Rise of Dictators Hitler Mussolini Japan Great Depression The cost of World War One was devastating – About $180 billion was spent on the war – About $150 billion was spent on rebuilding Most countries had never had experienced this type of massive spending ever in history Great Depression Many nations needed to look to capitalistic nations for money to rebuild or to pay off debts Britain which had once been the financial center of the world was now basically broke The United States now became the financial center-The United States now began to loan money to Europe Great Depression Many countries relied on loans and credit from the United States This was evident in loans like the Dawes Plan Great Depression Dawes Plan-1923 – The Dawes Plan was used to help Germany get out of it’s inflationary state in 1923 – The United States gives Germany a 200 million dollar loan – Germany is also given a realistic time frame to the debts – The German economy recovers – German factories begin producing goods at the same rate as before the war – People invest in German factories and goods – Germany recovers – HOWEVER-Germany still needed to pay back the 200 Great Depression Two countries that heavily relied on the credit and loans of the United States were France and Germany France had a large debt due to loaning Russia large sums of money during the war – The Bolsheviks refused to pay France the loaned money saying that they were not responsible for the loans Great Depression Germany – In the Treaty of Versailles Germany had to bore the burden of paying the reparations for the warespecially to France – Germany looked to U.S. credit to pay it’s debts (Like paying one credit card debt with another credit card) Great Depression Germany gets credit from The U.S. to pay debts To France France takes the payments from Germany backed by U.S. credit France rebuilds its economy based on German payments of U.S. credit From 1924 to 1929 everything worked well U.S. and European economies grew However everything was based on credit (we are good for the money idea) In 1929 everything fell apart the loans would never be repaid Great Depression In October 1929 the U.S. stock market also based on credit crashed American banks stopped extending credit-especially high risk European nationslike France Great Depression The effect was that the U.S. and Europe ran out of money The U.S. and Germany were hit the hardest – In each country 1/3 of the workforce was unemployed – In each country the dominate political party was rejected U.S.-Republicans were out Germany-Conservative Democratic Republic were out Great Depression While the world had seen depressions and recessions in the past what made the Great Depression unprecedented was its duration – Most countries only recovered after a decade with the start of World War Two production Great Depression Economic hardship lead to radical political changes in Europe Countries like Germany and Italy did not have a long tradition of democratic traditions-They had more experience with monarchies People wanted a government to solve their economic problems-No matter what type of government it was! Reasons for Dictators The depression in Europe gave rise to the dictators in Spain, Italy and Germany. People lost hope in democracies and wanted a strong leader to correct the problems. Strong leaders promised solutions to the problems in their countries. Mussolini’s Italy Fascism A political movement that promotes – Extremely Right-wing – Extreme Nationalism Often based on racism – Imperialism – Dictatorial government – Denial of individual rights – One party system The main idea of Fascism is Destroy the will of the individual in favor of the people Fascism Strong Military Blind Loyalty To the leader State controlled economy Fascism Use of Violence and Terror Use of Censorship & Propaganda Extreme Nationalism Fascism Fascism differs from Stalin’s totalitarian government in that Stalin was seen as a extreme left-wing – Stalin sought to destroy the traditional institutions- i.e.church – Stalin further sought to destroy the class system Mussolini and the Fascist with their extreme form of nationalism sought to build up the class system in Italy The Rise of Mussolini Italy after World War I – The Treaty of Versailles gave away land that had been promised to Italy by Britain and France. – Italy’s economy was slow Men could not find work Trade was slow Taxes were high (pay for the war) Workers went on strike Mussolini In 1919 Mussolini created the National Fascist Party Party squads known as Blackshirts were paid to fight with the socialist and communist The destruction of the socialist and communist parties lead to the support of the factory owners and the land owners With this support Mussolini and his party members were elected to the Italian Parliament The Rise of Mussolini Benito Mussolini – Mussolini took advantage of the unrest and economic problems in Italy to force King Victor Emmanuel III to appoint him to a key cabinet post The Rise of Mussolini Mussolini used his Blackshirts to march on Rome and the King gave into Mussolini and appointed him prime Minster The Rise of Mussolini By 1922 the Fascist and Mussolini were in power. – They used violence and terror to win elections. Once in power Mussolini ended – Free elections – Free speech – Free Press The Rise of Mussolini By 1926 Mussolini had killed off many of his political opponents Democracy was ended in Italy-Mussolini was now the