Teaching Literacy across the
Teaching reading comprehending
John Munro
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Literacy + learning in secondary classes
Although magnetic videotape has the
advantages of being cheap and easy to record
and re-record on, it is easily damaged when
stored near magnets. Magnets can change the
pattern that has been stored on the tape.
The films that you see at the cinema are
different from videotapes. Chemicals create
the picture on the cinema film. The film used
in cinemas, like that used in normal cameras,
cannot be re-recorded on and is more
expensive to make. Cinema films last much
longer and produce higher quality pictures.
Like other ancient civilizations, the civilization of
ancient Egypt developed around a river — the Nile.
It is the country’s lifeblood. Some 6000 kilometres
long, it flows from the wet highlands of central
Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally
empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean
Sea.
The Nile’s water, the plants and palms that grew on
its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived
in and around it all helped to sustain the society of
the ancient Egyptians.
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Van Gogh knew that colours can
produce moods, emotions and feelings
in those looking at paintings. Night
Life in Arles by van Gogh has colours
that lead to strong feelings.
Before reading
He referred to these colours are ‘blood
red’ and ‘pale sulphur’. He used them
to form an atmosphere that he said was
like ‘a devil’s furnace’… to express
the powers of darkness in a low bar’.
His paintings were strong through this
use of colours.
Solve 5x+7 = 37
5x+7-7 = 37-7
5x = 30
5x ÷ 5= 30÷ 5
x=6
After reading
What is literacy ?
Literacy is the knowledge students use to
convert written information to knowledge
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How do you read?
Read the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect
on what you do.
 There are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The
eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama
of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it
will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by
its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally.
 The struggles and education of man in social history had meaning
for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict
so that man might develop as man.
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Things you do
Re-read parts of the text more than once You look for the topic
You look for
Link the text with what they know
sentence meanings
meaning
Work out its topic
You look for the
You look for
Say
parts
of
it
in
their
own
words
topic meaning Comprehending strategies : readers use employ
sentence meanings
Use what
they know
about grammartext
to take
a range
of actions
to comprehend
and the
to
You look for
You look forlearn
sentences
from it apart
(Munro, 2002).
sentence meanings
sentence meanings
Use punctuation
Link what two or more sentences say
You look for discourse
You look at wordwork out what words mean in the context.
meaning – text thread
meanings
What
the difference
between
Try tois
summarize
or review
every comprehending
so often
and comprehension ?
You look for discourse
meaning – text thread
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Things you do
Re-read parts of the text more than once
Link the text with what they know
Work out its topic
Why do you need to do a range
of actions like this ?
Say parts of it in their own words
Use what they know about grammar to take the
sentences apart
Use punctuation
Link what two or more sentences say
work out what words mean in the context.
Try to summarize or review every so often
What readers do as they read a
text is to try to build a
representation or a model of it
in their heads ?
Re-read parts of the text more than once
Try to link the text with what they know
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Importance of vocabulary for literacy
and learning
We are going to read about the rules of indoor
soccer / living in ancient Egypt. What do you
think of /see in your mind when you hear this?
40 ideas
4 ideas
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Link between vocabulary and text
comprehension
Between 40% and 50% of the spread in
comprehension here is due to vocabularly
NAPLAN Comprehension Score
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Extract 2: Read aloud these ‘ba’ words.
bardocucullus
bacciferous
baragouin
batrachophobia
barbigerous
batrachian
baft
baryphonic
Comment on the knowledge and strategies you use to read these words:
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Developing the letter cluster generator
Teachers often need to help students
 become aware they have a ‘letter cluster generator’ that
allows then to learn new letter cluster patterns.
 link these with matching sound patterns.
 see themselves as ‘self teachers’.
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What do these ‘ba’ words mean ?
Read aloud the following text and work out what they might mean.
What do you do to work out their possible meanings.
The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without
pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were
placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers
made of more expensive and softer fabric.
Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was
largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the
batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first
sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard
failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him.
The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth
century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear
much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he
was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers.
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
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The meaning making motor tells you to
•
•
•
•
•
•
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note the meaning features that might go with the new
word
try to combine them into an image
guess at what the word might mean
check your understanding by reading the text again
modify your definition if necessary
check your impression with what the dictionary says.
12
Our self teaching capacity.
The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket
of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the
farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric.
Note our self teaching capacity.
Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible.
However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to
them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to
mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him.
What
do your students know
How often each week do they
The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The
hoodthis
exacerbated
baryecoia
and he did not hear
much of out
the speech
of those around the
him. This
about
? Dohisthey
know
1.Work
collaboratively
did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers.
1.that they can do this ?
meanings of new words ?
2.how to do this ?
2.Talk about the actions they use to do
3.when and why to do it ?
this ?
3.Learn to make increasingly more
complex links between ideas in the text
?
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How we think ahead when we read
Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the
weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his
coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you
today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell
looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was
dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.
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Tom’s day in the gym
weight lifter
Work with weights
Goal to strengthen muscles
Heavy weight
Light weight
Shoulder pull downs
Do exercises with
weights
Bench press
Wear particular gear
Exercises change how their body looks
Gym singlet
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
How well did you think ahead ?
Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the
weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his
coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you
today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell
looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark.
