素描:几个肥胖
的德国游客,两眼直直地盯着蒙娜丽莎画
像,显然缺乏欣赏力。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
14、Our visit did more to illustrate to
Eleanor what marriage to an Italia is like
than anything I could have told her.
•
我们此行让埃莉诺见识了意大利人会是种
什么情形,这比说什么都管用。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
•
15、The strenuous sightseeing of the
previous weeks left me exhausted and
unable to ignore any longer the recurring
back pains that are the inevitable toll of
cobblestone streets.
前几个星期的观光游览弄得我上奔波的结
果。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
•
16、How I look forward to sitting across
from you at supper again, listening to you
describe your new profit-sharing plan.
我多么希望再次坐在你的对面,一面吃晚
餐,一面聆听你讲述你的分享利润辛计划
呀。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
17、I don’t know how carefully you read The
New York Times but surely you have noticed
that the society section, in cases where both
families are equally prominent, often uses a
picture of bride and groom leaving the church
in place of the usual bridal portrait.
•
我不知道你读《纽约时报》的细心程度,但有
一点可以肯定,你一定注意到社交栏目不再像
往日那样刊登新郎和新娘离开教堂的照片。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
18.Caution is an admirable quality for a man in
your position but, based on what I have seen
of your character and your ability in the past
year, I would say your future in this community
is assured.
•
谨慎是处于你这种地位的人的可敬品格,但是
根据过去一年我对你的性格和能力的观察,不
妨说你在这个社区的未来是有保障的。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
19、As we stood waving until your train
disappeared in the direction of New Orleans,
Sam suddenly took me in his arms and
announced we were leaving on a honey-moon
of our own at the end of the week.
•
我们站在月台上,挥动着双手,目送你们乘车
消失在奔向新奥尔良的远方。这时,萨姆突然
把我搂在怀里,说我们将在周末去度蜜月。
目录
实践
Part Two 翻译实践练习 2.1.1
•
20、Forgive me for conferring the title of
grandfather on a man who earned it only
through marriage , but, never having had a
child to call him father, Tom is doubly grateful
for the role of grandfather.
•
原谅我把祖父的头衔加在一个只有通过婚姻关
系才能获得的男子头上,但是汤姆会对没有儿
子喊他父亲就当上祖父表示倍加感激。
目录
实践
2.2.2 如何实现正确理解
• Part One 理论
• 实现正确理解的方法:进行语言分析,包
括语义分析,语境分析和语用分析。
• 1. 语义分析(Semantic Analysis):说明处在
一定语境中、按照一定次序排列的词项之
间的关系,探索语项的意义。尽量把握源
出语的全部意义,是翻译成败的关键。
目录
2.2.2 如何实现正确理解
• 首先,必须注意词的概念意义(即词的本意)和
关联意义(即词的转意) 例如:
• (1)Seat oneself in a wooden chair 坐在木椅
里 (本意)
• (2)accept a university chair
同意在大学里
执教 (转意)
• (3)chair the board meeting
主持董事会
(转意)
• (4)condemned to the chair
被处电刑 (转
意)
目录
2.2.2 如何实现正确理解
•
5.There are a few creases in the jacket,
where it has been folded up in a suitcase,
but they will wear out.
•
由于在箱子里折迭存放,夹克衫留下了几
道折痕,但是这些折痕会消失的。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 2. 把握意义关系(Sense Relation),特别注意同
义与反义、褒义与贬义、多义与歧义等关系。如:
第一组 (一词多义)
• a. I’ll be back in a couple of days 我几天后回来。
• b. It was said that they would back the plain. 据
说他们会支持这个计划。
• c. It’s the last straw that breaks the camel’s back.
最后添加的一根稻草压断了骆驼的脊梁。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 第二组 (褒义与贬义)
• Hans was too obviously flattering the gentleman
by saying he was the most courageous man he
had ever seen. 汉斯对那位先生说他是他所见的
最勇敢的人。他明显是阿谀奉承。(贬义)
• Mr. Brown felt greatly flattered when he received
the invitation to deliver a lecture.