totalitarian dictator of Italy Italy now turned to a policy of expansion Class Question In some countries Fascism was regarded as a possible alternative to democratic and parliamentary government Why Hitler’s Germany Class Question Without the Great Depression there is no Hitler Yes or no-Why or why not The Rise of Hitler Germany after World War I – The Kaiser stepped down – A democratic government called the Weimar Republic took over – Leader of this government was Paul Hindenburg – The Weimar Rep. was weak – Inflation caused a major economic problem – People were poor Wiemar Republic Wiemar Republic – As soldiers returned home from World War One many were upset over the harsh conditions of the Treaty of Versailles – Workers and soldiers began to form councils in cities like Berlin to discuss the current state of Germany – Out of these councils grew political groups Wiemar Republic Germany was also experiencing an economic crisis $33 billion dollars in war reparations The collapse of the once prosperous German economy Many looked to a strong conservative democratic republic-The Wiemar Republic Wiemar Republic The Wiemar Republic – Paul von Hindenberg a German war hero became president of the government However Hindenberg was not a good choice for a leader-He was not in favor of the republic Wiemar Republic The new republic faced a serious economic problems The Wiemar Republic to meet the economic problems began printing money causing severe inflation There was a time of prosperity in Germany from about 1925-1929 when there was an easing of the debt payments and Germany was able to borrow money from the U.S. to repay debts-This was to be short lived Finally the Wiemar Republic was seen as the government that had signed the Treaty of Versailles Germany and The Great Depression The loss of World War One after coming close to winning The inflation of 1923 which had wiped out the savings of most middle class German families Finally the Great Depression of 1929 caused more misery and unemployment than in any other country in the world Some in Germany had enough with democracy The Rise of Hitler Germany needed a leader who could fix the economic problems and restore pride in Germany. Adolf Hitler and the Nazi party promised to fix Germany. The Rise of Hitler In 1921 Hitler becomes head of the German Workers Party (GWP) The GWP later becomes the National Socialist German Workers (Nazi) In 1933 Hitler was named Chancellor of Germany. By 1934 Hitler was dictator of Germany German Workers Party Start of the Nazi Party In 1919, Anton Drexler, Gottfried Feder and Dietrich Eckart formed the German Worker's Party (GPW) in Munich. The German Workers Party was upset over Germany being blamed for World War One. The party also blamed the Wiemar Government and the Jews for Germany accepting defeat. The party also focused on creating a pure blood Germany free of all non Germans like the Jews and the Poles. NSDAP/Nazi Party In April, 1920, Hitler pushes for a name change of the party. They call themselves the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP). NAZI While Hitler hated socialist ideas, socialism was a popular political philosophy in Germany after the First World War and appealed to many people. By 1921 Hitler pushes for and gets control of the party Party Ideals In February 1920, the NSDAP published its first program which became known as the Twenty-Five Points. In the program the party refused to accept the terms of the Versailles Treaty and called for the reunification of all German people. To reinforce their ideas on nationalism, equal rights were only to be given to German citizens. Foreigners and aliens would be denied these rights. Beginning of the Nazi Party NSDAP/Nazi Party He created his own personal army of storm troopers, the Sturmbabteilung or SA. The group wore brown uniforms, the same color as the victorious British army, hence the nickname “Brownshirts.” Beer Hall Putsch Adolph Hitler endorsed the fall of the Weimar Republic, and declared at a public rally on October 30, 1923 that he was prepared to march on Berlin to rid the government of the Communists and the Jews. On November 8, 1923, Hitler held a rally at a Munich beer hall and proclaimed a revolution. The following day, he led 2,000 armed "brownshirts" in an attempt to take over the Bavarian government. Beer Hall Putsch On November 8, Hitler led his army to a beer hall in Bavaria where local government leaders were holding a meeting. The Nazis quickly captured the politicians and Hitler put himself in charge. The group then marched on the former Bavarian War Ministry building when the police opened fire. During the riot the man beside Hitler was killed as he pulled his leader to the ground. Beer Hall Putsch The failure of the Beer Hall Putsch brought the obscure Hitler his first national publicity. Hitler was arrested and, after a 24-day trial, sentenced to five years in Landsberg fortress a country-club type prisons where white-collar criminals were sent. Hitler received a steady stream of visitors and presents and was treated more like he was on a picnic outing than serving as an inmate. Beer Hall Putsch The failure of the “Beer Hall Putsch” taught Hitler valuable lessons of power. – not to get into any more battles with an enemy that was larger and better armed. – his best chance to gain power would be through the use of votes rather than bullets. Mein Kampf Hitler served only nine months of his five-year term. While