VERB TENSE SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT PRONOUN USAGE DOUBLE NEGATIVES IDIOMS PASSIVE VOICE MISPLACED/DANGLING MODIFIERS PARALLELISM SENTENCE STRUCTURE COORDINATION/SUBORDINATION PUNCTUATING WITH COLONS ADVERBS ADJECTIVES PREPOSITIONS APPOSITIVES INFINITIVES GERUNDS PARTICIPLES CLAUSES PSAT GRAMMAR Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP VERB TENSE Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP CONSISTENCY OF VERB TENSE PAST PERFECT TENSE HISTORICAL PRESENT WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE Consistency of Verb Tense The tense of verbs must remain consistent in the sentence. If the sentence starts in present tense, it should stay in the present tense. If it begins in the past, it should remain in the past. EX – Because she sang so beautifully, she wins the contest. Sang is past tense while wins is present. We need to change wins to won. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. The leprechaun walked to school, and on the way he drops his pot o’ gold. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. The concert finally ended, but all the taxis are busy. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. The rhino has some good points, but he also had some tough skin. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. The man tries to rescue the hamster, but he was not successful. Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. The leprechaun walked to school, and on the way he dropped his pot o’ gold. The concert finally ended, but all the taxis were busy. The rhino has some good points, but he also has some tough skin. The man tries to rescue the hamster, but he is not successful. Past Perfect Tense The past perfect tense always uses the helping verb had with the main verb. This tense is used to indicate a time that precedes another time mentioned in the sentence. EX—I had seen the movie before I saw Janet at the store. The action of seeing the movie occurred before the action of seeing Janet. The first action to happen requires past perfect tense. The last action to happen requires past tense. Using these two tenses keeps the time reference clear in written English. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. Until last Friday, we thought we lost the unicorn. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. By the time Matilda left, Bruce ate the entire cake. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. David probably saw the error long before he corrected it. Write the corrected sentences in your notes. After finding her absent, I knew that she went to the Beyonce concert with Devlin. Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. Until last Friday, we had thought we lost the book. By the time Kelly left, Mary had eaten the entire cake. David probably had seen the error long before he corrected it. After finding her absent, I knew that she had gone to the concert. Historical Present Tense Part of the sentence may be in the past tense, but another part might be in the present if that second part is something that is always true. For example, we know as a fact that light travels faster than sound. Since this is always true, we state the fact in the present tense, regardless of what happens in the rest of the sentence. Example of historical present tense Incorrect: His research was based on the concept that light traveled faster than sound. Correct: His research was based on the concept that light travels faster than sound. Present Tense When Discussing Literature Another time we consistently use the present tense is when discussing literature: the accepted convention is to discuss the actions in fiction in terms of present tense. Incorrect: The main character of the story disregarded his father’s wishes. Correct: The main character of the story disregards his father’s wishes. Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write the corrected sentences in your notes. By the time I left, Baxter ate the entire wheel of cheese. Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write the corrected sentences in your notes. Through experience Janet learned that hot dogs and ice cream produced obesity. Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write the corrected sentences in your notes. In the novel, the hero stressed his love for the woman. Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write the corrected sentences in your notes. Jerry said that Newton’s third law of physics stated that for every action there was an equal and opposite reaction. Answers 1. 2. 3. 4. By the time I left, Baxter had eaten the entire wheel of cheese. Through experience Janet learned that hot dogs and ice cream produce obesity. In the novel, the hero stresses his love for the woman. Jerry said that Newton’s third law of physics states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. SUBJECT FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE SUBJECT FOLLOWING THE EXPLETIVE THERE SUBJECT AFTER VERB COMPOUND SUBJECTS JOINED BY OR OR NOR SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Subject-Verb Agreement The concept of subject-verb agreement is relatively simple: the subject and verb of each sentence must agree with each other in number (singular subject, singular verb, etc.) Common errors occur with a simple subject followed by a prepositional phrase with a subject following the expletive there with the subject following the verb with a compound subject whose parts are joined by or or nor Subject-Verb Agreement Subject followed by prepositional phrase Singular subject must be followed by singular verb (verb ending with s) Plural subject must be followed by plural verb (verb with no s) Common prepositions – of, with, at, on, for, to, between, beneath, below, above, along, against One of the boats are sinking. One of the boats is sinking. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following a prepositional phrase One of the boats are sinking. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following a prepositional phrase The man with two platypi are walking down the street. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following a prepositional phrase The two girls in the gym is going to be in my class. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following a prepositional phrase The boys in my science class tries daily to blow things up. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following a prepositional phrase One of the pictures of the centaur are lost. Subject-Verb Agreement Deciding whether or not the verb agrees with the subject is sometimes difficult because of the nature and placement of the subject. Incorrect: There is always two men on guard at this post. Correct: There are always two men on guard at this post. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following the expletive there There goes the three moose of the mountain. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following the expletive there There were never a harder decision to make. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following the expletive there There was only two pirates at the door to greet us. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject following the expletive there There seem to be a strong odor in the room. Subject-Verb Agreement The third type of error deals with the placement of the subject after the verb. Example: Down the road in a bright red car came the two girls. Incorrect: Far away from the rest of the crowd stands the three men. Correct: Far away from the rest of the crowd stand the three men. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject after the verb Beneath those pictures on the wall are the artist’s name. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject after the verb Around the corner from my house lives the Lord Voledmort. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject after the verb Under the beds in his room were the dragon. Correct these sentences in your notes. Subject after the verb Without his hat or his coat stand the detective. Subject-Verb Agreement When a compound subject is joined by or or nor, we look at the part of the subject that sits closest to the verb to determine singular or plural. Example: Neither the girl nor the two boys want to go eat breakfast. Correct these sentences in your notes. Compound subjects joined by or or nor Either Jane or Sally (seem, seems) to be weirder than usual. Correct these sentences in your notes. Compound subjects joined by or or nor The lantern or the street lights on the road (is, are) shining brightly. Correct these sentences in your notes. Compound subjects joined by or or nor The cyborg on the roof or the cow in the pasture (was, were) singing. Correct these sentences in your notes. Compound subjects joined by or or nor Either Sam or the girls in the green car (ask, asks) a lot of questions. PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT PRONOUN AS A COMPOUND ELEMENT AMBIGUOUS REFERENCE WHO VS. WHICH SHIFT IN PERSON PRONOUN USAGE Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Pronoun Antecedent Agreement A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun. The noun that the pronoun replaces or to which it refers is called the antecedent. Look at the sentence below. Mary went home because she was not feeling well. In the sentence, the pronoun she is a substitute for the noun Mary. Mary is the antecedent of she. The antecedent of a pronoun is merely the word to which to pronoun refers. The pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number (singular antecedent = singular pronoun; plural = plural) Pronoun Antecedent Agreement… Incorrect: Correct: If someone calls, tell them I left early. If someone calls, tell him I left early. The word someone is actually singular. Any pronoun referring to that word must also be singular. The pronoun them is plural so it does not agree with the antecedent someone. Correct these sentences in your notes. Pronoun Antecedent Agreement 1. 2. 3. 4. We wanted each of the men to do their share of the work. Everyone should bring their books when they come to class. Neither Dorothy nor Janice had washed their face. Each player must put their own clothes in the locker. Pronoun as a Compound Element When pronouns are used as part of a compound element, students really get confused. Tom and Sally went to the movies. Tom went to the movies. Sally went to the movies. Tom and she went to the movies. Tom went to the movies. She went to the movies. He and Sally went to the movies. He went to the movies. Sally went to the movies. He and she went to the movies. He went to the movies. She went to the movies. If you will break the sentence apart and read it twice, once for each word in the compound element, you will realize the correct answer. Dad gave Tom and Sally the gifts. Dad gave Tom the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts. Dad gave him and Sally the gifts. Dad gave him the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts. Dad gave Tom and her the gifts. Dad gave Tom the gifts. Dad gave her the gifts. Dad gave him and her the gifts. Dad gave him the gifts. Dad gave her the gifts. Correct these sentences in your notes. Pronoun as a Compound Element 1. 2. 3. 4. Betty went to the store for Susan and (I, me). You and (he, him) can continue reading later. Janet and (I, me) read the book. The manager gave the book to Don and (she, her). Let’s practice some more together… Pronoun as a Compound Element 1. 2. 3. 