"I'll need to paint this one too", he said.
The flow-on to linked ideas
predict, infer, anticipate
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Tom’s day in the gym
Weights need to be painted
weight lifter
Weights can
be dark
colour
Work with weights
Heavy weight
Goal to strengthen muscles
Light weight
Shoulder pull downs
Do exercises with
weights
Bench press
Wear particular gear
Exercises change how their body looks
Gym singlet
What knowledge does the reader
need to comprehend the text ?
What do the words and
phrases in the text tell me
?
What does each sentence
tell me ?
What does each paragraph
tell me ? What is the
‘story threat’ ?
What is it about ? What is
its topic ?
Integrate
What does it tell
the
me ?
outcomes
Manage and
direct the
reading activity
Reader
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What is the text about
altogether ? What do I know
now that I didn’t know earlier
What is the purpose or
disposition of the text? What
is its genre ?
We use these types of knowledge
simultaneously
New Information
When we read we
use several types of knowledge at once
may give priority to one or more at any time
use most types automatically.
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What do you do to understand the text ?
We use a range of comprehending actions
What is its topic ? How will I
use this to link what I read ?
What does each sentence
mean ?
What is the main idea of
this paragraph ?
What does ‘multiphase
method’ or ingredient mean ?
What does this picture tell
me ?
Review and consolidate
the ideas in the text
What do the three
paragraphs tell me ?
We learn more about the text we read
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What do you do to understand the text ?
What type of text is this ?
What is its topic ? How
will I use this to link what
I read ?
What does ‘learn to track’
or annoyance mean ?
What does each sentence
mean ?
What is the main idea of
this paragraph ?
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What do the paragraphs
tell me ?
Review and consolidate
the ideas in the text
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What do you do to understand the text ?
We change our reading activity as we read
Early in reading activity
• What is its likely topic ? What type of text is this ?
• How will I use this to link what I read ?
While reading
•What does each sentence mean ? Read it aloud to self, parapahrase, use grammar
visualise, question, link with topic, predict.
•Work out word meanings.
•What is the main idea of this paragraph ? Link sentence meanings, summarise,
predict, question answered by paragraph.
•What is discourse meaning. Link the set of paragraph meanings.
Review and consolidate the ideas in the text
What are the main and supporting ideas in the text ? Store in memory
How will I use them ? Reflect on ideas, answer questions
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What knowledge does the reader
need to comprehend the text ?
Vocabulary, word
meanings
Meanings of sentences
Meanings of
paragraphs, network
of concepts
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Integrate
What does it tell
the
me ?
outcomes
Manage and
direct the
reading activity
Reader
Topic of text
Purpose,
disposition of text
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Literacy knowledge : converting
information to knowledge
New Information
An Egyptian
King is
buried in a
Pyramid.
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How the VELS English Developmental Continuum
describes text comprehension knowledge
For each six month interval:
The types of
texts students
are expected to
comprehend
independently
The types of comprehension
outcomes you can reasonably
expect for able readers, the types
of understanding or interpretations
they can form of the types of text
The comprehending
strategies students
should be able to
use independently
and with
scaffolding
The comprehending strategies or skills
The comprehending strategies or skills are organised into three phases,
based on what the readers need to do
early in
reading a text
while reading it
towards the end of
reading a session
Each is matched by an Indicator of Progress for Text Comprehension
The strategies and the matching indicators of
progress for getting knowledge ready
work out or
decide the likely
topic of a text
and use this to
organise their
understanding as
they read.
 Orienting strategies:
early in the reading
activity readers
use its genre to infer it
focus or the purpose for
which it was written;
they show this in the
ideas and events they
predict it might mention
and suggest questions it
might answer.
form a reading plan;
they show this in the
reading actions they
say they will use as
they read.
The strategies and the matching indicators of
progress for while reading
read part of the text at a
time, aloud or silently.
comprehend sentences,
using strategies such as
paraphrasing and
visualizing as they read
While reading
strategies: during
the reading activity
readers
identify or work out the
meanings of words in the
context.
form paragraph meanings; link sentence
meanings and extract main idea in a
paragraph by summarising.
respond emotionally to the
activity of reading and
engage with it while reading
infer and predict from the
text read so far what might
be said.
form a discourse meaning; link
the main ideas in each paragraph
with the topic and identify the
emerging perspective of the
writer
say questions answered by particular
sentences and paragraphs in the text .
The strategies and the matching indicators of
progress for getting knowledge ready
review and
consolidate what
they have read
so far.
 Reviewing strategies:
periodically during the
reading activity
readers
review the actions they
use while reading.
review their
emotional response to
a text and to
themselves as
readers.
The comprehension or ‘reading
outcomes’ for the texts
comprehend the text
literally; they locate,
select, link and record
information from texts.
comprehend inferentially
in various ways
students form
interpretations of the
texts by using the
comprehending actions
respond emotionally to the
activity of reading and
engage with it while reading
identify and analyse the use
of language in the text
analyse the text in various ways.
synthesize ideas in the text
evaluate the text in various ways.
infer the author’s purpose for writing a
text in various ways.
You can use the developmental sequence to locate students who have reading difficulties.
The indicators saywhat you need to teach next and how you can monitor their learning
progress.
VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Students read short fiction and non-fiction texts that describe less familiar ideas and
experiences, in written language forms with reduced supporting illustrations and varying
sentence forms and informative prose about familiar topics, with a higher level of
unfamiliar vocabulary. The text characteristics are indicative of Reading Recovery
levels 12 to 14:
•varied sentence patterns and written language structures,
•the development of a complete story,
•literary language, opportunities to extend readers’ understanding of words and their
relationships and specialised vocabulary
•illustrations that provide low level of support.
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading
•
decide at least two likely topics of a text and ‘sharpen’ or refine their prediction.
•
suggest words that might be encountered in the text and say in sentences what it
might say.
•
Describe actions they can use to help them understand what they read, for
example, ‘put the pictures in their head’.
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Use ‘while reading strategies
•
read the text aloud fluently, recognise when their reading is inconsistent with the topic, the
grammar or the letter clusters and self correct increasingly efficiently.
•
transfer to silent reading the integrated use of the topic of the text, the grammar of the
sentence or the letter cluster information and spontaneously self correct using these three
sources of information.
•
suggest synonyms for words in the text and possible meanings for unfamiliar words by using
its context, the sentence and 1 or more of the letters in it
•
•
predict, using the cover, the title and the text they have read so far, whether the text is
imaginative or reality-based, what might be said, who, when, where, how and what questions
it might answer, infer the feelings of characters,
talk about the picture they make while reading a text.
•
use independently the reading strategies that were previously cued and scaffolded by others.
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Review and consolidate what they have read
•
review and consolidate what they have read both when part way through the text
and having read it
•
recall in order the main ideas or events in a text they have read and use connectives
to link the main ideas, for example, “first”, “and then..”..
•
describe how reading verse has a different outcome from reading prose.
•
read silently independently for short periods of time and retell ‘in their own words’,
do the actions described, arrange sentences cards to tell a story and complete
simple cloze activities.
•
talk about how they felt while reading and how reading helped them.
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
display literal comprehension by answering questions that relate to information stated
explicitly.
infer alternative endings for the text, alternative ways of resolving the issue in a narrative.
infer the feelings of characters, how they may have felt had events been different, their
motives and reasons for their actions, how different characters in a narrative may feel
differently about an event.
infer the reason for which the text was written.
infer how some characters in a text may perceive or feel about other characters in a text and
suggest how these feelings may influence how characters behave.
link the feeling of characters and events in the story with the experiences of readers.
identify how the language used in the text helped readers to have particular feelings or beliefs
about it.
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VELS 2.75
Text level knowledge
Students independently read and respond to longer imaginative texts (for example,
chapters in narratives about less familiar ideas), plays, poetry and other verse,
informative texts of up to 6 paragraphs or sections and expository-persuasive texts.
•language: descriptive words and phrases, some specific terminology with support,
mainly simple sentences with more compound sentences, shift from natural language
to book language, increased use of direct speech to carry action, first person, less
familiar structures.
•layout : texts organized into “readable chunks”, print size medium or smaller,
illustrations moving away from text support, paragraphs have several sentences and
more than one idea, longer chapters, headings, sub-headings with several ideas,
contents page and simple glossary contain detail.
•content : clear story structure with several ideas, main ideas linked into more complex
relationships around a theme, characters developed in greater detail, sometimes with
thoughts and feelings that add depth, less familiar concepts supported by familiar
vocabulary.
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Use ‘while reading strategies
•
read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate; they may switch from one mode to the
other if necessary for comprehension or other communication purposes.
•
comprehend sentences with increasingly more complex forms and ideas by paraphrasing and then
visualizing, for example, (1) sentences with more complex adjectives and adverbs (eg., The old man with
the squeaky voice was walking shakily); (2) sentences that ‘draw together’ or summarize 2 or 3 earlier
sentences in a paragraph.
work out the meanings of unfamiliar words in less redundant contexts where components of the meaning
are developed across 3 or more paragraphs in a text and gradually refine their understanding of the term.
•
•
•
form paragraph meanings by linking 2 and then 3 sentences; they use synonyms as well as personal and
relative pronouns to link matching ideas in different sentences and visualize the sequence of the sentence
meanings and what these tell about the main ideas so far (for example, for a narrative, the main
characters, the issue, the context).
suggest questions that the text answers as they read through it,
•
decide from the text read so far whether it is narrative, factual or persuasive and the writer’s emerging
purpose and perspective.
•
infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the text might answer,
predict plausible endings, events, the points of view of the writer and infer the feelings of characters.
•
respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as readers.
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VELS 2.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students
•
•
•
comprehend literally information mentioned explicitly; they (1) locate and link cause and effect
in successive paragraphs; (2) identify key information such as the characteristics and features of
items, individuals and events.
infer (1) possible antecedent events and feelings of characters; (2) cause and effect not stated
directly; (3) identify and synthesize the descriptions of characters and events across two
paragraphs ; (4) infer the main events in a narrative.
suggest the author’s purpose for writing the text and evaluate how well it achieved its purpose
through its language, text features, identify its intended audience.
•
Analyse (1) how a text uses language and text features to portray the qualities of characters or
events; (2) compare 2 or more texts that describe similar events, phenomena, issues or
relationships, for example, texts from different cultural or historical perspectives re an issue.
