VERB TENSE
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
PRONOUN USAGE
DOUBLE NEGATIVES
IDIOMS
PASSIVE VOICE
MISPLACED/DANGLING MODIFIERS
PARALLELISM
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
COORDINATION/SUBORDINATION
PUNCTUATING WITH COLONS
ADVERBS
ADJECTIVES
PREPOSITIONS
APPOSITIVES
INFINITIVES
GERUNDS
PARTICIPLES
CLAUSES
PSAT GRAMMAR
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
VERB TENSE
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
CONSISTENCY OF VERB TENSE
PAST PERFECT TENSE
HISTORICAL PRESENT
WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE
Consistency of Verb Tense



The tense of verbs must remain consistent in the
sentence. If the sentence starts in present tense, it
should stay in the present tense. If it begins in the
past, it should remain in the past.
EX – Because she sang so beautifully, she wins the
contest.
Sang is past tense while wins is present. We need
to change wins to won.
Write the corrected sentences in your
notes.
The leprechaun walked to school,
and on the way he drops his pot
o’ gold.
Write the corrected sentences in your
notes.
The concert finally ended, but all
the taxis are busy.
Write the corrected sentences in your
notes.
The rhino has some good points,
but he also had some tough skin.
Write the corrected sentences in your
notes.
The man tries to rescue the
hamster, but he was not
successful.
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
The leprechaun walked to school, and on the way
he dropped his pot o’ gold.
The concert finally ended, but all the taxis were
busy.
The rhino has some good points, but he also has
some tough skin.
The man tries to rescue the hamster, but he is not
successful.
Past Perfect Tense



The past perfect tense always uses the helping verb
had with the main verb. This tense is used to indicate
a time that precedes another time mentioned in the
sentence.
EX—I had seen the movie before I saw Janet at the
store.
The action of seeing the movie occurred before the
action of seeing Janet. The first action to happen
requires past perfect tense. The last action to
happen requires past tense. Using these two tenses
keeps the time reference clear in written English.
Write the corrected sentences in your
notes.
Until last Friday, we thought we
lost the unicorn.
Write the corrected sentences in
your notes.
By the time Matilda left, Bruce
ate the entire cake.
Write the corrected sentences in
your notes.
David probably saw the error
long before he corrected it.
Write the corrected sentences in
your notes.
After finding her absent, I knew
that she went to the Beyonce
concert with Devlin.
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
Until last Friday, we had thought we lost the book.
By the time Kelly left, Mary had eaten the entire
cake.
David probably had seen the error long before
he corrected it.
After finding her absent, I knew that she had gone
to the concert.
Historical Present Tense


Part of the sentence may be in the past tense, but
another part might be in the present if that second
part is something that is always true.
For example, we know as a fact that light travels
faster than sound. Since this is always true, we state
the fact in the present tense, regardless of what
happens in the rest of the sentence.
Example of historical present tense
Incorrect: His research was based on the concept that
light traveled faster than sound.
Correct: His research was based on the concept that
light travels faster than sound.
Present Tense When Discussing
Literature



Another time we consistently use the present tense is
when discussing literature: the accepted convention
is to discuss the actions in fiction in terms of present
tense.
Incorrect: The main character of the story
disregarded his father’s wishes.
Correct: The main character of the story disregards
his father’s wishes.
Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write
the corrected sentences in your notes.
By the time I left, Baxter ate the
entire wheel of cheese.
Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write
the corrected sentences in your notes.
Through experience Janet
learned that hot dogs and ice
cream produced obesity.
Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write
the corrected sentences in your notes.
In the novel, the hero stressed his
love for the woman.
Assessment of what you’ve learned: Write
the corrected sentences in your notes.
Jerry said that Newton’s third
law of physics stated that for
every action there was an equal
and opposite reaction.
Answers
1.
2.
3.
4.
By the time I left, Baxter had eaten the entire
wheel of cheese.
Through experience Janet learned that hot dogs
and ice cream produce obesity.
In the novel, the hero stresses his love for the
woman.
Jerry said that Newton’s third law of physics states
that for every action there is an equal and
opposite reaction.
SUBJECT FOLLOWED BY PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE
SUBJECT FOLLOWING THE EXPLETIVE THERE
SUBJECT AFTER VERB
COMPOUND SUBJECTS JOINED BY OR OR NOR
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Subject-Verb Agreement


