Data Modeling for
the Business
using CA ERwin® Modeling
Burbank
Nome:•DonnaDonna
Burbank
•Director of Product Marketing, CA
ERwin
Chris Bradley
Apresentação:
Data Modeling for the
Business Consulting Partner, IPL
Business
PAGE 1
Agenda
• Data Modeling for the Business
– Starting with a High-Level Business View
– Tips for Implementing your High-Level Model
– Using CA ERwin solutions
– Case Study
• ERwin.com/BR – Online Community
PAGE 2
Who Are You? Survey
• How would you describe your role?
A. Data Architect, Data Modeler, or Analyst
B. Businessperson or Business Analyst
C. DBA or Technical IT
D. A combination of the above
E. Other
PAGE 3
Who am I?
• Donna Burbank has more than more than 15 years of experience in the areas of
data management, metadata management, and enterprise architecture.
– Currently is the senior director of product marketing for CA’s data modeling solutions.
– Has served in key brand strategy and product management roles at Computer
Associates and Embarcadero Technologies and as a senior consultant for PLATINUM
technology’s information management consulting division in both the U.S. and
Europe.
– Has worked with dozens of Fortune 500 companies worldwide in the U.S., Europe,
Asia, and Africa and speaks regularly at industry conferences.
– Has recently co-authored a new book entitled Data Modeling for the Business, with
Steve Hoberman & Chris Bradley
PAGE 4
The Challenge
• You’ve been tasked to assist in the creation of a MDM hub
• Trying to obtain a single view of ‘customer’
• Technical and political challenges exist
– Numerous systems have been built already—different platforms and databases
– Parties cannot agree on a single definition of what a ‘customer’ is
• Solution: Need to build a High-Level Data Model
PAGE 5
What is a High-Level Data Model?
• A high-level data model (HDM) uses simple graphical images to
describe core concepts and principles of an organization and
what they mean
• The main audience of a HDM is businesspeople
• An HDM is used to facilitate communication
• It needs to be high-level enough to be intuitive, but still capture
the rules and definitions needed to create database systems.
PAGE 6
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
PAGE 7
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
Location
Product
Customer
Region
Order
Raw
Material
Ingredient
PAGE 8
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
PAGE 9
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
PAGE 10
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
UML
PAGE 11
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
UML
ORM
PAGE 12
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
PAGE 13
“A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words”
Examples of High-Level Data Models
PAGE 14
Is Notation Important?
• Many Notations can be used to express a high-level data model
• The choice of notation depends on purpose and audience
• For data-related initiatives, such as MDM and DW:
– ER modeling using IE (Information Engineering) is our choice of notation (i.e.
“crow’s feet”)
– It is important that your high-level model uses a tool that can generate DDL, or can
import/export with a tool that can
– A repository-based solution helps with reuse and standards for enterprise-wide
initiatives
PAGE 15
Levels of Data Models
PAGE 16
Levels of Data Models
• Models can be built
– Top-Down
– Bottom-Up
– Using a Hybrid Approach
PAGE 17
What is in a Name?
• The High-Level Data Model goes by many names
PAGE 18
Many names for a High-Level Data Model
PAGE 19
How is this Different from a Logical Model?
VHDM
Defines the scope, audience, context for
information
Main purpose is for communication and
agreement of scope and context
Relationships optional. If shown,
represent hierarchy.
Cardinality not shown
No attributes shown
Not normalized (Relational models)
Subject names should represent highlevel data subjects or functional areas of
the business
Subjects link to 1-M HDMs
‘One pager’
Business-driven
Informal notation
< 20 objects
PAGE 20
HDM
LDM
Defines key business concepts and their
definitions
Main purpose is for communication and
agreement of definitions and business
logic
Many-to-Many relationships OK
Represents core business rules and data
relationships at a detailed level
Provides enough detail for subsequent
first cut physical design
Cardinality shown
Attributes are optional. If shown, can be
composite attributes to convey business
meaning.
