Rise of Dictators
Hitler
Mussolini
Japan
Great Depression

The cost of World War One was
devastating
– About $180 billion was spent on the war
– About $150 billion was spent on rebuilding

Most countries had never had experienced
this type of massive spending ever in history
Great Depression



Many nations needed to look to capitalistic nations
for money to rebuild or to pay off debts
Britain which had once been the financial center of
the world was now basically broke
The United States now became the financial
center-The United States now began to loan
money to Europe
Great Depression


Many countries relied
on loans and credit
from the United States
This was evident in
loans like the Dawes
Plan
Great Depression

Dawes Plan-1923
– The Dawes Plan was used
to help Germany get out of
it’s inflationary state in 1923
– The United States gives
Germany a 200 million
dollar loan
– Germany is also given a
realistic time frame to the
debts
– The German economy
recovers
– German factories begin
producing goods at the
same rate as before the war
– People invest in German
factories and goods
– Germany recovers
– HOWEVER-Germany still
needed to pay back the 200
Great Depression


Two countries that heavily relied on the
credit and loans of the United States were
France and Germany
France had a large debt due to loaning
Russia large sums of money during the war
– The Bolsheviks refused to pay France the
loaned money saying that they were not
responsible for the loans
Great Depression

Germany
– In the Treaty of Versailles
Germany had to bore the
burden of paying the
reparations for the warespecially to France
– Germany looked to U.S.
credit to pay it’s debts (Like
paying one credit card debt
with another credit card)
Great Depression
Germany gets credit from
The U.S. to pay debts
To France
France takes the
payments from Germany
backed by U.S. credit
France rebuilds its
economy based on German
payments of U.S. credit
From 1924 to 1929
everything worked well
U.S. and European
economies grew
However everything
was based on credit
(we are good for the money
idea)
In 1929
everything fell apart
the loans would never
be repaid
Great Depression


In October 1929 the
U.S. stock market also
based on credit
crashed
American banks
stopped extending
credit-especially high
risk European nationslike France
Great Depression


The effect was that the U.S. and Europe ran out of
money
The U.S. and Germany were hit the hardest
– In each country 1/3 of the workforce was unemployed
– In each country the dominate political party was
rejected


U.S.-Republicans were out
Germany-Conservative Democratic Republic were out
Great Depression

While the world had seen depressions and
recessions in the past what made the Great
Depression unprecedented was its duration
– Most countries only recovered after a decade
with the start of World War Two production
Great Depression



Economic hardship lead to radical political
changes in Europe
Countries like Germany and Italy did not have a
long tradition of democratic traditions-They had
more experience with monarchies
People wanted a government to solve their
economic problems-No matter what type of
government it was!
Reasons for Dictators



The depression in Europe gave rise to the
dictators in Spain, Italy and Germany.
People lost hope in democracies and wanted
a strong leader to correct the problems.
Strong leaders promised solutions to the
problems in their countries.
Mussolini’s Italy
Fascism

A political movement that
promotes
– Extremely Right-wing
– Extreme Nationalism

Often based on racism
– Imperialism
– Dictatorial government
– Denial of individual rights
– One party system

The main idea of Fascism is
Destroy the will of the
individual in favor of the
people
Fascism
Strong
Military
Blind Loyalty
To the
leader
State controlled
economy
Fascism
Use of
Violence and
Terror
Use of
Censorship
&
Propaganda
Extreme
Nationalism
Fascism

Fascism differs from Stalin’s totalitarian
government in that Stalin was seen as a extreme
left-wing
– Stalin sought to destroy the traditional institutions- i.e.church
– Stalin further sought to destroy the class system

Mussolini and the Fascist with their extreme form of
nationalism sought to build up the class system in Italy
The Rise of Mussolini

Italy after World War I
– The Treaty of Versailles
gave away land that had
been promised to Italy by
Britain and France.
– Italy’s economy was slow