• 布朗先生收到邀请他作演讲的邀请函感到受宠若
惊。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 3. 了解文化特性、历史演变、社会发展和技术进
步的影响。例如:
• a. “Greek and Latin are all English to me,” said
Oscar Wilde.
• “希腊语和拉丁语对我来说都很容易,” 奥斯卡·王尔
德说。
• 王尔德是英国著名剧作家。他反用习语It is Greek
to me (这对我太困难),将希腊语和拉丁语比作自
己的母语(英语),言下之意是“不难”。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
There are cattle in the fields, but we sit
down to beef.
在地里放牧的是牛,我们在餐桌上吃的是
牛肉。
在汉语中,动物肉一般由动物名+“肉”字
构成,如牛肉、羊肉、猪肉等,但相应的
英语却是beef, mutton, pork等。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
It is a white lie.
这不是恶意的撒谎/这是善意的撒谎。(这是白
色的谎言。)
lie 原意为怀有恶意的谎言,但后来获得了一种
没有恶意的新解释,为了区分二者,人们称前
者为black lie,后者为white lie.
Stabilization(稳定法), neutralization (中和作
用),chain reaction(连锁反应) 等词语的用法都
是技术进步的结果。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
4. 了解语言的随意性和约定俗成性。例如:
a. milk the cow 挤牛奶
b. milk the bull 徒劳之举
c. out of question 不成问题
d. out of the question 不可能
e. people-to people diplomacy 民间外交
win-win talks 双赢会谈
e-commerce 电子商务
e-government 电子政务
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 5. 注意词语的搭配关系,逻辑关系和上下文关系。例如:
• a. He wrote his 12th novel at the ripe age of 85.
•
他85岁高龄时完成了12部小说。
•
其中ripe 不作mature 或full grown 解,而是advanced in
years 之意。
• b. –-“Well, old boy, ” said the visitor, “ it’s nice to see
you up and about.”
• --- “Up, yes, “ the patient said, “but about, no—at least
mot much.”
• ――“喂,老兄,”探视者说。“见到你起来走动走动,
真高兴。”
• ――“是能下床了,”病人说,“若说走动,还不行
―――至少还不太行。”
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 二、语境分析 (Analysis of Context of Situation)
• 在翻译中我们从词典中寻找词语的对等意思,但
词典给我们的常常是其基本义,或对号入座的释
义,无法直接用在译文中,应该根据语境来确定
这句话或词语怎么说。
•
所谓语境分析,一是指分析语言内部的上下文
关系(通过语言环境分析),二是分析话语与经
验世界的关系(通过非语言环境分析)。
目录
2.2.2
•
如何实现正确理解
上下文分析
– 分析一词与周围的关系 如:
•
•
•
a. Today a politician without elbows is as
lost as a politician without principles.
Elbows意为“勇气(macho),指总统候
选人应有的品格
译文:如今一个没有勇气的政治家就像一
个没有原则的政治家一样无所作为。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• b. This campaign shows that Mondale, far from
being a patsy(懦夫), is a politician with elbows.
• 译文:这次竞选表明蒙代尔不是一个懦夫,而是
一个勇气十足的政治家。
• c. He is always politically incorrect.
• 他总是讲话不合时宜。
• 这是美国英语特有的表达法,只能丛社会、文化
大环境中理解词义。
目录
2.2.2
–
•
•
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
确认一短语是否是一个语义整体。
例如,下述话语中的a good table 就有其独立的含义,
它受上下文的制约;倘若不假思索地译为“一张质地优
良的桌子“,势必令人捧腹大笑。
――“I don’t know what you do with your brass,” said
Mr. Scurridge.
―― “ I spend it on you,” she said, “Always a good
table, you must have. Never anything short.
――“不知你掖着臭钱干什么用,” 史力卡先生说。
――“供你吃喝呀!”她回答道。“你总是一定要吃好喝
好,缺一点也不行。”
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 练习:
• a. The face is the index of the mind. 心中有事,
必形于色。
• b. Far from eye, far from heart. 别久情疏。
• c. Mr. Lear is trying to oil the judge’s palm. 李尔
王想贿赂法官。
• d. He has stolen a match on me. 我让他占了先。
• e. Today in the New York Stock Exchange, all
the brokers are tailed up.