The concept of subject-verb agreement is relatively
simple: the subject and verb of each sentence must
agree with each other in number (singular subject,
singular verb, etc.)
Common errors occur
 with
a simple subject followed by a prepositional
phrase
 with a subject following the expletive there
 with the subject following the verb
 with a compound subject whose parts are joined by or
or nor
Subject-Verb Agreement




Subject followed by prepositional phrase
Singular subject must be followed by singular verb
(verb ending with s)
Plural subject must be followed by plural verb (verb
with no s)
Common prepositions – of, with, at, on, for, to,
between, beneath, below, above, along, against
 One
of the boats are sinking.
 One of the boats is sinking.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following a prepositional phrase
One of the boats are sinking.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following a prepositional phrase
The man with two platypi are
walking down the street.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following a prepositional phrase
The two girls in the gym is
going to be in my class.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following a prepositional phrase
The boys in my science class
tries daily to blow things up.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following a prepositional phrase
One of the pictures of the
centaur are lost.
Subject-Verb Agreement



Deciding whether or not the verb agrees with the
subject is sometimes difficult because of the nature
and placement of the subject.
Incorrect: There is always two men on guard at this
post.
Correct: There are always two men on guard at this
post.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following the expletive there
There goes the three moose of
the mountain.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following the expletive there
There were never a harder
decision to make.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following the expletive there
There was only two pirates at
the door to greet us.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject following the expletive there
There seem to be a strong odor
in the room.
Subject-Verb Agreement




The third type of error deals with the placement of
the subject after the verb.
Example: Down the road in a bright red car came
the two girls.
Incorrect: Far away from the rest of the crowd
stands the three men.
Correct: Far away from the rest of the crowd stand
the three men.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject after the verb
Beneath those pictures on the
wall are the artist’s name.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject after the verb
Around the corner from my
house lives the Lord Voledmort.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject after the verb
Under the beds in his room
were the dragon.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Subject after the verb
Without his hat or his coat
stand the detective.
Subject-Verb Agreement


When a compound subject is joined by or or nor, we
look at the part of the subject that sits closest to
the verb to determine singular or plural.
Example: Neither the girl nor the two boys want to
go eat breakfast.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Compound subjects joined by or or nor
Either Jane or Sally (seem,
seems) to be weirder than
usual.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Compound subjects joined by or or nor
The lantern or the street lights
on the road (is, are) shining
brightly.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Compound subjects joined by or or nor
The cyborg on the roof or the
cow in the pasture (was, were)
singing.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Compound subjects joined by or or nor
Either Sam or the girls in the
green car (ask, asks) a lot of
questions.
PRONOUN ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT
PRONOUN AS A COMPOUND ELEMENT
AMBIGUOUS REFERENCE
WHO VS. WHICH
SHIFT IN PERSON
PRONOUN USAGE
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement

A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun. The noun
that the pronoun replaces or to which it refers is called the
antecedent. Look at the sentence below.
Mary went home because she was not feeling well.

In the sentence, the pronoun she is a substitute for the noun
Mary. Mary is the antecedent of she. The antecedent of a
pronoun is merely the word to which to pronoun refers.
The pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number
(singular antecedent = singular pronoun; plural = plural)
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement…
Incorrect:
Correct:

If someone calls, tell them I left early.
If someone calls, tell him I left early.
The word someone is actually singular. Any pronoun
referring to that word must also be singular. The pronoun
them is plural so it does not agree with the antecedent
someone.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Pronoun Antecedent Agreement
1.
2.
3.
4.
We wanted each of the men to do their share of the
work.
Everyone should bring their books when they come to
class.
Neither Dorothy nor Janice had washed their face.
Each player must put their own clothes in the locker.
Pronoun as a Compound Element

When pronouns are used as part of a compound element,
students really get confused.
Tom and Sally went to the movies. Tom went to the movies. Sally went to the movies.
Tom and she went to the movies. Tom went to the movies. She went to the movies.
He and Sally went to the movies. He went to the movies. Sally went to the movies.
He and she went to the movies. He went to the movies. She went to the movies.

