Database Systems:
Design, Implementation, and
Management
Tenth Edition
Chapter 12
Distributed Database Management
Systems
The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• Distributed database management system
(DDBMS)
– Governs storage and processing of logically related
data over interconnected computer systems
– Both data and processing functions are distributed
among several sites
• 1970s - Centralized database required that
corporate data be stored in a single central site
– Usually a mainframe computer
– Data access via dumb terminals
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The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• Wasn’t responsive to need for faster response times
and quick access to information
• Slow process to approve and develop new application
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The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• Social and technological changes led to change
• Businesses went global; competition was now in
cyberspace not next door
• Customer demands and market needs required Webbased services
• rapid development of low-cost, smart mobile devices
increased the demand for complex and fast networks to
interconnect them – cloud based services
• Multiple types of data (voice, image, video, music)
which are geographically distributed must be managed
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The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• As a result, businesses had to react quickly to
remain competitive. This required:
• Rapid ad hoc data access became crucial in
the quick-response decision making
environment
• Distributed data access to support
geographically dispersed business units
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The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• The following factors strongly influenced the shape of the
response
• Acceptance of the Internet as the platform for data access
and distribution
• The mobile wireless revolution
• Created high demand for data access
• Use of “applications as a service”
• Company data stored on central servers but applications are
deployed “in the cloud”
• Increased focus on mobile BI
• Use of social networks increases need for on-the-spot
decision making
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The Evolution of Distributed Database
Management Systems
• The distributed database is especially desirable because
centralized database management is subject to problems such
as:
• Performance degradation as remote locations and distances
increase
• High cost to maintain and operate
• Reliability issues with a single site and need for data
replication
• Scalability problems due to a single location (space, power
consumption, etc)
• Organizational rigidity imposed by the database – might not
be able to support flexibility and agility required by modern
global organizations
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Distributed Processing and Distributed
Databases
• Distributed processing
– Database’s logical processing is shared among two or
more physically independent sites connected through
a network
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Distributed Processing and Distributed Databases
• Distributed database
– Stores logically related database over two or more physically
independent sites
– Database composed of database fragments
• Located at different sites and can be replicated among various sites
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Distributed Processing and Distributed Databases
• Distributed processing does not require a distributed
database, but a distributed database requires
distributed processing
• Distributed processing may be based on a single
database located on a single computer
• For the management of distributed data to occur,
copies or parts of the database processing functions
must be distributed to all data storage sites
• Both distributed processing and distributed databases
require a network of interconnected components
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Characteristics of Distributed
Management Systems
• Application interface to interact with the end user,
application programs and other DBMSs within the
distributed database
• Validation to analyze data requests for syntax
correctness
• Transformation to decompose complex requests into
atomic data request components
• Query optimization to find the best access strategy
• Mapping to determine the data location of local and
remote fragments
• I/O interface to read or write data from or to permannet
local storage
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Characteristics of Distributed
Management Systems (cont’d.)
• Formatting to prepare the data for presentation to the end
user or to an application
• Security to provide data privacy at both local and remote
databases
• Backup and recovery to ensure the availability and
recoverability of the database in case of failure
• DB administration features for the DBA
• Concurrency control to manage simultaneous data access
and to ensure data consistency across database
fragments in the DDBMS
• Transaction management to ensure the data move from
one consistent state to another
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Characteristics of Distributed
Management Systems (cont’d.)
• Must perform all the functions of centralized
DBMS
• Must handle all necessary functions imposed
by distribution of data and processing
– Must perform these additional functions
transparently to the end user
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• The single logical database consists of two database fragments A1 and A2
located at sites 1 and 2
• All users “see” and query the database as if it were a local database,
• The fact that there are fragments is completely transparent to the user
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DDBMS Components
• Must include (at least) the following
components:
– Computer workstations/remote devices
– Network hardware and software that reside
in each device or w/s to interact and
exchange data
– Communications media that carry data from
one site to another
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DDBMS Components (cont’d.)
– Transaction processor (a.k.a application
processor, transaction manager)
• Software component found in each computer that
receives and processes the application’s remote
and local data requests
– Data processor or data manager
• Software component residing on each computer
that stores and retrieves data located at the site
• May be a centralized DBMS
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DDBMS Components (cont’d.)