4. David told Jerry and (I, me) that block printing began in China. If Gerry and (she, her) had waited, the park would have opened. The movie surprised Darlene and (he, him). The movie surprised Darlene and (I, me). Ambiguous Pronoun Reference The third area of pronoun usage concerns the ambiguous reference of pronouns. Earlier we saw that all pronouns must have an antecedent. When that antecedent is not clear, we have an ambiguous reference problem. Incorrect: They say in that magazine that scores have dropped rapidly. Correct: In that magazine, an authority states that scores have dropped rapidly. In the incorrect version, the pronoun they is vaguely referring to someone, but we have no clear picture of who it is. If the antecedent is not clear, you can’t use the pronoun. Correct these sentences in your notes. Ambiguous Pronoun Reference 1. 2. 3. The manager told her secretary that she must pay the filing fee. Bobby bought ice cream for John and his sister. It surprised me when you came home. Who vs. Which The pronoun who refers to people. Which refers to things. That’s all there is to it. Note: animals are considered things in written English. Correct these sentences in your notes. Who vs. Which 1. 2. 3. 4. He sat in a chair (who, which) was painted red. The students (who, which) ride the bus are too noisy. This is the newspaper (who, which) won the award. We saw a dog (who, which) looked dangerous. Shift in person The last kind of problem regarding pronoun usage is the problem of shifting person in the sentence. 1st person I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours 2nd person 3rd person you, your, yours he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they, them, their, theirs The rule in standard written English is that you may not shift from one person to another within the sentence. Incorrect: I think I will be fine, but you have to be prepared for the unexpected. Correct: I think I will be fine, but I have to be prepared for the unexpected. Correct these sentences in your notes. Shift in person 1. 2. 3. If you intend to go to college, one should try to do well in high school. One should be nice to others if you expect kindness in return. I tried to fill the order, but one can only do so much. DOUBLE NEGATIVES Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Double Negatives A double negative is two negative expressions applied to the same idea. The following terms are negative expressions: no, not, nothing, none, no one, never, hardly, scarcely, nowhere, nobody, neither. These terms should not be used together to discuss the same idea. Incorrect: I don’t want no help. Correct: I don’t want any help. Incorrect: Correct: We don’t have hardly any. We have hardly any. Let’s practice together… 1. 2. 3. 4. He hasn’t got none of the answers right. They don’t have scarcely any food to eat. I don’t never want to hear those words again. I didn’t get no sleep last night. IDIOMS Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Idioms An idiom is an expression in which the words have developed a special meaning in relation to each other. This meaning is destroyed if some part of the related group of words is omitted, or if some word not commonly a part of the idiom is introduced. For instance, we are angry with a person…not angry at him. We comply with a request, not comply to a request. Idioms The list below illustrates the usage of prepositions in some idiomatic expressions. These idioms should be memorized. agree with a person differ from something agree to a proposal differ with someone agree on a plan of action overrun by a tank aim at a target overrun with ants aim for perfection wait for a person part with a thing part from a person Idioms: common mistakes/corrections Faulty form among each other bank on could of in back of leave us go off of, off from in contrast to concerned in in regards to being that kind of different than filled up with Correct form among themselves depend on, rely on, count on could have behind let us go off (omit of and from) in contrast with concerned with in regard to since rather different from filled with PASSIVE VOICE Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Passive/Active Voice In formal, standard written English, the active voice is preferred to the passive voice. Active voice occurs when the subject of the sentence performs the action. Passive voice occurs when the subject receives the action. Active voice: Tom hit the ball. Passive voice: Tom was hit by the ball. Active or Passive? Change the passive sentences to active. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Jeremy stood beside the road. Jeremy was seen beside the road. Mary cooked a delicious meal. A delicious meal was served by the waitress. The man was told not to utter a sound. MISPLACED/DANGLING MODIFIERS Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Misplaced Modifiers Modifying phrases should be placed as near as possible to the words they modify. Otherwise, they sometimes distort the meaning of the sentence and add unintended humor. Incorrect: Correct: The boy saw the red car looking out the window. Looking out the window, the boy saw the red car. In the incorrect version, the phrase looking out the window modifies car, thereby implying the car was looking out the window instead of the boy. The phrase must be moved near the word it truly modifies. Misplaced Modifiers Remember that the placement of a single modifying word changes the meaning of the sentence. Look at the three possibilities when the word only is placed in different positions: I only saw Janet. (I did not speak to her.) Only I saw Janet. (No one else saw her.) I saw only Janet. (I saw no one else.) Correct the errors in misplaced modifiers. Underline the modifier and draw an arrow to the word it modifies. 1. 2. 3. 