If you will break the sentence apart and read it twice, once for each
word in the compound element, you will realize the correct answer.
Dad gave Tom and Sally the gifts. Dad gave Tom the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts.
Dad gave him and Sally the gifts. Dad gave him the gifts. Dad gave Sally the gifts.
Dad gave Tom and her the gifts. Dad gave Tom the gifts. Dad gave her the gifts.
Dad gave him and her the gifts. Dad gave him the gifts. Dad gave her the gifts.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Pronoun as a Compound Element
1.
2.
3.
4.
Betty went to the store for Susan and (I, me).
You and (he, him) can continue reading later.
Janet and (I, me) read the book.
The manager gave the book to Don and (she, her).
Let’s practice some more together…
Pronoun as a Compound Element
1.
2.
3.
4.
David told Jerry and (I, me) that block printing began
in China.
If Gerry and (she, her) had waited, the park would
have opened.
The movie surprised Darlene and (he, him).
The movie surprised Darlene and (I, me).
Ambiguous Pronoun Reference

The third area of pronoun usage concerns the ambiguous
reference of pronouns. Earlier we saw that all pronouns
must have an antecedent. When that antecedent is not
clear, we have an ambiguous reference problem.
Incorrect:
They say in that magazine that scores
have dropped rapidly.
Correct:
In that magazine, an authority states
that scores have dropped rapidly.
In the incorrect version, the pronoun they is vaguely
referring to someone, but we have no clear picture of
who it is. If the antecedent is not clear, you can’t use the
pronoun.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Ambiguous Pronoun Reference
1.
2.
3.
The manager told her secretary that she must pay the
filing fee.
Bobby bought ice cream for John and his sister.
It surprised me when you came home.
Who vs. Which


The pronoun who refers to people. Which refers to
things. That’s all there is to it.
Note: animals are considered things in written English.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Who vs. Which
1.
2.
3.
4.
He sat in a chair (who, which) was painted red.
The students (who, which) ride the bus are too noisy.
This is the newspaper (who, which) won the award.
We saw a dog (who, which) looked dangerous.
Shift in person

The last kind of problem regarding pronoun usage is the
problem of shifting person in the sentence.
1st person
I, me, my, mine, we, us, our, ours
2nd person
3rd person
you, your, yours
he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its, they,
them, their, theirs
The rule in standard written English is that you may not shift
from one person to another within the sentence.
Incorrect:
I think I will be fine, but you have to be
prepared for the unexpected.
Correct:
I think I will be fine, but I have to be
prepared for the unexpected.
Correct these sentences in your notes.
Shift in person
1.
2.
3.
If you intend to go to college, one should try to do
well in high school.
One should be nice to others if you expect kindness in
return.
I tried to fill the order, but one can only do so much.
DOUBLE NEGATIVES
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Double Negatives
A double negative is two negative expressions
applied to the same idea. The following terms are
negative expressions: no, not, nothing, none, no one,
never, hardly, scarcely, nowhere, nobody, neither.
These terms should not be used together to discuss
the same idea.
Incorrect: I don’t want no help.
Correct:
I don’t want any help.

Incorrect:
Correct:
We don’t have hardly any.
We have hardly any.
Let’s practice together…
1.
2.
3.
4.
He hasn’t got none of the answers right.
They don’t have scarcely any food to eat.
I don’t never want to hear those words again.
I didn’t get no sleep last night.
IDIOMS
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Idioms



An idiom is an expression in which the words have
developed a special meaning in relation to each
other. This meaning is destroyed if some part of the
related group of words is omitted, or if some word
not commonly a part of the idiom is introduced.
For instance, we are angry with a person…not
angry at him.
We comply with a request, not comply to a request.
Idioms

The list below illustrates the usage of prepositions in
some idiomatic expressions. These idioms should be
memorized.
agree with a person
differ from something
agree to a proposal
differ with someone
agree on a plan of action overrun by a tank
aim at a target
overrun with ants
aim for perfection
wait for a person
part with a thing
part from a person
Idioms: common mistakes/corrections
Faulty form
among each other
bank on
could of
in back of
leave us go
off of, off from
in contrast to
concerned in
in regards to
being that
kind of
different than
filled up with
Correct form
among themselves
depend on, rely on, count on
could have
behind
let us go
off (omit of and from)
in contrast with
concerned with
in regard to
since
rather
different from
filled with
PASSIVE VOICE
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Passive/Active Voice
In formal, standard written English, the active voice
is preferred to the passive voice.
 Active voice occurs when the subject of the sentence
performs the action.
 Passive voice occurs when the subject receives the
action.
Active voice:
Tom hit the ball.
Passive voice:
Tom was hit by the ball.