• 在今天的纽约证券交易所大厅里,经纪人无不神
采飞扬,兴致勃勃。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 2. 非语境关系:指话语及其组成部分与文化和自然环境有
关方面的各种关系,以及人类社会中人们之间的相互关系;
也就是语言与经验世界的关系。
• (1)研究话语发生时的整个情况。例如:
• It It’s freezing cold here.
• 此 这句话可能有下列几种意思:
– 作为直接话语,仅仅提供信息,向在场的听话者说明
那里太冷;
– 作为简介言语行动,表示请求、希望听者打开暖气或
给炉子加点煤
– 作为反语,抱怨说话的地方太热。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• (2)注意肢体语言的作用。
• 眼神、手势、点头、摇头等都有传情达意的作用。例如:
• “You think we might” –he glanced at the hut-“have
been like this—you and I?”
• She shook her head.
• “你觉得我们――你和我,‘他扫了一眼那间小屋,“或
许像这样?”她摇了摇头。
• 文中的 “他”和“她”原来是一对情人,但后来她嫁给
了小屋的主人。“他”扫一眼小屋给“像这样”作了解释,
“她”摇头说明了她的不同意见。
目录
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 三、语用分析(Pragmatic Analysis)
• 所谓语用分析,是通过语用学的思考,对
语言的交际意义进行综合分析的方法之一,
旨在了解和确定讲话人与所讲话语之间的
关系,或者说在把握语言符号与使用语言
符号的人的关系。这种关系常常表现为简
化人的感情、态度、情绪、意念等。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
1、把讲话人当作言语行动的参与者
讲话人不仅传达信息,而且还表达一定的
态度,赞成或反对,请求或命令,威胁或
劝诱,褒扬或贬抑,推荐或命令,等等,
其中,有的成分见诸字面有的则埋藏于字
里行间。
阅读第19页上的例句,分析其感情色彩。
(略)
目录
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
2、充分考虑语用理据(Pragmatic
Motivation)
要对语言变式金雄分析和研究,以便在译
语中寻找对等物。如:
- Mr. Smith laid off Miss Black. (一般过去时)
•
•
史密斯先生把布莱克小姐给解雇了。
这是一个基本句,主要回答Who laid off
Whom?的问题。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
•
•
如何实现正确理解
2.Mr. Smith has laid off Miss Black.(现在完成时)
主要回答 What foolish thing has Mr. Smith done to
Miss Black? 的问题。
3、Miss Black was laid off by Mr. Smith.
布莱克小姐被史密斯先生解雇了。
主要回答 What happened to Miss Black? 的问题。
4、It is Mr. Smith who laid off Miss Black.
是史密斯先生解雇了布莱克小姐。
主要回答 Who is it that laid off Miss Black? 的问题。
目录
2.2.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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如何实现正确理解
弄清讲话人的意图,进而决定表达方式。
–
确认but, even, and 等词的语用意义。 如:
Harry is a professor, but can’t spell.
哈利是教授,奇怪的是他不会拼写。
其中but表示惊奇,甚至遗憾。
Even Max tried on the pants.
甚至马克思也试穿了这条裤子。
其中even包含着also和too的意义,但后两者并无前者的言外之意
――出乎意料感。
And outtalked to him this way after all he’d done for you.
他不也是为了你吗?你怎么竟然这样跟人家讲话呢?
这里的and表示惊讶、不满或气愤。
注意something, anything, nothing 的特殊意义
目录
2.2.2
–
•
•
•
3、确定某些定语从句的状语化作用。如:
They tried to stamp out the fire, which spread
all the more furiously throughout the block.
他们试图扑灭大火,结果火势愈来愈猛,烧遍
了整个街区。(译成结果状语)
–
•
如何实现正确理解
4、对某些状语从句采用变通译法。如:
It will be a couple of years before we meet
again.