4. John stopped and parked the car looking at the scenery. Lying on the desk, Jerry read the letter. The man saw the log swimming in the lake. Covered with cream gravy, the waitress served the potatoes. Dangling Modifiers A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause that does not clearly modify any word in the sentence. This kind of error makes the meaning of a sentence absurd. Incorrect: Correct: Listening closely, no sound could be heard. Listening closely, he could hear no sound. In the incorrect sentence, we have no idea who was listening. Because the phrase sits next to the word sound, it should modify sound, theoretically, but that is absurd. Sound cannot listen. Dangling Modifiers 1. 2. 3. Before we practice correcting these errors, let’s look at three more examples: Digging in the garden, an old rag doll was discovered. (The sentence implies that the rag doll was digging in the dirt.) Solving the case, one important clue was overlooked. (Who solved the case…the clue?) Climbing the tree, a bird’s nest was found. (Did the nest climb the tree?) Correct the dangling modifiers. You must add words to make these sentences correct. 1. 2. 3. 4. To unlock the door, a key must be used. Before going outside, your overshoes must be put on. While talking to the officer, a dog ran between his legs. After eating all those pears, dinner was served. PARALLELISM Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Parallelism Maintaining parallel structure in sentences is very important. Parallelism is about consistency. If a sentence begins with one construction and suddenly shifts to another, it is lacking in parallel structure. Incorrect: Correct: Correct: He likes hiking, boating, and to run. He likes hiking, boating, and running. He likes to hike, to boat, and to run. Rewrite the sentences, correcting the underlined portions so that the sentences are parallel. 1. 2. 3. 4. Tell me his name and where he lives. He is tall, red-headed, and has freckles. I decided to go home, to get my gear, and later I went fishing. We danced all night, laughed all day, and during the morning all we did was cry. FRAGMENTS RUN-ONS SENTENCE STRUCTURE Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Fragments A fragment is part of a sentence that does not express a complete thought. It can be a thought cut off from another sentence to which it belongs, it can be a subordinate clause written as a sentence, it can be a verbal phrase written as a sentence, it can be an appositive phrase written as a sentence, or it can be any number of other things that are parts of sentences but which do not constitute a complete thought in themselves. Fragment Examples The mailman rang the doorbell and set something on the porch. Probably a package. (cut off from preceding sentence) I opened the door and saw the package. Which had been left by the postman. (a subordinate clause cut off from preceding sentence) Having been left sitting on the porch by the postman. (a verbal phrase trying to stand alone) I was introduced to his uncle. The man who left the package sitting on my front porch. (an appositive phrase separated from the preceding sentence) Correct the following sentence fragments by rewriting them as complete sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Before you get into your car to come to my house. Never knowing what the young man would say to the girl about marrying her. Being almost six feet tall and enabling him to play basketball. After changing the tire on the car and resuming our trip. The man in the gray suit smiling broadly under that elm tree in the park. Run-on Sentences A run-on sentence is actually two separate sentences that fail to be separated by the proper punctuation. A run-on can be created by putting a comma between the two sentences or by having no punctuation at all between the two sentences. A run-on can be corrected in several ways. A period or a semicolon can separate the two sentences, or one sentence can be reduced to modifiers and incorporated into the other sentence. Run-on Examples Incorrect: I saw the man in the store he was very handsome. Incorrect: I saw the man in the store, he was very handsome. Correct: I saw the man in the store. He was very handsome. Correct: I saw the man in the store; he was very handsome. Correct: I saw the very handsome man in the store. Rewrite the following sentences below so that the run-on sentence is eliminated. Use each of the three methods— not the same way for each sentence. 1. 2. 3. 4. Last year I saw the Grand Canyon, this year I will see Niagara Falls. My dog is my best friend, he has been with me for ten years. The man in the store is my uncle, he will drive us home. John plans to mow the lawn this morning, he will go to the movies later. Using Semicolons You must understand how to use semicolons correctly. In the example below we use a semicolon with a conjunctive adverb and a comma to join two separate sentences. If a comma precedes the conjunctive adverb instead of a semicolon, a run-on sentence is created. Incorrect: I tried to finish the exam before the bell, however, I couldn’t do it. Correct: I tried to finish the exam before the bell; however, I couldn’t do it. Semicolons Some conjunctive adverbs that commonly appear with semicolons are however, consequently, moreover, therefore, nevertheless, otherwise, for example, that is, and furthermore. Note: These words must be preceded by a semicolon and followed by a comma. Margaret wanted to travel abroad; however, she could not afford the trip. I intend to study; consequently, you must leave me alone. COORDINATION AND SUBORDINATION Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Coordination Coordination has to do with joining ideas of equal rank in sentences. Generally we use the coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, for, nor, and yet to join these ideas. Below are two sentences whose ideas are equal in emphasis. Coordination Notice how we can join the