•
For informational text with 3 or more discrete sets of separate facts presented in list of dot point
format, they
• answer literal and inferential questions that require linking or comparing data
• link a short summary or report with diagrams
• do/ say in order the actions a sequence of up to 5 actions in less familiar contexts
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VELS 1.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Review and consolidate what they have read
•
Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a
sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a
narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information.
•
talk about the actions they use to comprehend better, for example, visualise a
paragraph and say what it said.
•
describe how reading helps them and is a useful activity, for example, to discover
what other people are thinking, to teach new ideas efficiently.
•
review their emotional response to the text and to themselves as readers.
•
Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a
sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a
narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information,
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VELS 2.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading
1. decide two or more likely topic/s for a text, suggest words and ideas the text might
say and questions it might answer.
2. decide the purposes of different factual texts from their genre, (for example, to tell
how to do something, to teach new ideas) and link the purpose with actions they
might take after reading and questions they might answer.
1. describe their reading plan, for example, say the actions they might use while
reading, how they will keep track of key ideas as they read, identify text
information that helps them understand what they read (for example, key words,
the questions typically answered by factual text), what they might do if what they
read doesn’t make sense.
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VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Students independently respond to range of written and multimodal text types and forms.
The texts have a range of cultural purposes, for example, to amuse or interest, to inform
and to persuade and have associated linguistic structures and features. Types of texts
include fiction and nonfiction, film and digital texts, newspapers and magazines and
poetry. They have the following characteristics
•language : use complex sentences, vocabulary that may be culturally and historically
referenced, figurative and metaphoric language.
•layout : lengthy text blocks, paragraphs vary in length, complexity and purpose, longer
chapters, detailed contents and glossary, complex diagrams and maps, graphs and tables,
with complex labelling.
•content: texts comprise complex conceptual sequences that involve contexts that change
in time, culture and history. The conceptual relationships are unfamiliar to students and
unusual characters and are differentiated. Fiction, verse and expository texts include
explore an examination of themes of interpersonal relationships, motives and moral
/ethical challenges in a range of real and virtual contexts. Nonfiction texts explore a range
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of
relevant factual topics.
VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading
•
work out possible topic/s of a text, for example, for an historical novel, an
explanation of a technological discovery, an analysis of imagery in poetry or a
comparison of newspaper recounts. They predict ideas that may be mentioned and
questions it might answer.
•
decide the purposes of a text from its genre, for example, they distinguish between
a technological explanation of alternative energy uses and media texts about the
value of alternative energy in terms of deciding the questions each text might
answer and what each type might tell the reader.
•
describe their reading plan for the types of texts described in 3.00 and include
summarising and reviewing.
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VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Use ‘while reading strategies
•
read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate.
•
comprehend complex sentences that relate to cultural or historical perspectives, values
and attitudes and that express sentence meanings in historically/culturally specific
ways. They use sentence comprehending strategies such as paraphrasing and
visualizing and linking with the topic and purpose of the text to interpret and evaluate
matching sentence meanings.
•
work out the meanings of unfamiliar culturally specific words and phrases by linking
text information including morphographic, culturally specific semantic and syntactic
information.
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VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Use ‘while reading strategies
•
•
•
•
•
use paragraph comprehending strategies that begin to take account of cultural
/historical perspectives; they (1) synthesise a discourse meaning across of 2 or 3
sentences in a paragraph and summarize it; (2) use the summary to predict events and
infer possible consequences; (4) say the questions answered by each paragraph in the
text; (3) use topic sentences for factual texts to identify the main questions likely to be
answered by each paragraph .
say questions answered by particular sentences and paragraphs in the text. They
identify the questions answered by visual presentations such as photographs, diagrams
and tables.
summarize a sequence of paragraphs in a longer text, taking account of the
historical/cultural language and use key words to describe the sequence of main ideas.
infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the
text might answer, predict plausible conclusions and outcomes for newspaper articles.
respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as
readers.
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VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students
Review and consolidate what they have read
•
consolidate what they read in a range of ways; they suggest or select (1) the
summary sentence for paragraphs in a text; and (2) the paragraph that answers a
particular question or provides particular information.
•
talk about the actions they use while reading to help themselves to read, for
example, how to recognise and use to use historical/cultural perspectives when
interpreting text.
•
review their emotional response to a text and to themselves as readers, eg., how
reading historical/cultural texts helped them learn and is useful, for example, to
discover what other people think, teach new ideas.
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VELS 3.75
Text level knowledge
Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students
•
•
•
•
•
•
comprehend literally; they locate, select, link and record information from texts. They link
images with specific written information and say the main idea of the visual presentations.
comprehend inferentially and support their interpretations with evidence both from the text
and their general knowledge; they infer (1) possible earlier motives and characteristics; (2)
cause and effect across paragraphs; (3) the nature of possible changes by reading between the
lines; (4) 'what would happen if......?' by changing ideas in the text; (5) why characters and
events are described in particular ways and suggest alternative ways of describing them.
identify how texts are constructed for particular purposes and how they present particular
cultural or historical values and attitudes.
evaluate and compare texts that relate to the same topic from different cultural or historical
perspectives in terms of their use of language and form, the topics they examine, their use of
imagery, characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting, their purpose for using
text, how they represent characters, points of view and events in different ways.
infer and analyse how writers from different cultural or historical perspectives tell us about
the feelings, attitudes, beliefs and motives of characters and see how the characters ‘see the
world’.
evaluate and analyse how writers differ in cultural or historical language they use to
communicate.