Men could not find work
Trade was slow
Taxes were high (pay for
the war)
Workers went on strike
Mussolini




In 1919 Mussolini created the National Fascist
Party
Party squads known as Blackshirts were paid to
fight with the socialist and communist
The destruction of the socialist and communist
parties lead to the support of the factory owners
and the land owners
With this support Mussolini and his party
members were elected to the Italian Parliament
The Rise of Mussolini

Benito Mussolini
– Mussolini took
advantage of the unrest
and economic
problems in Italy to
force King Victor
Emmanuel III to
appoint him to a key
cabinet post
The Rise of Mussolini

Mussolini used his
Blackshirts to march
on Rome and the King
gave into Mussolini
and appointed him
prime Minster
The Rise of Mussolini

By 1922 the Fascist
and Mussolini were in
power.
– They used violence
and terror to win
elections.

Once in power Mussolini ended
– Free elections
– Free speech
– Free Press
The Rise of Mussolini



By 1926 Mussolini had
killed off many of his
political opponents
Democracy was ended
in Italy-Mussolini was
now the totalitarian
dictator of Italy
Italy now turned to a
policy of expansion
Class Question

In some countries Fascism was regarded as
a possible alternative to democratic and
parliamentary government

Why
Hitler’s Germany
Class Question


Without the Great Depression there is no
Hitler
Yes or no-Why or why not
The Rise of Hitler

Germany after World War I
– The Kaiser stepped down
– A democratic government
called the Weimar Republic
took over
– Leader of this government
was Paul Hindenburg
– The Weimar Rep. was weak
– Inflation caused a major
economic problem
– People were poor
Wiemar Republic

Wiemar Republic
– As soldiers returned home from World War
One many were upset over the harsh conditions
of the Treaty of Versailles
– Workers and soldiers began to form councils in
cities like Berlin to discuss the current state of
Germany
– Out of these councils grew political groups
Wiemar Republic




Germany was also experiencing an
economic crisis
$33 billion dollars in war reparations
The collapse of the once prosperous
German economy
Many looked to a strong conservative
democratic republic-The Wiemar Republic
Wiemar Republic

The Wiemar Republic
– Paul von Hindenberg a
German war hero
became president of
the government

However Hindenberg
was not a good choice
for a leader-He was not
in favor of the republic
Wiemar Republic




The new republic faced a serious economic problems
The Wiemar Republic to meet the economic problems
began printing money causing severe inflation
There was a time of prosperity in Germany from about
1925-1929 when there was an easing of the debt payments
and Germany was able to borrow money from the U.S. to
repay debts-This was to be short lived
Finally the Wiemar Republic was seen as the government
that had signed the Treaty of Versailles
Germany and The Great
Depression




The loss of World War One after coming close to
winning
The inflation of 1923 which had wiped out the
savings of most middle class German families
Finally the Great Depression of 1929 caused more
misery and unemployment than in any other
country in the world
Some in Germany had enough with democracy
The Rise of Hitler


Germany needed a
leader who could fix
the economic
problems and restore
pride in Germany.
Adolf Hitler and the
Nazi party promised
to fix Germany.
The Rise of Hitler




In 1921 Hitler becomes
head of the German
Workers Party (GWP)
The GWP later becomes
the National Socialist
German Workers (Nazi)
In 1933 Hitler was named
Chancellor of Germany.
By 1934 Hitler was
dictator of Germany
German Workers Party
Start of the Nazi Party




In 1919, Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder and
Dietrich Eckart formed the German Worker's
Party (GPW) in Munich.
The German Workers Party was upset over
Germany being blamed for World War One.
The party also blamed the Wiemar Government
and the Jews for Germany accepting defeat.
The party also focused on creating a pure blood
Germany free of all non Germans like the Jews
and the Poles.
NSDAP/Nazi Party




In April, 1920, Hitler pushes for a name change of
the party.
They call themselves the National Socialist
German Workers Party (NSDAP). NAZI
While Hitler hated socialist ideas, socialism was a
popular political philosophy in Germany after the
First World War and appealed to many people.
By 1921 Hitler pushes for and gets control of the
party
Party Ideals