Active or Passive?
Change the passive sentences to active.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Jeremy stood beside the road.
Jeremy was seen beside the road.
Mary cooked a delicious meal.
A delicious meal was served by the waitress.
The man was told not to utter a sound.
MISPLACED/DANGLING
MODIFIERS
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Misplaced Modifiers

Modifying phrases should be placed as near as
possible to the words they modify. Otherwise, they
sometimes distort the meaning of the sentence and
add unintended humor.
Incorrect:
Correct:
The boy saw the red car looking out the window.
Looking out the window, the boy saw the red car.
In the incorrect version, the phrase looking out the
window modifies car, thereby implying the car was
looking out the window instead of the boy. The
phrase must be moved near the word it truly
modifies.
Misplaced Modifiers


Remember that the placement of a single modifying
word changes the meaning of the sentence.
Look at the three possibilities when the word only is
placed in different positions:
I only saw Janet.
(I did not speak to her.)
Only I saw Janet.
(No one else saw her.)
I saw only Janet.
(I saw no one else.)
Correct the errors in misplaced modifiers. Underline the
modifier and draw an arrow to the word it modifies.
1.
2.
3.
4.
John stopped and parked the car looking at the
scenery.
Lying on the desk, Jerry read the letter.
The man saw the log swimming in the lake.
Covered with cream gravy, the waitress served the
potatoes.
Dangling Modifiers

A dangling modifier is a phrase or clause that does
not clearly modify any word in the sentence. This
kind of error makes the meaning of a sentence
absurd.
Incorrect:
Correct:
Listening closely, no sound could be heard.
Listening closely, he could hear no sound.
In the incorrect sentence, we have no idea who was
listening. Because the phrase sits next to the word
sound, it should modify sound, theoretically, but that
is absurd. Sound cannot listen.
Dangling Modifiers

1.
2.
3.
Before we practice correcting these errors, let’s look
at three more examples:
Digging in the garden, an old rag doll was
discovered. (The sentence implies that the rag doll
was digging in the dirt.)
Solving the case, one important clue was
overlooked. (Who solved the case…the clue?)
Climbing the tree, a bird’s nest was found. (Did the
nest climb the tree?)
Correct the dangling modifiers. You must add words to
make these sentences correct.
1.
2.
3.
4.
To unlock the door, a key must be used.
Before going outside, your overshoes must be put
on.
While talking to the officer, a dog ran between his
legs.
After eating all those pears, dinner was served.
PARALLELISM
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Parallelism

Maintaining parallel structure in sentences is very
important. Parallelism is about consistency. If a
sentence begins with one construction and suddenly
shifts to another, it is lacking in parallel structure.
Incorrect:
Correct:
Correct:
He likes hiking, boating, and to run.
He likes hiking, boating, and running.
He likes to hike, to boat, and to run.
Rewrite the sentences, correcting the underlined portions
so that the sentences are parallel.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tell me his name and where he lives.
He is tall, red-headed, and has freckles.
I decided to go home, to get my gear, and later I
went fishing.
We danced all night, laughed all day, and during
the morning all we did was cry.
FRAGMENTS
RUN-ONS
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Fragments

A fragment is part of a sentence that does not
express a complete thought. It can be a thought cut
off from another sentence to which it belongs, it can
be a subordinate clause written as a sentence, it can
be a verbal phrase written as a sentence, it can be
an appositive phrase written as a sentence, or it can
be any number of other things that are parts of
sentences but which do not constitute a complete
thought in themselves.
Fragment Examples




The mailman rang the doorbell and set something
on the porch. Probably a package. (cut off from
preceding sentence)
I opened the door and saw the package. Which had
been left by the postman. (a subordinate clause cut off
from preceding sentence)
Having been left sitting on the porch by the postman. (a
verbal phrase trying to stand alone)
I was introduced to his uncle. The man who left the
package sitting on my front porch. (an appositive
phrase separated from the preceding sentence)
Correct the following sentence fragments by rewriting
them as complete sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Before you get into your car to come to my house.
Never knowing what the young man would say to
the girl about marrying her.
Being almost six feet tall and enabling him to play
basketball.
After changing the tire on the car and resuming
our trip.
The man in the gray suit smiling broadly under that
elm tree in the park.
Run-on Sentences