两年后我们会再见面的。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
实践 1
实践 2
实践 3
实践 4
实践 5
实践 6
实践 7
实践 8
如何实现正确理解
实践 9
实践 10
实践 11
实践 12
实践 13
实践 14
实践 15
实践 16
实践 17
实践 18
实践 19
实践 20
实践 21
实践 22
实践 23
实践 24
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• Part Two 翻译实践练习
• 1、She told me she and Henry made a
vow in September when they parted---to
renounce the limited early love and
consecrate their lives to art.
• 她告诉我,9月份她与亨利分手时就发誓结
束这场有限的尘缘,而将自己的一生奉献
给艺术。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
2、They had corresponded faithfully all year,
each encouraging the other’s single-minded
pursuit of his chosen art form, but it came as
quite a shock to Eleanor, who has studied
sculpture with the devotion of a man who
shares his flat.
一年之中他们之间书信来往从未间断,相互勉
励对方一心一意地追求自己选择的艺术形式。
但是,令埃莉诺感到十分震惊的是,正当她像
修女一样潜心研究雕刻之时,却发现亨利在同
房间的一个男青年的陪同下写诗。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
3、Old playwrights advise young actors,
promising artists question acknowledged
geniuses, would be poets fawn over
literary lions.
年老的剧作家为年轻的演员出谋划策,有
前途的艺术家向公认的天才挑战,自诩的
诗人奉承巴结文学名流。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
4、I cannot argue with your reasoning
that television equipment is still in an
early stage of development, but at my
age I cannot afford to wait for technical
refinements.
你认为电视尚处在开发阶段,我无力与你
争辩;但是到了我这个年纪,我不能等待
技术完善了。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
5、My husband made quite a name for
himself in real estate and insurance
circles during the eight years we lived in
Dallas.
我们在达拉斯生活的八年间,我丈夫在不
动产与保险业界颇负盛名。
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 6、I am more alive in the presence of a
letter from you than in the company of
most of the people I encounter in my life.
• 令我感到精神抖擞的与其说是与我一生中
交往的大多数人相遇,毋宁说是见到你的
来信
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
•
7、My first marriage survived many storms--from within and without---but no turbulence can
compare to the agony of being becalmed. Like
the Ancient Mariner, I inhabit “a painted ship on
the painted sea.”
•
我的第一次婚姻经历了内外多次狂风暴雨而维
持下来,然而,归于平静后的痛苦是任何风暴
无法相比的。我就想柯勒律笔下的古舟子那样,
居住在“画中的船上,漂浮在画的海洋上。”
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
•
8、If children are accorded the respect
as adults, they can be counted on to
display comparable manners.
•
加假如儿童像成年人那样受到人们的尊敬,
他们会同样对人彬彬有礼。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
9、Old age should be regarded the respect as
a reward for a lifetime of hard work, but it can
only be a punishment if one insists on doing
the same things one has always done,
measuring the present achievements with the
past ones, and inevitably falling short.
年老应该被当成终生艰苦工作的一种奖赏,但
是,对于一个执意要重操旧业,坚持要以过去
的丰功伟绩衡量今日成就而必然无望的人说,
年老只能是一种惩罚。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
10、As your future husband has chosen a field
of endeavor where the risks areas high as the
potential rewards, be prepared to offer him any
support necessary to achieve his goals; only
then will you have earned the right to share in
his success.
如果你的未婚夫选择了一个报偿与风险俱高的
奋斗领域,那你就准备着为了实现他的奋斗目
标而提供一切必不可少的帮助和支持吧。只有
如此,你才能获得与他分享成功的权利。
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 11、Farming is an occupation that will never
hold much interest for her ,since she is a city
dweller at heart though it took 18 years of her life
and marriage to an ambitious man to realize it.
• 办农场绝非是十分令她感兴趣的职业,尽管为此
她花费了18年的心血,付出了嫁给一个野心勃勃
的男人为妻的代价,因为心底里她是一个城市女
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
•
12、The conductor told the boy off for
throwing litter on the floor of the bus.
•
乘务员责备那个男孩在公共汽车里乱扔东
西。
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 13、The manufacturers have high hopes
of the new model’s performance, but it has
yet to be tested out.
• 各厂家对这种新型产品的性能抱有很高的
期望,但有待于验证
目录
实践
•
14、Honest and courageous people could be
quieted when they came to realize that
outspoken opposition was fruitless, the
dishonest could band together to divide spoils.