In February 1920, the NSDAP published its first
program which became known as the Twenty-Five
Points.
In the program the party refused to accept the
terms of the Versailles Treaty and called for the
reunification of all German people.
To reinforce their ideas on nationalism, equal
rights were only to be given to German citizens.
Foreigners and aliens would be denied these
rights.
Beginning of the Nazi Party
NSDAP/Nazi Party


He created his own personal
army of storm troopers, the
Sturmbabteilung or SA.
The group wore brown
uniforms, the same color as the
victorious British army, hence
the nickname “Brownshirts.”
Beer Hall Putsch



Adolph Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar
Republic, and declared at a public rally on October
30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin
to rid the government of the Communists and the
Jews.
On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a
Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution.
The following day, he led 2,000 armed "brownshirts" in an attempt to take over the Bavarian
government.
Beer Hall Putsch




On November 8, Hitler led his army to a beer hall
in Bavaria where local government leaders were
holding a meeting.
The Nazis quickly captured the politicians and
Hitler put himself in charge.
The group then marched on the former Bavarian
War Ministry building when the police opened fire.
During the riot the man beside Hitler was killed as
he pulled his leader to the ground.
Beer Hall Putsch



The failure of the Beer Hall Putsch brought the obscure
Hitler his first national publicity.
Hitler was arrested and, after a 24-day trial, sentenced to
five years in Landsberg fortress a country-club type prisons
where white-collar criminals were sent.
Hitler received a steady stream of visitors and presents and
was treated more like he was on a picnic outing than
serving as an inmate.
Beer Hall Putsch

The failure of the “Beer Hall Putsch” taught
Hitler valuable lessons of power.
– not to get into any more battles with an enemy
that was larger and better armed.
– his best chance to gain power would be through
the use of votes rather than bullets.
Mein Kampf



Hitler served only nine months of his five-year
term.
While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein
Kampf.
It was partly an autobiographical book although
filled with
– glorified inaccuracies
– self-serving half-truths
– which detailed his views on the future of the German
people.
Mein Kampf

In Mein Kampf, Hitler laid out his views on the
centrality of Aryan purity to historical progress
– The mortal danger posed by world Jewry and
international communism,
– The necessity of rebuilding German power, and the
importance of expanding Germany’s borders to provide
the living space, Lebensraum, the German people require.


Hitler did not conceal his intentions; they were in
black and white for anyone to read.
However very few in or outside Germany actually
read the book.
Hitler Political Rise to Power




Hitler was released from prison on December 20, 1924,
after serving just over a year of his sentence. The Germany
of 1924 was dramatically different from the Germany of
1923.
The economic policies of the German government had
proved successful.
Inflation had been brought under control and the economy
began to improve.
The German people gradually gained a new faith in their
democratic system and began to find the extremist
solutions proposed by people such as Hitler unattractive.
Rise to Power


Using the Great Depression and the economic
problems of Germany as a platform Hitler was
able to increase control the Nazi’s had in
parliament
In September 1930, the Nazi Party increased its
number of representatives in parliament from 14
to 107. Hitler was now the leader of the second
largest party in Germany.
1933 Elections




Although Hitler had the support of certain
sections of the German population he never
gained an elected majority.
The best the Nazis could do in a election was 37.3
per cent of the vote they gained in July 1932.
When Hitler became chancellor in January 1933,
the Nazis only had a third of the seats in the
Reichstag.
Hitler declared that there would be new elections
held in a month
Reichstag Fire
Reichstag Fire



Before the elections were held the Reichstag
building was burned down.
The Nazis claimed that the communist set
fire to the Reichstag to destroy the German
government.
Marinus van der Lubbe from Holland who
was a communist was found on the
property.
Reichstag Fire