4/13/2015
46
What do you do to read this?
4/13/2015
47
What do readers need to do to use
question to show comprehension?
Interprets an expression in a
persuasive text.
Identify the main purpose of
the text ?
4/13/2015
What do you need to do to
interpret the expression ?
What do you need to do to work
out the purpose of the text ?
48
Which comprehending actions do you
need to use to show comprehension?
Recognise a synonym
Summarise the text, extract the main idea from the
paragraph ideas and infer why the text was written
4/13/2015
49
4/13/2015
50
What does NAPLAN reading say
readers’ knowledge looks like ?
Item
%
% Correct
Number Correct
Group
State
%Response %Response
State
Group
01 A
02 C
99
94
97
81
C1
A1 B2 D4
03 A
97
97
04 B
50
36
05 C
93
86
06 D
63
58
07 A
86
08 A
09 D
Skill Assessed
Finds clearly stated information in a simple text .
Finds clearly stated information in a simple text.
B1
B3
A6 B3
D11
B3
A2 C16
D31
A6 B1
A6 C31
22
A11 B3
Makes connections between ideas in a sentence.
A 28 B14 Interprets the main idea in a simple text.
81
A30 B 4
C2
B 5 C5
84
69
B11 C 5
B 22 C 8 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe.
65
47
A16 B3
C16
A22 B8
C22
4/13/2015
BC8 D3
Finds key information in a simple text.
Finds clearly stated information in a simple text.
Recognises a feature of a recipe.
Connects information across two sentences in a
recipe.
51
4/13/2015
52
What does NAPLAN reading say
readers’ knowledge looks like ?
Item
%
% Correct
Number Correct
Group
State
%Response
State
%Response
Group
Skill Assessed
10 B
11 D
94
63
78
36
A2 C2 D1 A6 C3 D14 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe.
A16 B3 C17 A25 B11 C28 Identifies an instruction in a recipe.
12 C
94
81
A5 B1 D1 A 4 B6
13 A
14 D
92
87
78
67
B 1 C7
B 3 C14 D3 Finds clearly stated information in a postcard.
A5 B3 C5 A 8 B11 C14 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard.
15 B
74
56
A8 C12 D 6 A14 C11 D17 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard.
16 B
66
42
17
62
39
A7 C7 D18 A8 C17 D 28 Understands the purpose of a postscript in a
postcard.
Sequences events in a postcard.
18 C
85
67
A3 B7 D3 A11 B D6
4/13/2015
Finds key information in a postcard.
Identifies the purpose of a postcard.
53
What does NAPLAN reading say
readers’ knowledge looks like ?
Item
%
%
Number Correct Correct
State
Group
%Response
State
%Response
Group
Skill Assessed
19 D
77
47 A 8 B 8 C7
A19 B17 C17 Finds clearly stated information in a story.
20 B What76comprehending
39 A 14 actions
C6 D4 doA 42 C11 D8 Finds clearly stated information in a story.
to use
toCachieve
21 B readers
36 need36
A11
49 D4 this
A11 C36 D17 Makes inferences about characters' actions in story.
22 C
23 C
outcome
? 39
51
71
50
24
39
22
A14 B19 D13 A17 B25 D19 Identifies the meaning of a word in a story.
A 5 B 20
A 3 B 42
Makes connections between the text and pictures in
a story.
Sequences events in a story.
25 B
67
53
A16 C5 D10
A 22 C14 D8 Makes inferences about a character in a story.
26 B
40
31
A6 C25 D28
A11 C31 D28 Interprets the main idea of a persuasive text.
27 D
35
28
A5 B 54 C4
A17 B47 C8 Uses contextual cues to interpret a persuasive text.
4/13/2015
54
What does NAPLAN reading say
readers’ knowledge looks like ?
Item
%
%
Number Correct Correct
State
Group
%Response
State
%Response
Group
Skill Assessed
28 B
49
44 A25 C10 D14 A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets.
29 A What42comprehending
28 B34 C10
D13doB 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph.
actions
to use
achieve
30 A readers
77 need44
B8toC5
D7 this
B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story.
31 B
32 A
outcome
? 39
44
59
53
A10 C14 D28 A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story.
B11 C16 D 11 B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story.
33 C
44
50
A27 B15 D11 A31 B8 8
34 B
38
33
A10 C21 D28 A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story.
35 D
40
17
A17 B15 C26 A19 B 28 C Makes inferences about a character in a story.
33
4/13/2015
Finds key information in a story.
55
What does NAPLAN reading say
readers’ knowledge looks like ?
Item
%
%
Number Correct Correct
State
Group
%Response
State
%Response
Group
Skill Assessed
28 B
49
44 A25 C10 D14 A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets.
29 A What42comprehending
28 B34 C10
D13doB 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph.
actions
to use
achieve
30 A readers
77 need44
B8toC5
D7 this
B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story.
31 B
32 A
outcome
? 39
44
59
53
A10 C14 D28 A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story.