A run-on sentence is actually two separate
sentences that fail to be separated by the proper
punctuation. A run-on can be created by putting a
comma between the two sentences or by having no
punctuation at all between the two sentences.
A run-on can be corrected in several ways. A period
or a semicolon can separate the two sentences, or one
sentence can be reduced to modifiers and
incorporated into the other sentence.
Run-on Examples





Incorrect: I saw the man in the store he was very
handsome.
Incorrect: I saw the man in the store, he was very
handsome.
Correct: I saw the man in the store. He was very
handsome.
Correct: I saw the man in the store; he was very
handsome.
Correct: I saw the very handsome man in the store.
Rewrite the following sentences below so that the run-on
sentence is eliminated. Use each of the three methods—
not the same way for each sentence.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Last year I saw the Grand Canyon, this year I will
see Niagara Falls.
My dog is my best friend, he has been with me for
ten years.
The man in the store is my uncle, he will drive us
home.
John plans to mow the lawn this morning, he will go
to the movies later.
Using Semicolons



You must understand how to use semicolons
correctly. In the example below we use a semicolon
with a conjunctive adverb and a comma to join two
separate sentences. If a comma precedes the
conjunctive adverb instead of a semicolon, a run-on
sentence is created.
Incorrect: I tried to finish the exam before the bell,
however, I couldn’t do it.
Correct: I tried to finish the exam before the bell;
however, I couldn’t do it.
Semicolons




Some conjunctive adverbs that commonly appear
with semicolons are however, consequently, moreover,
therefore, nevertheless, otherwise, for example, that is,
and furthermore.
Note: These words must be preceded by a
semicolon and followed by a comma.
Margaret wanted to travel abroad; however, she
could not afford the trip.
I intend to study; consequently, you must leave me
alone.
COORDINATION AND
SUBORDINATION
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Coordination

Coordination has to do with joining ideas of equal
rank in sentences. Generally we use the
coordinating conjunctions and, but, or, for, nor, and
yet to join these ideas. Below are two sentences
whose ideas are equal in emphasis.
Coordination






Notice how we can join the two sentences with
different conjunctions and get a variety of
meanings.
I spoke to Jim. He spoke to me.
I spoke to Jim, and he spoke to me.
I spoke to Jim, but he did not speak to me.
I spoke to Jim, or he spoke to me.
I spoke to Jim; therefore, he spoke to me.
Coordination





and indicates addition
but indicates contrast
or indicates choice
therefore indicates result
The problem we face with coordination is making
sure that the relationship between the two ideas is
accurately expressed. The solution rests on which
conjunction we use.
Coordination




Food is adequate in the summer, and in the winter a
good supply is not available.
The conjunction and is not the right word to use for
this sentence. We need a word that expresses
contrast. Look at the two suggestions below.
Food is adequate now, but in the winter a good
supply will not be available.
Food is adequate now; however, in the winter a
good supply will not be available.
Read the sentences below and provide a conjunction which will
provide a conjunction which will properly join the clauses making
the relationship between the two parts absolutely clear.
1.
2.
3.
4.
This recording studio produces the best sound in
recordings, _____ it is a financial failure and is
losing money.
My teacher was evaluating me on neatness;
_____, I put forth extra effort to avoid being
messy.
James played the flute, _____ Tommy played bass
in the orchestra.
The heater had not been turned off; _____, the
house was cold the next morning.
Subordination



If two unequal ideas are joined as though they
should have equal emphasis, we have a problem
with coordination. Here is an example:
John Blair was a native of Texas, and he was the
guest speaker for the morning.
Since these two ideas are not really related and
are certainly not of equal importance, they should
not be joined with a coordinate conjunction that
suggests that they are equal.
Subordination

One way to correct this problem is through
subordination. That is, we take the sentence of
lesser importance and make it into a subordinate
clause. Subordinate clauses begin with a
subordinate conjunction. A few of them are after, as,
before, since, until, when, while, because, that, in
order that, so that, although, if, unless, and even
though. Relative pronouns who whose, whom, which,
and that may also begin subordinate clauses.
Subordination Examples