•
正直勇敢的人意识到直言不讳地提出异议毫无
结果时,便缄口不语,而那些无耻小人则会聚
集在一起,瓜分他们的 “战利品。”
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 15、I have found since that time there are
countless people over the country willing
to commit themselves in the same way,
without thinking of personal reward
• 毫不计较个人得失
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
• 16、I remember thinking that, second only
to governmental reorganization, improving
the criminal justice system in my state
could be my greatest contribution as
governor.
• 我记得曾经想过,除了改组政府以外,作
为州长,我的第二大任务时改善本州的刑
事司法制度
实践
目录
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
17、He seemed delighted to come back
South to work at improving Georgia’s
prison system with the full backing of my
administration.
他似乎很喜欢返回南方工作,在我主持的
政府的权利支持下,致力于改善佐治亚州
的监狱体系。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
18、Our radio transmitting equipment
was drowned out by the pounding salt
water, and we could not send our daily
location report to Pacific Fleet
Headquarters.
连续不断冲击的海水浸坏了我们的无线电
发报机,我们无法向太平洋舰队司令部报
告我们每天的方位。
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
•
19、In 1994, the electric consumption in
the textile mill went up 15%, while its
consumption of coal down 30%.
•
1994年,这家纺织厂的电耗量上升了15%,
而煤耗量减少了30%。
目录
实践
2.2.2
如何实现正确理解
•
20、Our lives were so interdependent,
dependent on every man knowing his job, that
no lack of enthusiasm was tolerated, and that
on one who was lackadaisical remained
uncriticized and uncondemned.
•
我们的生命彼此息息相关,我们的生命与每个
人熟悉自己的职责密切相连,不容漫不经心。
任何人懈怠懒惰,必将受到批评和谴责。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
21、The whole settlement was amazed
at the stream of big black Cadillacs,
Packards, and Lincolns which had come
from other states.
来自各州的巨型“凯迪拉克“牌、”柏卡
德“牌和”林肯“牌汽车,川流不息,令
整个居民点的人惊讶不已。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
22、Our farm and sore are about onehalf mile east of Archery on the dirt road
towards plains.
我们的农场和商店坐落在通往平原镇的土
路上,在阿切里以东约半英里的地方。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
23、Our early years of my life in an outof-the-way village full and enjoyable,
isolated but not lonely.
我的早年是在一个偏僻的农村里度过的,
生活充实而愉快,虽然与世隔绝,但并不
寂寞。
目录
实践
2.2.2
•
•
如何实现正确理解
24、As a 12-year-old boy, I was appalled
when I checked the book War and Peace out
of the library because it was about 1,400
pages long, written by the Russian novelist
Tolstoy, and of course, not about cowboys.
12岁那年,我从图书馆里借到一本《战争与和
平》,不禁大吃一惊。原因是这部由俄国小说
家托尔斯泰写的长达1400多页的巨著,与牛仔
全然无关。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
• Part one 理论
• 一、充分表达
• 所谓充分表达,即利用对目的语的驾驭能力,完
全恰如其分地表达原文的思想内容、立场感情和
风格笔调。充分表达要防止两种倾向:过分表达
(over-representation)即,不顾原文本意如何,
任意添枝加叶;欠充分表达(underrepresentation)即:或任意删减,或不顾作者感
情态度,或不计文体风格。
目录
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reports of new successes keep pouring in.
捷报频传。(充分表达)
He sold hard-to-get items.
他行贿受贿,兜售紧俏商品。画线部分为胡乱添加。
When we were in port, my crew was responsible for
moving, installing and modifying the items to be tested
the next week. To compound the problems, our ship
Wyoming was declared to be unsafe.
原译:入港后,舰上的官兵们忙着搬运、安装、调试仪
器和设备,迎接下星期的试验。就在关键时刻,我们的
“怀俄明”号被宣布为不安全。原文有两处漏译:to
compound the problem(使问题复杂化)和good(好端端)。
目录
2.3.1 充分表达
• 二、直译与意译
• 1、直译(literal translation): 译文的语言表达形式,在目的
语规范容许范围内,基本上遵循源语表达的形式,而又忠
实于原文的意思。如;
• The proof of the pudding is in the eating.