• The communication among the TPs and DPs is
made possible through protocols which determine
how the DDBMS will
– Interface with the network to transport data and
commands between the DPs and TPs
– Synchronize all data received from DPs and route
retrieved data to appropriate TPs
– Ensure common DB functions in a distributed system
e.g., data security, transaction management,
concurrency control, data partitioning and
synchronization and data backup and recovery
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Levels of Data
and Process Distribution
• Current systems classified by how process
distribution and data distribution are supported
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Single-Site Processing,
Single-Site Data
• All processing is done on single CPU or host computer
(mainframe, midrange, or PC)
• All data are stored on host computer’s local disk
• Processing cannot be done on end user’s side of system
• Typical of most mainframe and midrange computer
DBMSs
• DBMS is located on host computer, which is accessed by
dumb terminals connected to it
– The TP and DP functions are embedded within the DBMS
on the host computer
– DBMS usually runs under a time-sharing, multitasking OS
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Multiple-Site Processing,
Single-Site Data
• Multiple processes run on different computers
sharing single data repository
• MPSD scenario requires network file server
running conventional applications
– Accessed through LAN
• Many multiuser accounting applications, running
under personal computer network
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Multiple-Site Processing,
Single-Site Data
• The TP on each w/s acts only as a redirector to route all
network data requests to the file server
• The end user sees the fileserver as just another hard drive
• The end user must make a direct reference to the file
server to access remote data
– All record- and file-locking are performed at the end-user
location
• All data selection, search and update take place at the w/s
– Entire files travel through the network for processing at the
w/s which increases network traffic, slows response time
and increases communication costs
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Multiple-Site Processing,
Single-Site Data
• Suppose the file server stores a CUSTOMER table
containing 100,000 data rows, 50 of which have
balances greater than $1,000
• The SQL command
SELECT * FROM CUSTOMER WHERE CUST_BALANCE >
1000
causes all 100,000 rows to travel to end user w/s
• A variation of MSP/SSD is client/server architecture
– All DB processing is done at the server site
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Multiple-Site Processing,
Multiple-Site Data
• Fully distributed database management system
• Support for multiple data processors and
transaction processors at multiple sites
• Classified as either homogeneous or
heterogeneous
• Homogeneous DDBMSs
– Integrate multiple instances of the same DBMS
over a network
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Multiple-Site Processing,
Multiple-Site Data (cont’d.)
• Heterogeneous DDBMSs
– Integrate different types of centralized DBMSs
over a network but all support the same data
model
• Fully heterogeneous DDBMSs
– Support different DBMSs
– Support different data models (relational,
hierarchical, or network)
– Different computer systems, such as
mainframes and microcomputers
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Distributed Database Transparency Features
• Allow end user to feel like database’s only user
• Features include:
–
–
–
–
–
Distribution transparency
Transaction transparency
Failure transparency
Performance transparency
Heterogeneity transparency
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Distributed Database Transparency Features
• Distribution Transparency
– Allows management of physically dispersed
database as if centralized
– The user does not need to know
• That the table’s rows and columns are split
vertically or horizontally and stored among multiple
sites
• That the data are geographically dispersed among
multiple sites
• That the data are replicated among multiple sites
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Distributed Database Transparency Features
• Transaction Transparency
– Allows a transaction to update data at more than one
network site
– Ensures that the transaction will be either entirely
completed or aborted in order to maintain database
integrity
• Failure Transparency
– Ensures that the system will continue to operate in the
event of a node or network failure
– Functions that were lost will be picked up by another
network node
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Distributed Database Transparency Features
• Performance Transparency
– Allows the system to perform as if it were a centralized
DBMS
• No performance degradation due to use of a network or platform
differences
• System will find the most cost effective path to access remote data
• System will increase performance capacity without affecting overall
performance when adding more TP or DP nodes
• Heterogeneity Transparency
– Allows the integration of several different local DBMSs under
a common global schema
• DDBMS translates the data requests from the global schema to the
local DBMS schema
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Distribution Transparency
• Allows management of physically dispersed database
as if centralized
• Three levels of distribution transparency:
– Fragmentation transparency
• End user does not need to know that a DB is partitioned
– SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE…
– Location transparency