John Blair, who was a native of Texas, was the
guest speaker for the meeting.
The problem could also be corrected by making the
clause of lesser importance into an appositive.
John Blair, a native of Texas, was the guest
speaker for the meeting.
Correct the sentences below which have faulty
coordination by using subordinate clauses, appositives,
or modifying phrases.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sue cannot pay her credit card bill, and she still
charges merchandise to her account.
Mary Van was a doctor as well as a
mathematician, and she discovered a new virus.
Many teachers love to travel to Europe, and they
do it during the summer months.
Our visitor was a world renowned poet, and he
had a strong background in law.
VERBALS:
GERUNDS
PARTICIPLES
INFINITIVES
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Gerunds
A gerund is a verb form ending
in –ing that is used as a noun.
Gerunds

A gerund is a verbal that ends in -ing and functions
as a noun. The term verbal indicates that a gerund,
like the other two kinds of verbals, is based on a
verb and therefore expresses action or a state of
being. However, since a gerund functions as a noun,
it occupies some positions in a sentence that a noun
ordinarily would, for example: subject, direct object,
subject complement, and object of preposition.
Gerunds




Gerund as subject: Traveling might satisfy your
desire for new experiences. (Traveling is the
gerund.)
The study abroad program might satisfy your desire
for new experiences. (The gerund has been
removed.)
Gerund as direct object: They do not appreciate
my singing. (The gerund is singing.)
They do not appreciate my assistance. (The gerund
has been removed)
Gerunds




Gerund as subject complement: My cat's favorite
activity is sleeping. (The gerund is sleeping.)
My cat's favorite food is salmon. (The gerund has
been removed.)
Gerund as object of preposition: The police
arrested him for speeding. (The gerund is speeding.)
The police arrested him for criminal activity. (The
gerund has been removed.)
Gerund Phrase


A gerund phrase is a group of words consisting of a
gerund and the modifier(s) and/or (pro)noun(s) or
noun phrase(s) that function as the direct object(s),
indirect object(s), or complement(s) of the action or
state expressed in the gerund, such as:
The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the
sentence:
Finding a needle in a haystack would be easier than
what we're trying to do.
Finding (gerund)
a needle (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
in a haystack (prepositional phrase as adverb)
Gerund Phrase

The gerund phrase functions as the direct object of
the verb appreciate.
I hope that you appreciate my offering you this
opportunity.
my (possessive pronoun adjective form, modifying the
gerund)
offering (gerund)
you (indirect object of action expressed in gerund)
this opportunity (direct object of action expressed in
gerund)
Gerund Phrase


The gerund phrase functions as the subject complement.
Newt's favorite tactic has been lying to his constituents.
lying to (gerund)
his constituents (direct object of action expressed in
gerund)
The gerund phrase functions as the object of the
preposition for.
You might get in trouble for faking an illness to avoid
work.
faking (gerund)
an illness (direct object of action expressed in gerund)
to avoid work (infinitive phrase as adverb)
Gerund Phrase

The gerund phrase functions as the subject of the
sentence.
Being the boss made Jeff feel uneasy.
Being (gerund)
the boss (subject complement for Jeff, via state of being
expressed in gerund)
Gerunds




Points to remember:
A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that is used as a
noun.
A gerund phrase consists of a gerund plus modifier(s),
object(s), and/or complement(s).
Gerunds and gerund phrases virtually never require
punctuation.
Participles
A participle is a verb form that is
used as an adjective. The
participle can end in –ing, -ed, -n,
or –t.
Participles


The participle is a verb form that is used as an
adjective. The participle can end in –ing, -ed, -n, or
–t.
How to find it: Look for an adjective that is built
from a verb, or look for a verb form that is used as
an adjective.
Participles



Jane tried to calm the trembling dog. (trembling is
the participle.)
He tried to open the locked door. (The participle is
locked.)
The hidden road was not obvious to the visitors. (The
participle is hidden.)
Participial Phrases




A participial phrase consists of a participle and any
modifiers or complements it may have. The entire
phrase functions as an adjective.
Example: The man talking to the woman in the red
dress is the president of the association.
The participial phrase talking to the woman in the
red dress functions as an adjective, modifying the
noun man. If you take the phrase out of the
sentence, since it is just an adjective, you still have
the basic sentence:
The man is the president of the association..
Participial Phrases

