Shakespeare: His Life and Times What comes to mind when you hear, “SHAKESPEARE?” Early Life Born 1564—died 1616 Stratford-upon-Avon Parents: John and Mary Arden Shakespeare • • Mary—daughter of wealthy landowner John—glovemaker, local politician Location of Stratford-upon-Avon From: http://www.where-can-i-find.com/tourist-maps.html Stratford-on-Avon in Shakespeare’s Time As reproduced in William Rolfe, Shakespeare the Boy (1896). Stratford-upon-Avon Today From Stratford’s web site: http://www.stratford-upon-avon.co.uk/index.htm Shakespeare’s Birthplace From: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/danielle.esposito/ Education • Probably attended King’s New School in Stratford • Educated in: • Rhetoric • Logic • History • Latin King’s New School From: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/danielle.esposito/ Married Life • Married in 1582 to Anne Hathaway, who was pregnant at the time with their first daughter • Had twins in 1585 • Sometime between 1585-1592, he moved to London and began working in theatre. Anne Hathaway’s Cottage From: http://perso.wanadoo.fr/danielle.esposito/ Theatre Career • Member and later part-owner of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, later called the King’s Men • Globe Theater built in 1599 by L.C.M. with Shakespeare as primary investor • Burned down in 1613 during one of Shakespeare’s plays The Rebuilt Globe Theater, London The Globe Theater The Plays 38 plays firmly attributed to Shakespeare 14 comedies 10 histories 10 tragedies 4 romances Possibly wrote three others Collaborated on several others The Poetry • 154 Sonnets • Numerous other poems Shakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare did NOT write in “Old English.” •5th-12th Centuries (400-1100) • Old English is the language of Beowulf: Hwaet! We Gardena in geardagum Þeodcyninga Þrym gefrunon Hu ða æÞelingas ellen fremedon! (Hey! We have heard of the glory of the SpearDanes in the old days, the kings of tribes, how noble princes showed great courage!) Shakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare did not write in “Middle English.” •12-16th centuries (1100-1500) • Middle English is the language of Chaucer, the Gawainpoet, and Malory: We redeth oft and findeth y-write— And this clerkes wele it wite— Layes that ben in harping Ben y-founde of ferli thing… (Sir Orfeo) “Often in books - and men of letters will vouch for this - we find tales that were originally intended to be sung and which have lying at their core some strange and wonderful things.” Shakespeare’s Language • Shakespeare wrote in “Early Modern English.” (1500-1650s) • EME was not very different from “Modern English” (1650s to now) Shakespeare’s Language • A mix of old and very new • Rural and urban words/images • Understandable by the lowest peasant and the highest noble QUIZ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. When (approx) did Shakespeare live? What social class was he born into? How many children did he have? What theater did he help build? What four categories do his plays fit into? Did Shakespeare write in Old English, Middle English, Early Modern English, or Modern English?