B11 C16 D 11 B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story.
33 C
44
50
A27 B15 D11 A31 B8 8
34 B
38
33
A10 C21 D28 A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story.
35 D
40
17
A17 B15 C26 A19 B 28 C Makes inferences about a character in a story.
33
4/13/2015
Finds key information in a story.
56
What readers need to do to show
comprehension
Read and
comprehend
text
4/13/2015
Read and
interpret
task
Use task to reflect
on text
Select matching
option
interpretation
57
The set of actions readers need
to use to complete a task
1. locate information, make a direct verbatim match and restate verbatim linked
information in the text or link information verbatim .
2. recognise/ use synonyms to link text and task
3. use meaning making motor to work out word meanings
4. use grammar to link ideas, for example, to make links between a noun and a
pronoun.
5. analyse, paraphrase + visualize the sentence / alternatives.
6. link two ideas that are in different sections of the text by summarizing one or more
paragraphs, work out and use the main idea and possibly paraphrase or visualize.
7. link ideas that are separated in the text by selecting the main ideas and then
sequencing them.
8. compare two or more sentences or ideas and you may need to paraphrase.
9. infer, go beyond what is said, for example, to infer emotions or motives for actions
10. predict by visualizing the ideas described in one or more sentences and use their
existing knowledge to infer related events, cause and effect, feelings, etc.
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2010)
58
Year 3 Reading 2011
Item % Corr % Corr %Resp
Skill Assessed
Num Aus
State
Lauriston
Choosing a Classroom Pet
Comprehension strategies used
7
Identifies one reason for an opinion in a
simple opinion text.
Paraphrase
Matches a speaker with a statement in a
simple opinion text.
Locate information, make a direct
verbatim match
90
Locates directly stated information in a
simple opinion text.
Locate information, make a direct
verbatim match
55
Identifies the purpose of a speaker's
response in a simple opinion text.
Infer, locate, visualise, paraphrase
93
Identifies the role of a speaker in a
simple opinion text.
Link ideas, infer
8
82
88
100
These are
comprehending actions
74
93
we need
to 79
teach readers
to use
9
73
79
to achieve these
46
50
outcomes
10
11
60
4/13/2015
65
Taken from (Munro, 2011)
59
Year 3 Reading 2011
Item % Corr % Corr %Resp
Skill Assessed
Num Aus
State
Lauriston
Comprehension strategies used
Turtle Frogs
1
88
91
97
Locates directly stated information in a
short information text.
2
91
94
97
Locates directly stated information in a
short information text.
3
84
88
97
Locates directly stated information in a
short information text.
4
85
89
100
Connects information across sentences
in a short information text.
5
73
76
83
Makes a simple inference from a short
information text.
Infer, paraphrase, analyse
6
64
67
66
Identifies the purpose of an illustration
in a short information text.
Infer, read illustrations
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2011)
Locate information, make a direct
verbatim match, scan for key
words
Locate information, make a direct
verbatim match, scan for key
words
Locate information, make a direct
verbatim match, scan for key
words
Link ideas, infer
60
Year 3 Reading 2011
Item % Corr % Corr %Resp
Skill Assessed
Num Aus
State
Lauriston
Comprehension strategies used
How to play SPUD:
12
77
82
97
Retrieves directly stated
information in a procedural text.
Locate information, make a
direct verbatim match
13
64
69
79
Makes an inference from a
procedural text.
Infer connections between 2
ideas
14
47
50
62
Locate information, make a
direct verbatim match
15
53
57
79
16
61
66
69
17
51
55
76
Makes a link across adjacent
sentences to locate information in a
procedural text.
Applies new information to change
a given outcome in a procedural
text.
Matches a rule to a photograph in a
procedural text.
Categorizes extra information into
a section of a procedural text.
4/13/2015
Drawing conclusions and
linking ideas from different
sections of the text.
Match image with statement
Analyse, paraphrase and
visualise the statement.
61
Year 3 Reading 2011
Item
Num
% Corr
Aus
% Corr
State
%Resp
Laurist
Skill Assessed
Comprehension strategies used
Rosie the musician:
18
72
78
97
Uses letter writing conventions to identify
the author of a note in a narrative text.
19
49
53
59
Identifies the intended effect of a device in a Key information, understanding
narrative text.
purpose of different devices.
20
36
38
55
21
56
59
83
22
42
44
66
Identifies the purpose of a meeting in a
narrative text.
Identifies a character's attitude from a
narrative text.
Identifies the reason for a character's
comment in a narrative text.
23
54
63
69
4/13/2015
Recognises the personality of the main
character in a narrative text.
Link understanding of letter writing
format to text.
Work out word meaning in context
by linking ideas.
Go beyond what is said and infer
emotions or motives.
Infer emotions by using key word
meanings and link ideas across the
text.
Link separated ideas by
summarising one or more
paragraphs.
62
Which comprehension items are
easiest ?
Skill Assessed
01
99
3.4
03
97
3.4
02
94
3.4
10 B 94
2.7
12 C 94
4.5
05
93
3.4
13 A 92
4.5
14
87
D
07 A 86
4.5
Finds clearly stated information in a
simple text .
Finds key information in simple text.
Finds clearly stated information in a
simple text.