in prison, he wrote the first volume of Mein Kampf. It was partly an autobiographical book although filled with – glorified inaccuracies – self-serving half-truths – which detailed his views on the future of the German people. Mein Kampf In Mein Kampf, Hitler laid out his views on the centrality of Aryan purity to historical progress – The mortal danger posed by world Jewry and international communism, – The necessity of rebuilding German power, and the importance of expanding Germany’s borders to provide the living space, Lebensraum, the German people require. Hitler did not conceal his intentions; they were in black and white for anyone to read. However very few in or outside Germany actually read the book. Hitler Political Rise to Power Hitler was released from prison on December 20, 1924, after serving just over a year of his sentence. The Germany of 1924 was dramatically different from the Germany of 1923. The economic policies of the German government had proved successful. Inflation had been brought under control and the economy began to improve. The German people gradually gained a new faith in their democratic system and began to find the extremist solutions proposed by people such as Hitler unattractive. Rise to Power Using the Great Depression and the economic problems of Germany as a platform Hitler was able to increase control the Nazi’s had in parliament In September 1930, the Nazi Party increased its number of representatives in parliament from 14 to 107. Hitler was now the leader of the second largest party in Germany. 1933 Elections Although Hitler had the support of certain sections of the German population he never gained an elected majority. The best the Nazis could do in a election was 37.3 per cent of the vote they gained in July 1932. When Hitler became chancellor in January 1933, the Nazis only had a third of the seats in the Reichstag. Hitler declared that there would be new elections held in a month Reichstag Fire Reichstag Fire Before the elections were held the Reichstag building was burned down. The Nazis claimed that the communist set fire to the Reichstag to destroy the German government. Marinus van der Lubbe from Holland who was a communist was found on the property. Reichstag Fire Lubbe was found at the Reichstag after the fire. Lubbe was tortured and confessed to the fire. Lubbe was executed Jan. 10th 1934. It is believed today that the Nazis actually started the fire and used Lubbe as a scapegoat. 1933 Elections After the fire it was agreed that Hitler should take dictatorial power to ensure the safety of the government. Many communist leaders were arrested and either executed or placed in concentration camps. The elections were held on March 5th 1933 however the Nazis only gained 43% of the vote. Enabling Bill Hitler persuaded President Hindenburg to sign an emergency decree authorizing Hitler to suspend all civil rights and arrest and execute any suspicious person. Enabling Bill After the elections Hitler and the Nazis needed to find a way to take power. Hitler used his dictatorial powers to start eliminating members of the communist and socialist parties. The many communist and socialist members of the Reichstag were either eliminated or removed from their positions. Enabling Bill When the vote came up in the Reichstag granting Hitler full dictatorial power few were left to vote against the bill. Hitler was now dictator and free to eliminate any who opposed him. Nazi Book Burning May 1933 th 10 Class Question Why would the Nazis want to burn books? What is the danger in burning/banning books? The Rise of Hitler Hitler – Creates a new Germany called the Third Reich. The Rise of Hitler Hitler – Turns Germany into a totalitarian state. – Creates a one party system (Nazi Party) – Ends civil rights – Murders many of his political enemies. – Uses force and terror to enforce his rule. – Uses propaganda, art and education to promote him and the Nazi party. The Rise of Hitler Hitler – Puts businesses under government control. – Starts public works programs which employs many people. – Rebuilds the military. – Raises the standard of living. The Rise of Hitler Hitler instituted programs against Jews to restrict their lives in an attempt to drive them from Germany. Many did not care about Hitler’s policies many were just happy being employed and having a renewed sense of military and nationalistic pride. Hitler and Mussolini Positives: – Both Hitler and Mussolini improved the economic conditions of their nations. – Both restored order to their countries. – Both brought back nationalistic pride. Negatives: – Many lost individual rights. – Many were driven out of the countries or murdered. The Rise of Japanese Militarism The Japanese began a program of militarism in the 1930’s – Japan wanted to restore its greatness – Get rid of western influence – Gain foreign lands The Rise of Japanese Militarism In 1931 Japan attacks Manchuria. Japan withdraws from the League of Nations. An increase in loyalty to the emperor. Japan attempts to imperialize China. World War Two The Causes World War Two In the 1930’s Germany, Italy and Japan wanted to build new empires. All three became aggressive in taking over land. The League of Nations was weak and could not stop this aggressive imperialism. Western nations were trying to recover from a depression and at first paid little attention to Italy, Germany or Japan. Western nations did not want war. After World War One Several