Not normalized (Relational models)
Cardinality shown
Attributes required and all attributes are
atomic. Primary and foreign keys
defined.
Fully normalized (Relational models)
Concept names should use business
terminology
Entity names may be more abstract
Many concepts are supertypes, although
subtypes may be shown for clarity
Should be a ‘one pager’
Cross-functional & more senior people
involved in HDM process with fewer IT.
‘Looser’ notation required – some format
construct needed, but ultimate goal is to
be understood by a business user
< 100 objects
Supertypes all broken out to include subtypes
May be larger than one page
Multiple smaller groups of specialists
and IT folks involved in LDM process.
Formal notation required
Many-to-Many relationships resolved
> 100 objects
Building a High-Level Data Model
• Let’s go back to our challenge, to achieve a ‘single version of the
truth’ for Customer information
• We have 6 different systems with customer information in them:
– 2 on Oracle
– 1 on DB2
– 1 using legacy IDMS
– 1 SAP system
Oracle
– 1 using MS SQL Server
Oracle
DB2
IDMS
SQL
Server
PAGE 21
SAP
Building a High-Level Data Model
• We start with a very simple HDM, with just one object on it,
called “Customer”.
• We use an ER Model and show business definitions
Too Simple??
PAGE 22
Too simple?
• Our team thought so, so went ahead and focused on the
technical integration, including:
– Reverse engineering a physical model from each system
– Creating ETL scripts
– Migrating the data into a single hub
– Building a reporting system off of the data
PAGE 23
Focusing on the Business
• This implementation went “perfectly”, with no errors in the
scripts, no data type inconsistencies, no delays in schedule, etc.
• We built a complex BI reporting system to show our upper
management the results.
• We even sent out a welcome email to all of our customers, giving
them a 50% off coupon, and thanking them for their support.
PAGE 24
Focusing on the Business
• Until we showed the report to the business sponsor:
– We can’t have 2000 customers in this region! I know we only have around 400!
– Why is Jones’ Tire on this list? They are still evaluating our product! Sales was
negotiating a 10% discount with them, and you just sent them a 50% coupon!?!?
– You just spent all of that money in IT to build this report with bad data???
PAGE 25
Back to the Drawing Board
• After doing an extensive review of the six source systems, and
talking with the system owners we discovered that:
– The DB2 system was actually used by Sales to track their prospective “customers”
– These “customers” didn’t match our definition—they didn’t own a product of
ours!!
PAGE 26
Oops!
• We were mixing current customers, with prospects (noncustomers).
– We just sent a discount coupon to 1600 of the wrong people!
– We gave upper management a report showing the wrong figure for our total
number of customers!
– We are now significantly over budget to have to go back and fix this!!
• We started over, this time with a High-Level Data Model
PAGE 27
Achieving Consensus
• We created a report of the various definitions of customer
> And verified with the various stakeholders that:
 There were 2 (and only 2 definitions) of customer
 Sales was OK with calling their “customer” a “prospect”
PAGE 28
Resolving Differences
• Our new high-level data model looked like this:
PAGE 29
Identify Model Stakeholders
• Make sure ALL relevant parties are involved in the design process
– Get buy-in!
PAGE 30
Identify Model Stakeholders
• Make sure ALL relevant parties are involved in the design process
– Get buy-in!
PAGE 31
A HDM Facilitates Communication
• A High-Level Data Model Facilitates Communication between
Business and IT
– Focus on your (business) audience
• Intuitive display
• Capture the business rules and definitions in your model
– Simplicity does not mean lack of importance
• A simple model can express important concepts
• Ignoring the key business definitions can have negative affects
– A model or tool is only part of the solution
• Communication is key
• Process and Best Practices are critical to achieve consensus and buy-in
PAGE 32
Communication is the Main Goal
of a High-Level Data Model
• Wouldn’t it be helpful if we did this in daily life, too?
• i.e. “Let’s go on a family vacation!”