Finds clearly stated information in a
recipe.
Finds key information in a postcard.
reading comprehending actions
locate information and make a literal
verbatim link
locate information and make a literal
verbatim link
locate information and make a literal
verbatim link
literal, delete sentence
recognise features of the genre
locate information and make a literal
verbatim link
literal
2.7
Finds clearly stated information in a
simple text.
Finds clearly stated information in a
postcard.
Makes connections between ideas in a
postcard.
Recognises a feature of a recipe.
18 C 85
4.5
Identifies the purpose of a postcard.
08 A 84
2.7
Finds clearly stated information in a
recipe.
summarise the literal information
and infer its purpose
paraphrase and combine two
sentences literally
4/13/2015
literal, delete words
recognise a type of text
63
Which comprehension items are
hardest ?
04
50
28 B
49
31 B
44
3.4 Makes connections between ideas in a
sentence.
7.7 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in
brackets.
4.3 Reads on to interpret a story.
33 C
44
4.3 Finds key information in a story.
29 A
42
7.7 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph.
26 B
40
7.7
35 D
40
4.3
24
39
2.2
34 B
38
4.3
21 B
36
2.2
27 D
35
7.7
04 4/13/2015
50
3.4
visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, what
does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ?
recognise synonym
paraphrase paragraph and link ideas, recognise ‘life’ is
linked with bacteria
literal verbal comprehension
visualise what has been said about wildlife, summarise
paragraph
Interprets the main idea of a persuasive recognise that ‘focus’ here means the purpose (synonyms),
text.
paraphrase, know where the purpose is often written, link
the two sentences
Makes inferences about a character in a visualise the sequence of events, reflect on and infer how
story.
CRL’s ‘feelings’ change over the story
Sequences events in a story.
visualise /summarize, extract the sequence of ideas from
across the text, paraphrasing for ‘drums begain to play’
Finds clearly stated information in
paraphrase ‘..eighteen protozoan…’ as ‘..eighteen species of
story.
protozoan…
Makes inferences about characters'
visualize the two paragraphs, link ‘shining gold’ with
actions in a story.
‘glistened’, infer across the text
Uses contextual cues to interpret a
summarize text to get ‘plastic bags are bad for environment
persuasive text.
and if people pay for them, they will use them less’.
Paraphrase each alternative, compare with title, as “How
does it fit with title ?” and see that the others don’t match it.
Makes connections between ideas in a visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, 64
what
sentence.
does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ?
To work out the reading actions
demanded by each item
A group of teachers analyses each text and its tasks on NAPLAN or other tasks reading
using the types of comprehending actions.
•The group reads each text and works through the tasks. For each task,
decide the action/s
a reader needs to
use to answer the
item correctly
Does it need readers
to use two or more
actions in a particular
sequence ?
the group decides
collaboratively the
comprehending actions
needed to answer it
•Use as much as possible a consistent set of action descriptors across the items. This
helps you group items that need similar actions and with planning the teaching.
•Have some students in a class attempt the items again and talk about what they did.
Guide them to use ‘think aloud’ strategies.
4/13/2015
65
• Add the reading comprehending action for each item to the Item Analysis Report for
that item. You can also identify the actions that match each incorrect responses.
• Identify the comprehending actions a class used to complete the tasks and which ones
they might need to be taught.
• use SORT to arrange the % correct for a group in order of difficulty. This will tell you
the reading actions the
/class or individual
students have in place
the reading actions
that need to be
taught
note the most common
confusions or
misinterpretations by
the class for an item.
• You can prepare reader profiles for your group or for individual students.
• treat the NAPLAN interpretations for your class and individual students as indicative.
Once you are aware of possible areas of comprehending strength and difficulty, you
can then look for further evidence in reading activities.
4/13/2015
66
What are the High Reliability
Literacy Teaching Procedures?
A set of explicit procedures that teach readers to
•
•
Why ‘high reliability ?
work out likely topics for the text, why it was written, ideas it might
Eachit teaching
say, questions
might answer, plan how they will read it: they get
their knowledge
ready for
reading and learning
procedure
has
substantial research
comprehend each sentence; read it aloud, segment it, paraphrase
support
for its
and visualise
it, link with
the use
topic
•
use and learn new vocabulary
•
link sentence meanings into paragraph meanings, summarize the text
•
link each paragraph with questions it answers
•
review, consolidate store in memory and automatize what was read.
4/13/2015
67
The order for teaching HRLTPs
Getting Knowledge Ready
Reading aloud each sentence
Segment it
Paraphrase
New vocabulary
Link sentence
meanings
Consolidate and review
4/13/2015
visualize
Link with topic
Summarise
Store in memory
What questions
does text answer?
automatize
68
How do you build these into your
teaching ?
While reading
+learning
Beginning a
lesson:
Get knowledge
ready
GKR
Teach new ideas
•
•
•
•
•
4/13/2015
new vocabulary
new sentence
ideas
new main ideas
new topic
new attitudes
and dispositions
Review +
consolidate
•
•
•
Review new
meanings,
ideas, link with
synonyms and
images
Store in
memory
Automatise
recall , use of
meanings
69
Getting ready or orienting actions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•Focus on possible topic of text. The teacher guides the students to link text with what the
readers knows by using the title, the cover, pictures in the text or blurb. What do I think the text
is about? What pictures do I make in my mind when I hear the title/look at the cover….. What
might happen ?