• 要知道布丁的滋味,就要亲自吃一吃。
• 2、意译(free translation): 译文的语言表达形式,完全
遵循目的语的规范而不考虑源语的表达形式,但又忠实于
原文的意思。如:
• One boy is a boy, two boys half a boy, three boys no boy.
• 一个和尚挑水吃,两个和尚抬水吃,三个和尚无水吃。
目录
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
实践 1
实践 2
实践 3
实践 4
实践 5
实践 6
实践 7
实践 8
目录
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
Part Two 翻译实践练习
1、The 1.248 billionth Chinese was born in 1999.
到了1999年,中国人口已达到12.48亿。
2.The substance that gives up hydrogen is said
to be oxidized and the one, which accepts the
hydrogen, is said to be reduced.
• 释放氢的物质被称为氧化了的物质,而吸收氢的
物质被称为还原了的物质。
目录
2.3.1 充分表达
• 3.Too clearly, it is a topic we shall do no justice
to in this place. (T.Carlyle:On Heroes and Heroworship)
• 很显然,像这样一个问题,我们在这里是不可能
讲透彻的
• 4、He had left a note of welcome for me as
sunny as his faces.
• 他留下一封短信,对我表示欢迎,那信写得热情
洋溢,一如其人。
2.3.1 充分表达
• 5、What can easily be seen in his poems
are his imagery and originality, power and
range.
• 他的诗形象生动,独具一格,而且气势磅
礴,这是显而易见的。
• 6、He acts a lot older than his years.
• 他年纪轻轻,做事却非常老道。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
7、Scratch a Russian and you will find a
Tartar.文明人剥去一层皮,就变成野蛮人
了/文明不能改变本性。
8、The plumber didn’t feel disturbed by
Mrs. Smith’s complaint.听了史密斯太太
的抱怨,修理工无动于衷。
9、The chickens fluttered excitedly when
they saw the dog.这些小鸡一见狗来了,
立刻惊恐地飞到一边。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
•
10、After a sleepless night, during which Joe smoked
a whole pack of cigarettes, his eyes were blood-shot,
and his breath smelled of tobacco.
乔一夜都没合眼,整整吸了一包烟,双眼布满血丝,满
嘴烟味。
11、Very straightforward by nature, Mrs. Frank
believes in speaking her mind.
弗兰克太太天性直率,认为心里想啥就该说啥。
12、She gave me the impression of having more teeth
than were necessary for any practical purpose.
她留给我的印象无实际用处的牙齿长得太多。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
•
13、He is the last person I will see. His
rudeness is beyond endurance.
他是我最不愿意见到的人。他的粗鲁真让人受
不了。
14、As a precaution the old man transferred
his will from the drawer to the safe.
老人把遗嘱从抽屉移到保险柜里,以防万一。
15、I was past caring now, so I ordered coffee
for myself and an ice-cream, and coffee for her.
我给她要了份冰淇淋和咖啡,还为自己要了杯
咖啡———豁出去了。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
•
16、Cigarettes are the death of me. I became
acquaintance with my killer when I was 14.
香烟是我的死神。我14岁时就结识了这一杀手。
17、One of the crucial facts about soccer is that goals
are not made very often, with 2-1 a typical score.
一个严酷的现实是:足球运动中进球的机会不多,二比
一是常见的比分。
18、I have just had a marvelous steak, but know
better by now than to say so.
我刚刚吃了一顿美味牛排,但 我深知还是不说为妙。
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
19、Last spring, Mother Nature made April
Fools of all of us who live in New England.
•
去年春天大自然捉弄了我们所有居住在新英格
兰的人。
20、A friendship network is absolutely crucial
for our well-being as adults.
一个友谊网对我们成年人的幸福至关重要。
•
•
目录
实践
2.3.1 充分表达
•
•
•
•
•
Part Three总结 (summary)
为什么在翻译时首先要充分理解源语?
怎样才能充分理解源语?
怎样使用直译和意译?
Part Four 巩固(consolidation)
目录
THE END
• 目录
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