• Must specify the database fragment names but not the
location
– SELECT * FROM E1 WHERE … UNION
– Local mapping transparency
• Must specify fragment name and location
– SELECT * FROM E1 “NODE” NY WHERE … UNION
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Distribution Transparency
• Supported by a distributed data dictionary (DDD)
or distributed data catalog (DDC)
– Contains the description of the entire database as
seen by the DBA
– It is distributed and replicated at the network nodes
– The database description, known as the distributed
global schema, is the common database schema
used by local TPs to translate user requests into
subqueries that will be processed by different DPs
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Transaction Transparency
• Ensures database transactions will maintain
distributed database’s integrity and consistency
• Ensures transaction completed only when all
database sites involved complete their part
• Distributed database systems require complex
mechanisms to manage transactions and
ensure consistency and integrity
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Distributed Requests and Distributed
Transactions
• Remote request: single SQL statement accesses
data from single remote database
– The SQL statement can reference data only at one
remote site
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Distributed Requests and Distributed
Transactions
• Remote transaction: composed of several requests, accesses
data at single remote site
–
–
–
–
Updates PRODUCT and INVOICE tables at site B
Remote transaction is sent to B and executed there
Transaction can reference only one remote DP
Each SQL statement can reference only one remote DP and the
entire transaction can reference and be executed at only one
remote DP
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Distributed Requests and Distributed
Transactions
• Distributed transaction: requests data from several different
remote sites on network
– Each single request can reference only one local or remote DP site
– The transaction as a whole can reference multiple DP sites because
each request can reference a different site
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Distributed Requests and Distributed
Transactions
• Distributed request: single SQL statement references data at
several DP sites
– A DB can be partitioned into several fragments
– Fragmentation transparency: reference one or more of those
fragments with only one request
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Distributed Requests and Distributed
Transactions
• A single request can reference a physically
partitioned table
– CUSTOMER table is divided into two fragments C1 and
C2 located at sites B and C
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Distributed Concurrency Control
• Concurrency control is important in distributed
environment
– Multisite multiple-process operations create
inconsistencies and deadlocked transactions
• Suppose a transaction updates data at three DP
sites
– The first two DP sites complete the transaction and
commit the data at each local DP
– The third DP cannot commit the transaction but the
first two sites cannot be rolled back since they were
committed. This results in an inconsistent database
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Two-Phase Commit Protocol
• Distributed databases make it possible for
transaction to access data at several sites
• 2PC guarantees that if a portion of a transaction can
not be committed, all changes made at the other
sites will be undone
– Final COMMIT is issued after all sites have
committed their parts of transaction
– Requires that each DP’s transaction log entry be
written before database fragment updated
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Two-Phase Commit Protocol
• DO-UNDO-REDO protocol with write-ahead protocol
– DO performs the operation and records the “before”
and “after” values in the transaction log
– UNDO reverses an operation using the log entries
written by the DO portion of the sequence
– REDO redoes an operation, using the log entries
written by the DO portion
• Requires a write-ahead protocol where the log entry
is written to permanent storage before the actual
operation takes place
• 2PC defines the operations between the coordinator
(transaction initiator) and one or more subordinates
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Two-Phase Commit Protocol
• Phase 1: preparation
– The coordinator sends a PREPARE TO COMMIT
message to all subordinates
• The subordinates receive the message, write the
transaction log using the write-ahead protocol and send
an acknowledgement message (YES/PREPARED TO
COMMIT or NO/NOT PREAPRED ) to the coordinator
• The coordinator make sure all nodes are ready to
commit or it aborts the action
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Two-Phase Commit Protocol
• Phase 2 The Final COMMIT
– The coordinator broadcasts a COMMIT to all
subordinates and waits for replies
– Each subordinate receives the COMMIT and then
updates the database using the DO protocol
– The subordinates replay with a COMMITTED or NOT
COMMITTED message to the coordinator
– If one or more subordinates do not commit, the
coordinator sends an ABORT message and the
subordinates UNDO all changes
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Performance and Failure Transparency
• Performance transparency
– Allows a DDBMS to perform as if it were a centralized
database; no performance degradation
• Failure transparency
– System will continue to operate in the case of a node or
network failure
• Query optimization
– Minimize the total cost associated with the execution of
a request (CPU, communication, I/O)