PAGE 33
Person
Concept
Definition
Father
Vacation
An opportunity to take the time to achieve new goals
Mother
Vacation
Time to relax and read a book
Jane
Vacation
A chance to get outside and exercise
Bobby
Vacation
Time to be with friends
Donna
Vacation
More time to build data models
Some Creative Ways to Facilitate Conversations with
Stakeholders
• Food!
– “Lunch and Learn”
– Bring candy to meetings
• Force?
– “No bathroom breaks until we reach consensus!”
• Active Listening
– Understand why there is disagreement (e.g. “Ingredient” vs. Raw Material)
• Fit into their schedule
– Webinars
– The “5 minute rule” for business execs – small, bite-sized models or questions.
PAGE 34
Roles Culture
DBAs, Data Architects and Executives are different creatures
•
•
•
•
•
DBA
Cautious
Analytical
Structured
Doesn’t like to
talk
“Just let me
code!”
•
•
•
•
•
•
Data Architect
Analytical
Structured
Passionate
“Big Picture” focused
Likes to Talk
“Let me tell you about my
data model!”
3NF
PAGE 35
•
•
•
•
•
•
Business Executive
Results-Oriented
“Big Picture” focused
Little Time
“How is this going to help
me?”
“I don’t care about your data
model.”
“I don’t have time.”
Identify Model Purpose
• Key to success of any project is finding the right pain-point and
solving it.
• Make sure your model focuses on a particular pain point, i.e.
migrating an application or understanding an area of the business
Existing
Proposed
Business
“Today an Account can
only be owned by one
Customer.”
“By next quarter, an
Account can be owned by
more than one Customer.”
Application
“In the legacy Account
Management system, we
call the customer an
Account Holder.”
“When we migrate to
SAP/R3, Account Holder
will be represented as
Object.”
PAGE 36
Managing the Technical Infrastructure
Why do you need a modeling tool, and not a drawing tool?
• Recall that we had multiple data sources on a variety of
platforms:
– 2 on Oracle
– 1 on DB2
– 1 using legacy IDMS
– 1 SAP system
– 1 using MS SQL Server
• How can CA ERwin help manage this?
Oracle
Oracle
DB2
IDMS
SQL
Server
PAGE 37
SAP
The CA ERwin® Modeling Family
PAGE 38
*The mark of Saphir is used with the consent of Silwood Technology, Limited
Creating a Data Inventory with
CA ERwin Data Modeler
• CA ERwin Data Modeler can reverse and forward engineer from all leading DBMSs – we
use this to inventory our Oracle, DB2, and SQL Server data sources
• “Design Once, Reuse Many Times” across heterogeneous platforms
• Design layers allow you to have a single high-level model pointing to numerous
physical model platforms.
Oracle
DB2
SQL Server
PAGE 39
Design Layers Create both Business
and Technical Designs
Business
Sponsor
Data
Architect
Logical Data Model
(Business Area 1)
DBA
Physical Data
Model
(Oracle)
Physical Data
Model
(SQL Server)
Conceptual Data
Model
Logical Data Model
(Business Area 2)
Physical Data
Model
(DB2)
PAGE 40
A Data Model can be your Filter
• A Data Model can add:
– Focus – by Subject Area, by Platform, etc.
– Visualization – Different Views for Different Audiences
– Translation – to different DMBS AND to non DBMS formats such as UML, BI tools,
Excel, XML, etc, etc.
CA ERwin
Oracle
Oracle
DB2
ETC!
SQL
Server
Developers
Business
Sponsors
ETC!
DB2
3NF
IDMS
SAP
Data Architects
PAGE 41
DBAs
Filter Information by Subject Area
• Subject Areas help you filter by Subject / Content
PAGE 42
Create Different Displays for Different
Audiences
• Stored Displays help you filter by Audience - Business
PAGE 43
Create Different Displays for Different
Audiences
• Stored Displays help you filter by Audience - Technical
PAGE 44
How ERwin helps Share Information with
Various Audiences
• Metadata Bridges allows you to import export information from a variety
of sources: ETL, BI tools, ER modeling tools, UML tools, MDM hubs etc.