Lubbe was found at the
Reichstag after the fire.
Lubbe was tortured and
confessed to the fire.
Lubbe was executed Jan.
10th 1934.
It is believed today that
the Nazis actually started
the fire and used Lubbe as
a scapegoat.
1933 Elections



After the fire it was agreed that Hitler
should take dictatorial power to ensure the
safety of the government.
Many communist leaders were arrested and
either executed or placed in concentration
camps.
The elections were held on March 5th 1933
however the Nazis only gained 43% of the
vote.
Enabling Bill

Hitler persuaded
President Hindenburg
to sign an emergency
decree authorizing
Hitler to suspend all
civil rights and arrest
and execute any
suspicious person.
Enabling Bill



After the elections Hitler and the Nazis
needed to find a way to take power.
Hitler used his dictatorial powers to start
eliminating members of the communist and
socialist parties.
The many communist and socialist
members of the Reichstag were either
eliminated or removed from their positions.
Enabling Bill


When the vote came up in the Reichstag
granting Hitler full dictatorial power few
were left to vote against the bill.
Hitler was now dictator and free to
eliminate any who opposed him.
Nazi Book Burning May
1933
th
10
Class Question

Why would the Nazis want to burn books?

What is the danger in burning/banning
books?
The Rise of Hitler

Hitler
– Creates a new
Germany called the
Third Reich.
The Rise of Hitler

Hitler
– Turns Germany into a
totalitarian state.
– Creates a one party system
(Nazi Party)
– Ends civil rights
– Murders many of his
political enemies.
– Uses force and terror to
enforce his rule.
– Uses propaganda, art and
education to promote him
and the Nazi party.
The Rise of Hitler

Hitler
– Puts businesses under
government control.
– Starts public works
programs which
employs many people.
– Rebuilds the military.
– Raises the standard of
living.
The Rise of Hitler


Hitler instituted programs against Jews to
restrict their lives in an attempt to drive
them from Germany.
Many did not care about Hitler’s policies
many were just happy being employed and
having a renewed sense of military and
nationalistic pride.
Hitler and Mussolini

Positives:
– Both Hitler and
Mussolini improved
the economic
conditions of their
nations.
– Both restored order to
their countries.
– Both brought back
nationalistic pride.

Negatives:
– Many lost individual
rights.
– Many were driven out
of the countries or
murdered.
The Rise of Japanese
Militarism

The Japanese began a
program of militarism
in the 1930’s
– Japan wanted to
restore its greatness
– Get rid of western
influence
– Gain foreign lands
The Rise of Japanese
Militarism




In 1931 Japan attacks
Manchuria.
Japan withdraws from
the League of Nations.
An increase in loyalty
to the emperor.
Japan attempts to
imperialize China.
World War Two
The Causes
World War Two





In the 1930’s Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to
build new empires.
All three became aggressive in taking over land.
The League of Nations was weak and could not
stop this aggressive imperialism.
Western nations were trying to recover from a
depression and at first paid little attention to Italy,
Germany or Japan.
Western nations did not want war.
After World War One

Several attempts were made after World
War One to stop aggression and warfare in
the world
– League of Nations (1921)
– Washington Naval Conference (1921)
– Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)
League of Nations


The League of Nations was an international
organization founded after the Paris Peace
Conference of 1919.
The League's goals included;
–
–
–
–
Disarmament
preventing war through collective security
settling disputes between countries through negotiation
improving global welfare
League of Nations


The League lacked an armed
force of its own and so
depended on the great powers
to enforce its resolutions and
these countries they were often
very reluctant to do.
The League ultimately proved
incapable of preventing
aggression by the Germany,
Japan, and Italy in the 1930s
Washington Naval Conference



The Washington Naval Conference was a
diplomatic conference, called by the administration
of President Harding and held in Washington D.C.
from 1921-1922
Conducted outside the boundaries of the League
of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having
interests in the Pacific Ocean.
It was the first disarmament conference in history
Washington Naval Conference


