Introduction to
Linguistics
Ms. Suha Jawabreh
Lecture # 5
Review: The Organs of Speech
The Larynx and the Vocal Folds
Review: Place of Articulation
-Place of Articulation is the
location at which two speech
organs approach or come
together in producing a speech
sound.
1. Bilabials : These are sounds formed using both
(= bi) upper and lower lips (= labia)
-The initial sounds in the words:
bat , pat , map , and walk are all bilabials.
-These sounds are represented by the symbols :
[b] , [p] , [m], [w].
2. labiodentals: These are sounds formed with the
upper teeth and the lower lip.
-The initial sounds of the words fat , vat are
labiodentals.
-These sounds are represented by the symbols:
[f], [v].
3. Dentals: These sounds are formed with the
tongue tip behind the upper front teeth.
- The initial sounds in the words: three and then
are dentals.
-These sounds are represented by the symbols:
[θ], [ð].
4. Alveolars: These sounds are formed with the
front part of the tongue on the alveolar ridge.
The initial sounds in the words : top, dip, sit , zoo,
nut, lap and rip.
- These sounds are represented by the symbols:
[t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], [r].
5. Alveo-palatals: These sounds are produced
with the tongue at the very front of the
palate, near the alveolar ridge.
- The initial sounds in the words: ship, chip,
gem, and the middle consonant sound in
words like pleasure are alveo-palatal.
- These sounds are represented by the
symbols: [ʃ], [tʃ], [ʒ], [dʒ].
6. Palatals: One sound which is produced with
the tongue in the middle of the palate is the
[j] sound to be found at the beginning of
words like you and yet.
7. Velars: These sounds are produced with
the back of the tongue against the velum
( the soft palate) .
- The initial sounds in the words: kid, gig
and the middle consonant sound in words
like English are velars.
- These sounds are represented by the
symbols: [k], [g], [ŋ].
8. Glottals: There is one sound that is
produced without the active use of the
tongue and other parts of the mouth. It is
the sound [h].
- The sound [h] is produced with the air
passing through the opening between the
separated vocal folds. This opening is
called the glottis.
- The sound [ h] occurs at the beginning of
words like house and have.
Manner of Articulation
- Manner of articulation describes how
the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech
organs are involved in making a sound.
- The concept is often only used for the
production of consonants.
Today, we’ll learn about a third way to describe
sounds: their manner of articulation
-[d], [n], and [z] are all voiced alveolar sounds
- What makes them different sounds?
-Their manner of articulation is different.
1. [d] is a stop (complete closure)
2. [z] is a fricative (incomplete closure)
3. [n] is a nasal (Airstream is allowed to flow
out through the nose)
-Manner of articulation: the various
configurations produced by positioning the
lips, tongue, velum, and glottis in
different ways.
★
★
★
★
★
★
Oral vs. Nasal
Stops
Fricatives
Affricates
Liquids
Approximants
Glides
Oral vs. Nasal
❖ The velum: soft part at the back of the
mouth behind the uvula.
❖ The velum can be raised and lowered.
★ When raised: blocks airflow through the
nasal passage (the nose) ➙ oral sounds
★ When lowered: air flows through the
nasal passage ➙ nasal sounds
- Look at the animations of [p] and [m] on
the UIowa Phonetics
Website.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phoneti
cs/english/english_main.swf
❖ Nasal consonants in English:
[m]: bilabial nasal, as in map
[n]: alveolar nasal, as in nap
[ŋ]: velar nasal, as in sang
Stops
❖ Stops: consonants made with a complete
closure either in the
oral cavity or in the glottis.
★ English stops: bilabial, alveolar, velar, glottal
❖ Try holding the sounds [p], [t] and [k]: what
happens to the
airflow?
1. Oral stops: complete closure in the oral cavity and the
velum is raised.
★ Oral stops: [p, t, k, b, d, g]
2. Glottal stop: [ʔ] complete closure in the glottis.
★ Always voiceless
3. Nasal stops: complete closure in the oral cavity, but the
velum is raised. Air escapes through the nasal passage.
★ Nasal stops: [m, n, ŋ]
★ More sonorous than other stops (louder, more intense):
airflow is not as restricted.
★ Always voiced
❖ Look at the animations of stops on the
UIowa Phonetics Website.
http://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phoneti
cs/english/english_main.swf
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Introduction to Linguistics lecture 5 - An