PAGE 45
Inferring Legacy Structures with
CA ERwin Data Profiler
• For our IDMS system, there is no relational structure or Primary/Foreign keys defined.
• We need to infer the structure from actual data values using CA ERwin Data Profiler, so
that we can import them into CA ERwin Data Modeler to reuse as part of our
enterprise architecture.
PAGE 46
Understanding ERP Systems with
CA ERwin Saphir Option
• We’ve now gotten an inventory of our databases: both legacy and
traditional DBMS. But what do we do about our SAP system?
– There are thousands of tables
– When we reverse engineer them, we get unintuitive German technical names
PAGE 47
Understanding ERP Systems with
CA ERwin Saphir Option
• Using the CA ERwin Saphir Option, we can easily group tables by
subject area, and can translate table and column names into
intuitive, English versions.
• And can more easily integrate SAP data models into our
enterprise data architecture.
PAGE 48
Managing the Data Inventory with
CA ERwin Model Manager
• CA ERwin Model Manager provides a single repository to store all of your data
model assets
• A collaborative environment for multiple modeling teams.
• Metadata storage for: multiple models, multiple dbms platforms, multiple
tools, multiple audiences
Multiple
Models
Multiple Tools
Multiple
DBMSs
Multiple
Audiences
Oracle
Teradata
BI Tools
DB2
SQL
Server
Spreadsheets
Developers
ETL Tools
Single Definition of
“Customer”
CA ERwin Model Manager
PAGE 49
Business
Sponsors
3NF
Data Architects
DBAs
Reporting – Sharing Information with Stakeholders
• Now that we’ve created an inventory of all of our data sources
and managed them with central models, we want to share this
information with users across the company.
• CA ERwin is now bundled with Crystal Reports to generate
reports for both business and technical users such as
– Logical/business attribute definitions
– Physical data structures
• In addition, the ERwin ODBC interface allows you to create similar
reports using other tools: Cognos, Pentaho, Excel, Access, etc.
PAGE 50
Reporting with Business Objects Crystal Reports
PAGE 51
Case Study – Major International Oil Company
PAGE 52
Corporate Culture
• A diverse, federated organization – culture encourages local decision making
within a corporate framework
• Before high-level models were introduced:
•
Data architecture performed in different Segments & Functions
•
Variety of tools & techniques used
•
Projects encountered common cross-business data concepts, but largely created
their own models & definitions
•
No overall context for models existed
•
Negative image regarding the term “models”
PAGE 53
Repurpose “Models”
• In addition to using traditional “data models”, the team translated their highlevel data models to
•
⁻
Excel Spreadsheets
⁻
Word Documents & Reports
⁻
HTML Pages on the web
It was the same information, but translated into a format the business users could
understand.
PAGE 54
Repurpose Models – MS Excel
PAGE 55
Community of Interest
• The data architecture team created a “Community of Interest” to:
– Share best practices inside company
– Exchange ideas across projects
• The goal was to get ALL users involved via
– “Lunch and Learn” meetings
– Webinars
– Training and Education
• Both Business and Technical resources were invited
PAGE 56
Case study lessons
• Understand roles and motivations and work within the
organization
–
–
–
–
–
–
Federated governance model
Avoid silo mentality
Communicate
Start small & document success
Make it easy to get hold of
Market, market, market!
• Follow up with a robust architecture
–
–
–
–
–
PAGE 57
Common repository
Models appropriate for the audience
Defined ownership/stewardship
Unique definitions
“Repurpose” data for various audiences: via the web, Excel, DDL, XML, etc. It’s
the data that’s important, not the format.
Case study lessons
• Understand roles and motivations and work within the
organization
–
–
–
–
Federated governance model
Avoid silo mentality
Communicate
Obtain buy in by starting small &
document success
– Make it easy to get hold of
– Market, market, market!