two sentences with different conjunctions and get a variety of meanings. I spoke to Jim. He spoke to me. I spoke to Jim, and he spoke to me. I spoke to Jim, but he did not speak to me. I spoke to Jim, or he spoke to me. I spoke to Jim; therefore, he spoke to me. Coordination and indicates addition but indicates contrast or indicates choice therefore indicates result The problem we face with coordination is making sure that the relationship between the two ideas is accurately expressed. The solution rests on which conjunction we use. Coordination Food is adequate in the summer, and in the winter a good supply is not available. The conjunction and is not the right word to use for this sentence. We need a word that expresses contrast. Look at the two suggestions below. Food is adequate now, but in the winter a good supply will not be available. Food is adequate now; however, in the winter a good supply will not be available. Read the sentences below and provide a conjunction which will provide a conjunction which will properly join the clauses making the relationship between the two parts absolutely clear. 1. 2. 3. 4. This recording studio produces the best sound in recordings, _____ it is a financial failure and is losing money. My teacher was evaluating me on neatness; _____, I put forth extra effort to avoid being messy. James played the flute, _____ Tommy played bass in the orchestra. The heater had not been turned off; _____, the house was cold the next morning. Subordination If two unequal ideas are joined as though they should have equal emphasis, we have a problem with coordination. Here is an example: John Blair was a native of Texas, and he was the guest speaker for the morning. Since these two ideas are not really related and are certainly not of equal importance, they should not be joined with a coordinate conjunction that suggests that they are equal. Subordination One way to correct this problem is through subordination. That is, we take the sentence of lesser importance and make it into a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses begin with a subordinate conjunction. A few of them are after, as, before, since, until, when, while, because, that, in order that, so that, although, if, unless, and even though. Relative pronouns who whose, whom, which, and that may also begin subordinate clauses. Subordination Examples John Blair, who was a native of Texas, was the guest speaker for the meeting. The problem could also be corrected by making the clause of lesser importance into an appositive. John Blair, a native of Texas, was the guest speaker for the meeting. Correct the sentences below which have faulty coordination by using subordinate clauses, appositives, or modifying phrases. 1. 2. 3. 4. Sue cannot pay her credit card bill, and she still charges merchandise to her account. Mary Van was a doctor as well as a mathematician, and she discovered a new virus. Many teachers love to travel to Europe, and they do it during the summer months. Our visitor was a world renowned poet, and he had a strong background in law. VERBALS: GERUNDS PARTICIPLES INFINITIVES Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Gerunds A gerund is a verb form ending in –ing that is used as a noun. Gerunds A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund, like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a verb and therefore expresses action or a state of being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object, subject complement, and object of preposition. Gerunds Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the gerund.) The study abroad program might satisfy your desire for new experiences. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate my singing. (The gerund is singing.) They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund has been removed) Gerunds Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.) My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund as object of preposition: The police arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.) The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The gerund has been removed.) Gerund Phrase A gerund phrase is a group of words consisting of a gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s), indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or state expressed in the gerund, such as: The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence: Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than what we're trying to do. Finding (gerund) a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund) in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb) Gerund Phrase The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of the verb appreciate. I hope that you appreciate my offering you this opportunity. my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the gerund) offering (gerund) you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund) this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in gerund) Gerund Phrase The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement. Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents. lying to (gerund) his constituents (direct object of action expressed in gerund) The gerund phrase functions as the object of the preposition for. You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid work. faking (gerund) an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund) to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb) Gerund Phrase The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the sentence. Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy. Being (gerund) the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being expressed in gerund) Gerunds Points to remember: A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a noun. A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s), object(s), and/or complement(s). Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require punctuation. Participles A participle is a verb form that is used as an adjective. The participle can end in –ing, -ed, -n, or –t. Participles The participle is a verb form that is used as an adjective. The participle can end in –ing, -ed, -n, or –t. How to find it: Look for an adjective that is built from a verb, or look for a verb form that is used as an adjective. Participles Jane tried to calm the trembling dog. (trembling is the participle.) He tried to open the locked door. (The participle is locked.) The hidden road was not obvious to the visitors. (The participle is hidden.) Participial Phrases A participial phrase consists of a participle and any modifiers or complements it may have. The entire phrase functions as an adjective. Example: The man talking to the woman in the red dress is the president of the association. The participial phrase talking to the woman in the red dress functions as an adjective, modifying the noun man. If you take the phrase out of the sentence, since it is just an adjective, you still have the basic sentence: The man is the president of the association.. Participial Phrases How to find it: Look for a phrase that begins with a word that is a verb form (it usually ends in –ing but it can also end in –ed, -n, or –t). You might say that the purpose of a participial phrase is to point out which noun we’re talking about. The participial phrase will point it out. It tells “which one.” The participial phrase usually sits next to the noun it modifies. Remember that it functions as and adjective and can therefore be removed from the sentence and the sentence will still make sense. Participial Phrase I have read that book lying on the table. The dog chasing his tail is mine. The girl singing that song is one of my students. Checking his notes for the last time, the student walked toward the podium. (all introductory participial phrases must be followed by a comma) Infinitives An infinitive is the word to followed by the present tense of a verb. It can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Infinitives An infinitive is the word to followed by the present tense of a verb. Example: to run to sing to dance I like to run. He wanted to sing. We tried to dance. The infinitive can be used in many ways. It can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Noun: To sing is my dream. Adjective: He is the man to see. Adverb: He was quick to speak. Infinitive Phrases The infinitive phrase includes the infinitive and any modifiers or complements it may have. Example: He wants to go to the store. Sam is the man to see about the job. He has gone to visit the famous monument. How to find it: Look for the word to immediately followed by a verb. Include all words that are necessary to complete the idea established by the infinitive. Example: to sing (infinitive) to sing a song (infinitive phrase) Infinitive Phrases I tried to see the production. Sometimes it is necessary to speak one’s thoughts. The dress to wear to the party is the cute black one. To run for public office requires courage. ADJECTIVES ADVERBS Mrs. Nichols English II Pre-AP Adjectives An adjective describes a noun. It tells which one, what kind, what color, and how many. An adjective adds descriptive information about the noun. Example: I own a dog. Which one? What kind? What color? How many? I own that dog. I own that large dog. I own that large, brown dog. I own that one slobbering, large, brown dog. Adjectives The adjective usually comes before the noun it describes. Example: However, adjectives can sometimes come immediately after the nouns they modify. Example: I saw the big, yellow cat. I saw the tired and exhausted man. I saw the man, tired and exhausted. Adjectives can also come at the opposite end of the sentence. They are called predicate nominatives (or predicate adjectives) in this position. Example: The woman wearing that ridiculous hat with the flower on top is very pretty. Underline the adjective(s) in each of the following sentences. 1. 2. Have you seen the red dress? The tired, old woman walked along the beaten trail. Beginning sentences with adjectives Example: The young man, wise and analytical, knew how to handle the problem. Wise and analytical, the young man knew how to handle the problem. 1. 2. The young student, aware of his mistakes, made an effort to rewrite the paper properly. The woman, hesitant to accept the gift, blushed with embarrassment. Adverbs An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. It answers the questions when, where, how, and to what extent. Most adverbs are made by simply adding –ly to an adjective. Some will have slight alterations in spelling when the –ly is added. Adjective Adverb quick quickly beautiful beautifully awful awfully true truly Adverbs Many other adverbs do not end in –ly. They still answer the questions when, where, how, and to what extent. When Where How To What Extent tomorrow here well not before there so then nowhere very never everywhere too Underline the adverb in each of the following sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. Have you ever seen that movie? I have always wanted to go to France. We saw the dog yesterday in the park. The child tried to run away. Beginning sentences with adverbs Example: I began to listen to him eventually. Eventually I began to listen to him. 1. 2. I will address that issue later. She danced across the floor gracefully. Adverbs followed by verbs Rewrite the sentences so that each sentence begins with an adverb immediately followed by the verb. Example: I have never known anyone so smart. Never have I known anyone so smart. 1. 2. We have often met with approval. I have never seen such dignity.