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Performance and Failure Transparency
• In a DDBMS, transactions are distributed among
multiple nodes. Determining what data are being used
becomes more complex
– Data distribution: determine which fragment to access,
create multiple data requests to the chosen DPs,
combine the responses and present the data to the
application
– Data Replication: data may be replicated at several
different sites making the access problem even more
complex as all copies must be consistent
• Replica transparency - DDBMS’s ability to hide multiple
copies of data from the user
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Performance and Failure Transparency
• Network and node availability
– The response time associated with remote sites cannot
be easily predetermined because some nodes finish
their part of the query in less time than others and
network path performance varies because of bandwidth
and traffic loads
– The DDBMS must consider
• Network latency
– Delay imposed by the amount of time required for a
data packet to make a round trip from point A to point
B
• Network partitioning
– Delay imposed when nodes become suddenly
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unavailable due to a network failure
Distributed Database Design
• Data fragmentation
– How to partition database into fragments
• Data replication
– Which fragments to replicate
• Data allocation
– Where to locate those fragments and replicas
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Data Fragmentation
• Breaks single object into two or more segments
or fragments
• Each fragment can be stored at any site over
computer network
• Information stored in distributed data catalog
(DDC)
– Accessed by TP to process user requests
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Data Fragmentation Strategies
• Horizontal fragmentation
– Division of a relation into subsets (fragments) of tuples
(rows)
– Each fragment is stored at a different node and each
fragment has unique rows
• Vertical fragmentation
– Division of a relation into attribute (column) subsets
– Each fragment is stored at a different node and each
fragment has unique columns with the exception of the
key column which is common to all fragments
• Mixed fragmentation
– Combination of horizontal and vertical strategies
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Data Fragmentation Strategies
• Horizontal fragmentation based on CUS_STATE
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Data Fragmentation Strategies
• Vertical fragmentation based on use by service and
collections departments
• Both require the same key column and have the same
number of rows
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Data Fragmentation Strategies
• Mixed fragmentation based on location as well as use by
service and collections departments
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Data Replication
• Data copies stored at multiple sites served by
computer network
• Fragment copies stored at several sites to serve
specific information requirements
– Enhance data availability and response time
– Reduce communication and total query costs
• Mutual consistency rule: all copies of data
fragments must be identical
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Data Replication
• Styles of replication
– Push replication: after a data update, the
originating DP node sends the changes to the
replica nodes to ensure that data are immediately
updated
• Decreases data availability due to the latency
involved in ensuring data consistemcy at all nodes
– Pull replication: after a data update, the originating
DP sends “messages” to the replica nodes to notify
them of a change. The replica nodes decide when
to apply the updates to their local fragment
• Could have temporary data inconsistencies
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Data Replication
• Fully replicated database
– Stores multiple copies of each database fragment at
multiple sites
– Can be impractical due to amount of overhead
• Partially replicated database
– Stores multiple copies of some database fragments at
multiple sites
• Unreplicated database
– Stores each database fragment at single site
– No duplicate database fragments
• Data replication is influenced by several factors
– Database size
– Usage frequency
– Cost: performance, overhead
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Data Allocation
• Deciding where to locate data
– Allocation is closely related to the way a database
is fragmented or divided
– Centralized data allocation
• Entire database is stored at one site
– Partitioned data allocation
• Database is divided into several disjointed parts
(fragments) and stored at several sites
– Replicated data allocation
• Copies of one or more database fragments are
stored at several sites
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The CAP Theorem
• Initials CAP stand for three desirable properties
– Consistency
– Availability
– Partition tolerance (similar to failure transparency)
• When dealing with highly distributed systems, some
companies forfeit consistency and isolation to achieve
higher availability
• This has led to a new type of DDBMS in which data
are basically available, soft state, eventually
consistent (BASE)
– Data changes are not immediate but propagate slowly
through the system until all replicas are eventually
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consistent
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C. J. Date’s Twelve Commandments for
Distributed Databases
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Chapter 12 - Distributed Database Management Systems