• Follow up with a robust architecture
–
–
–
–
PAGE 58
Common repository
Defined stewardship
Unique definitions
“Repurpose” data for various audiences: via the web, Excel, DDL, XML, etc. It’s
the data that’s important, not the format.
Summary
• A high-level data model can help achieve a “single view of
customer”
• Aim the HDM at the business user by being “generic” but keeping
enough detail to make it meaningful
• Treat your model like a project
– Identify pain points and solve them
– Identify stakeholders and market
– Document purpose and expected results
– Follow and organized, repeatable process
• Using high-level models can help increase communication with
the business and achieve better results
PAGE 59
Data Modeling for the Business
• Available at:
– Amazon.com
– Technics Publications
The authors of Data Modeling for the Business
do a masterful job at simply and clearly
describing the art of using data models to
communicate with business representatives and
meet business needs. The book provides many
valuable tools, analogies, and step-by-step
methods for effective data modeling and is an
important contribution in bridging the much
needed connection between data modeling and
realizing business requirements.
Len Silverston, author of The Data Model
Resource Book series
PAGE 60
To Learn More, Visit ERwin.com/br
“All Things Data Modeling” in Brasil - “Web 2.0”
PAGE 61
What is Web 2.0?
• From WikiPedia:
– The term "Web 2.0" (2004–present) is commonly associated with web applications that
facilitate interactive information sharing, interoperability, user-centered design, and
collaboration on the World Wide Web. Examples of Web 2.0 include web-based
communities, hosted services, web applications, social-networking sites, video-sharing
sites, wikis, blogs, mashups, and folksonomies. A Web 2.0 site allows its users to
interact with other users or to change website content, in contrast to non-interactive
websites where users are limited to the passive viewing of information that is
provided to them.
– The term is closely associated with Tim O'Reilly because of the O'Reilly Media Web 2.0
conference in 2004. Although the term suggests a new version of the World Wide Web,
it does not refer to an update to any technical specifications, but rather to cumulative
changes in the ways software developers and end-users use the Web.
PAGE 62
What is “Web 2.0”?
• Tim O’Reilly
PAGE 63
i.e. It’s all about YOU
PAGE 64
www.ERwin.com/Community
The Online Source for Data Management Professionals
• As Thought Leaders in the data modeling space for over 20
years, CA ERwin wanted to contribute back to the Community.
• Many of our Users have years and years of experience –
“harnessing the collective experience”.
• New Online Community formed with:
– Expert Blogs
– Online Discussion Forums
– User-Contributed Tips & Techniques
– FREE Community Edition Software!
– Photo Albums
– Social Media with Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn
PAGE 65
www.ERwin.com/Community
The Online Source for Data Management Professionals
PAGE 66
Expert Blogs on the ERwin Community
• Expert Commentary from:
– William McKnight
– Steve Hoberman
– Tom Haughey
– Malcolm Chisholm
– Alec Sharp
PAGE 67
White Paper Library/
Documentos Tecnicos
• Rate your Favorites
PAGE 68
Online Discussion Forum
• Discussion Forums are a interactive way to share your
expertise, and learn from others.
PAGE 69
User-Contributed Tips & Techniques
PAGE 70
Photo Albums/
Albuns de Fotos
PAGE 71
ERwin on Social Media
> Follow us on Twitter!
> “Friend” us on Facebook (ERwinModeling)
> Network on LinkedIn
> ERwin User Groupttp://causergroups.ca.com/usergroups/UserGroupHome.aspx?ID=397
• Twitter Feeds and links on www.erwin.com/community
PAGE 72
FREE Community Edition Software
• Free Community Edition of CA ERwin Data Modeler
– Perfect for Students, those learning modeling, fun on weekends. ;-)
PAGE 73
Coming Soon!
• Coming in September: ERworld 2010
• Online Conference for Data Management Professionals
–
–
–
–
–
Customer Case Studies
Industry Experts
Product How-To’s
Preview and Demo of ERwin r8
And More!
• Register at www.erwin.com/erworld
PAGE 74
Questions?
• Visit www.erwin.com/br for more information
PAGE 75
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