attempts were made after World War One to stop aggression and warfare in the world – League of Nations (1921) – Washington Naval Conference (1921) – Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928) League of Nations The League of Nations was an international organization founded after the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. The League's goals included; – – – – Disarmament preventing war through collective security settling disputes between countries through negotiation improving global welfare League of Nations The League lacked an armed force of its own and so depended on the great powers to enforce its resolutions and these countries they were often very reluctant to do. The League ultimately proved incapable of preventing aggression by the Germany, Japan, and Italy in the 1930s Washington Naval Conference The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference, called by the administration of President Harding and held in Washington D.C. from 1921-1922 Conducted outside the boundaries of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean. It was the first disarmament conference in history Washington Naval Conference The primary objective of the conference was to inhibit Japanese naval expansion in the west Pacific. Their secondary objectives were intended to ultimately limit Japanese and British aggression Kellogg-Briand Pact An agreement, signed Aug. 27, 1928, condemning “recourse to war for the solution of international controversies.” It is more properly known as the Pact of Paris. Aristide Briand, foreign minister of France proposed to the U.S. government a treaty outlawing war between the two countries. Kellogg-Briand The Pact of Paris was signed by 15 nations— Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, the Irish Free State, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Poland, South Africa, and the United States. The parties agreed that settlement of all conflicts, no matter of what origin or nature, should be sought only by peaceful means and that war was to be renounced as an instrument of national policy. Kellogg-Briand Although 62 nations ultimately ratified the pact it failed to provide measures of enforcement. The pact proved to be meaningless, especially with the practice of waging undeclared wars in the 1930s (the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, and the German occupation of Austria in 1938). Italy In 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia looking for new land. The Ethiopians had outdated weapons and could not stop the Italian Army. The Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League could do little but try to ban the sale of weapons to Italy. Not all countries agreed to the ban. Japan In 1931 Japan invades Manchuria. When the League of Nations condemns the act Japan withdraws from the League. Japan In 1937 Japan invades mainland China. The Chinese army outnumbers the Japanese however the Japanese have better weapons. Japan overruns China and sets up a puppet government in Nanjing. The Japanese are so brutal to the Chinese at Nanjing that the Japanese control over Nanjing is called the “rape of Nanjing” Germany Hitler glorifies war as a way of restoring national pride to Germany. (Militarism). Germany Hitler begins a policy of German land expansion later known as lebensraum or “living space”. Hitler rebuilds the German Army a direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany In 1936 Hitler moves troops into the Rhineland on the boarder of France. A direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Germany In March 1938 Hitler moves troops into Austria creating an Anschluss or union between Austria and Germany. A direct violation of the Treaty of Versailles. Britain and France ignore the pledge to help Austria. Germany In September 1938 Hitler demanded the western part of Czechoslovakia known as the Sudetenland become part of Germany. Hitler claimed that 3 million German speaking people lived there and should be German territory. Appeasement The Czech Government refused to give the Sudetenland to Hitler. The Czech’s had an alliance with France and asked France for help. Britain and France began to prepare for war. Appeasement/The Munich Conference To avoid war Mussolini sets up a meeting between France, Britain, Italy and Germany The meeting called the Munich Conference is held Sept. 29, 1938 Chamberlain gives into Hitler’s demands On Sept. 30, 1938 Hitler takes over the Sudetenland The Czechs are not invited Hitler agrees to respect Czechoslovakia's new boarders. War is avoid. British Prime Minister Chamberlain tries to preserve peace March 1939 German troops take over the rest of Czechoslovakia. Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression Pact France and Britain asked the Soviet Union to help stop German aggression. The democracies of France and Britain and the Communist of the Soviet Union did not trust each other. Nazi/Soviet Nonaggression Pact Hitler also began talks with the Soviet Union. On August 23, 1939 Germany and the Soviet Union agreed not to attack each other. Now only France and Britain could stop Hitler. Hitler was also clear to invade Poland. The Invasion of Poland In April 1939 Hitler demanded the upper western part of Poland be returned to Germany. France and Britain refused. On Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland and started World War Two. Axis Powers Germany, Italy and Japan formed the Axis Powers.