How to find it: Look for a phrase that begins with a
word that is a verb form (it usually ends in –ing but
it can also end in –ed, -n, or –t). You might say that
the purpose of a participial phrase is to point out
which noun we’re talking about. The participial
phrase will point it out. It tells “which one.” The
participial phrase usually sits next to the noun it
modifies. Remember that it functions as and
adjective and can therefore be removed from the
sentence and the sentence will still make sense.
Participial Phrase

I have read that book lying on the table.

The dog chasing his tail is mine.

The girl singing that song is one of my students.

Checking his notes for the last time, the student walked
toward the podium. (all introductory participial phrases
must be followed by a comma)
Infinitives
An infinitive is the word to
followed by the present tense of a
verb. It can function as a noun, an
adjective, or an adverb.
Infinitives






An infinitive is the word to followed by the present
tense of a verb.
Example: to run
to sing
to dance
I like to run. He wanted to sing. We tried to dance.
The infinitive can be used in many ways. It can
function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Noun:
To sing is my dream.
Adjective:
He is the man to see.
Adverb:
He was quick to speak.
Infinitive Phrases


The infinitive phrase includes the infinitive and any
modifiers or complements it may have.
Example: He wants to go to the store.
Sam is the man to see about the job.
He has gone to visit the famous monument.

How to find it: Look for the word to immediately
followed by a verb. Include all words that are
necessary to complete the idea established by the
infinitive. Example: to sing (infinitive) to sing a song
(infinitive phrase)
Infinitive Phrases

I tried to see the production.

Sometimes it is necessary to speak one’s thoughts.

The dress to wear to the party is the cute black one.

To run for public office requires courage.
ADJECTIVES
ADVERBS
Mrs. Nichols
English II Pre-AP
Adjectives


An adjective describes a noun. It tells which one, what
kind, what color, and how many. An adjective adds
descriptive information about the noun.
Example: I own a dog.
Which one?
What kind?
What color?
How many?
I own that dog.
I own that large dog.
I own that large, brown dog.
I own that one slobbering, large, brown dog.
Adjectives

The adjective usually comes before the noun it
describes.
 Example:

However, adjectives can sometimes come
immediately after the nouns they modify.
 Example:

I saw the big, yellow cat.
I saw the tired and exhausted man.
I saw the man, tired and exhausted.
Adjectives can also come at the opposite end of the
sentence. They are called predicate nominatives (or
predicate adjectives) in this position.
 Example:
The woman wearing that ridiculous hat with
the flower on top is very pretty.
Underline the adjective(s) in each of the following
sentences.
1.
2.
Have you seen the red dress?
The tired, old woman walked along the beaten
trail.
Beginning sentences with adjectives
Example: The young man, wise and analytical, knew
how to handle the problem.
Wise and analytical, the young man knew how to
handle the problem.
1.
2.
The young student, aware of his mistakes, made an
effort to rewrite the paper properly.
The woman, hesitant to accept the gift, blushed
with embarrassment.
Adverbs


An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an
adjective, or another adverb. It answers the
questions when, where, how, and to what extent.
Most adverbs are made by simply adding –ly to an
adjective. Some will have slight alterations in
spelling when the –ly is added.
Adjective
Adverb
quick
quickly
beautiful
beautifully
awful
awfully
true
truly
Adverbs

Many other adverbs do not end in –ly. They still
answer the questions when, where, how, and to what
extent.
When
Where
How
To What Extent
tomorrow here
well
not
before
there
so
then
nowhere
very
never
everywhere
too
Underline the adverb in each of the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Have you ever seen that movie?
I have always wanted to go to France.
We saw the dog yesterday in the park.
The child tried to run away.
Beginning sentences with adverbs
Example: I began to listen to him eventually.
Eventually I began to listen to him.
1.
2.
I will address that issue later.
She danced across the floor gracefully.
Adverbs followed by verbs
Rewrite the sentences so that each sentence begins with
an adverb immediately followed by the verb.
Example: I have never known anyone so smart.
Never have I known anyone so smart.
1.
2.
We have often met with approval.
I have never seen such dignity.