The primary objective of the conference
was to inhibit Japanese naval expansion in
the west Pacific.
Their secondary objectives were intended to
ultimately limit Japanese and British
aggression
Kellogg-Briand Pact



An agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928, condemning
“recourse to war for the solution of international
controversies.”
It is more properly known as the Pact of Paris.
Aristide Briand, foreign minister of France
proposed to the U.S. government a treaty
outlawing war between the two countries.
Kellogg-Briand


The Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations—
Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia,
France, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Irish
Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland,
South Africa, and the United States.
The parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts,
no matter of what origin or nature, should be
sought only by peaceful means and that war was to
be renounced as an instrument of national policy.
Kellogg-Briand


Although 62 nations ultimately ratified the pact it
failed to provide measures of enforcement.
The pact proved to be meaningless, especially with
the practice of waging undeclared wars in the
1930s (the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in
1931, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, and
the German occupation of Austria in 1938).
Italy




In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia
looking for new land.
The Ethiopians had outdated
weapons and could not stop the
Italian Army.
The Emperor of Ethiopia Haile
Selassie appealed to the League
of Nations for help.
The League could do little but
try to ban the sale of weapons
to Italy. Not all countries
agreed to the ban.
Japan

In 1931 Japan invades
Manchuria. When the
League of Nations
condemns the act
Japan withdraws from
the League.
Japan




In 1937 Japan invades mainland
China.
The Chinese army outnumbers
the Japanese however the
Japanese have better weapons.
Japan overruns China and sets
up a puppet government in
Nanjing.
The Japanese are so brutal to
the Chinese at Nanjing that the
Japanese control over Nanjing
is called the “rape of Nanjing”
Germany

Hitler glorifies war as a
way of restoring
national pride to
Germany. (Militarism).
Germany

Hitler begins a policy of
German land expansion
later known as lebensraum
or “living space”.

Hitler rebuilds the
German Army a direct
violation of the Treaty of
Versailles.
Germany

In 1936 Hitler moves
troops into the Rhineland
on the boarder of France.
A direct violation of the
Treaty of Versailles.
Germany

In March 1938 Hitler
moves troops into Austria
creating an Anschluss or
union between Austria
and Germany.

A direct violation of the
Treaty of Versailles.
Britain and France ignore
the pledge to help Austria.

Germany


In September 1938 Hitler
demanded the western
part of Czechoslovakia
known as the Sudetenland
become part of Germany.
Hitler claimed that 3
million German speaking
people lived there and
should be German
territory.
Appeasement



The Czech Government refused to give the
Sudetenland to Hitler.
The Czech’s had an alliance with France and
asked France for help.
Britain and France began to prepare for war.
Appeasement/The Munich
Conference
To avoid war
Mussolini sets up
a meeting
between
France, Britain,
Italy and
Germany
The meeting
called the
Munich
Conference is
held
Sept. 29, 1938
Chamberlain
gives into
Hitler’s
demands
On Sept. 30, 1938
Hitler takes
over the
Sudetenland
The Czechs
are not
invited
Hitler agrees to
respect
Czechoslovakia's
new boarders.
War is avoid.
British
Prime Minister
Chamberlain
tries to
preserve peace
March 1939
German troops
take over the
rest of
Czechoslovakia.
Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression
Pact


France and Britain
asked the Soviet
Union to help stop
German aggression.
The democracies of
France and Britain and
the Communist of the
Soviet Union did not
trust each other.
Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression
Pact




Hitler also began talks
with the Soviet Union.
On August 23, 1939
Germany and the Soviet
Union agreed not to attack
each other.
Now only France and
Britain could stop Hitler.
Hitler was also clear to
invade Poland.
The Invasion of Poland



In April 1939 Hitler
demanded the upper
western part of Poland be
returned to Germany.
France and Britain
refused.
On Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler
invaded Poland and
started World War Two.
Axis Powers

Germany, Italy and
Japan formed the Axis
Powers.