Link ideas in text with what the reader already knows, use mapping, networking. What ideas
could it mention ? If it is about ….. what else might it say ?
Focus on how the ideas (such as pictures, key words they have identified) might be said : How
can I say these ideas in sentences ?
Focus on questions it might answer: What are some who / what/ how/ why/ when/ where
questions I could ask about it ?
Focus on possible words that might be in the text. What words might be in the text ? How
would they be spelt ? What other words might be used (synonyms for them) ?
Focus on possible reasons or purposes for writing it. What are different ways of thinking about
this topic ? Why might the author have written this text ? How might its purpose affect how it is
written ?
Readers say how they will read, the actions (strategies) they will use. "What will I do as I read/
if I come to a part that I don’t understand ?
Focus on reader’s self efficacy as a reader Am I ready to read? What more do I need to know
before I begin to read ?
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
70
While reading actions
Sentence level reading strategies for literal comprehension of each sentence
break text into digestible bits, decide where to pause. Where will I pause and ask : What has it told me
?
listen to themselves as they read and paraphrase the text. What are other ways of saying this sentence
? How can I tell myself what it says ?
act on ideas, put themselves in the context. What would I see /hear/do /feel If I were in the story ?
visualize what was read. What picture can I make of the sentence ?
monitor meaning at the sentence level. Does it make sense/fit in? Re-read if necessary.
Conceptual level reading strategies for summarizing what has been read, monitoring and for
inferential, evaluative and dispositional comprehension of text:
review and consolidate, What do I know now? How does this fit with the topic ?
What has happened so far?, underline, note down useful information
infer, Why did that happen? Relate then to what they expected
think ahead, predict, anticipate. What might happen next ?
evaluate dispositional techniques. How has the text so far attempted to influence my view ?
Word level reading strategies to work out unfamiliar words
use context of word + initial few sounds, word analysis and re-read. How can I say the word ? How
will I work out how to say it ? How can I break it up ?
work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. What does the word do in the sentence ? What does it tell
me about ? What picture have I made of the sentence ? What is another word I could say for it?
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
71
Reviewing and post reading actions
• Link positive emotion response with the text How I liked the text? Were ideas useful
/interesting? Did I feel happy / sad ? How could it have grabbed me better ?
• Review understanding of the text at the various levels. What did the text tell me? The text
didn’t say this but if …. ?
• Why was the text written ? Did it say what I expected it to say ? How well did it achieve its
purpose ?
• How can the text be interpreted from different points of view or perspectives ? What was the
writer’s purpose in writing this text ? What techniques used to influence the reader to take a
particular interpretation ?
• Review and evaluate the reading strategies used, particularly the strategies being learnt at the
time. What reading actions did I use to help me understand the text ?
• Store in memory what has been learnt. What key new ideas have I learnt; how has my
knowledge changed? How do they fit with what I know already ?
• Identify the new language and literacy knowledge that has been learnt What new ways of saying
things have I learnt ? What new words were in the text ?
• Automatise and practise reading aloud and silently similar text to achieve increased fluency.
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
72
How each reading action is taught.
The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or
individually.
Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students
to automatize how they use each.
Teaching sequence: students
are
scaffolded
to use
strategy
say it in
words (so they
can transfer it)
and evaluate
how it helps
them (this
motivates
them to use it
in future)
4/13/2015 Taken
say they will
use the strategy
before they
begin to read a
text; they cue
themselves in to
comprehending
the text
from (Munro, 2002)
Say without
cueing they
will use it,
practise
applying the
strategy
more widely,
say when
they will use
it
use it
automatically,
link strategy
with other
strategies
they know.
73
Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy
strategies
Imagine you are
Automatize the
What questions
talking
to
a
key ideas we
might the text answer
woman
living
have learnt.
you ?language
What words
GKR experiencesforGKR
in
ancient
Egypt.
Link with related
might come up in
What
would
you
automatize
ideas we have
the text ? Spell
see
/hear
?
learnt earlier
them, synonyms
What are the main
ideas / vocabulary we
have
learnt today
Review
and ?
Other
ways of saying
consolidate
them / images ?
Women in ancient
Egypt
Look at the text. Say the
title in other ways.
Tell yourself what the
GKR
bridge
to text
pictures
show.
What will you do
as you read it ?
Read a sentence aloud.
Listen
to yourself
Read
aloud
as you read it.
What are other ways of
saying the sentence ?
Sentence
What do you think �.. What picture does it
meanings
tell
you to make
means ? Work out
What is the main idea What questions do
in your mind ?
in the paragraph ?
these sentences what it could mean from
Summarize
the sentence. What
What
picture doestoit Question
links
answer
vocabulary
paragraphs
other words
tell
you to make in for us about women are some
you could use ?
your mind ?
in ancient Egypt?
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
4/13/2015
74
Teaching to scaffold students to use the
literacy strategies
Look at the text. Say the
Recall experiences
What questions
title in other ways.
and imagery
Tell: yourself
what
bridge to
textthe
GKR
: experiencesmight the text answer GKR
knowledge,use for you ? What words
pictures show.
pictures and real
might come up in
What will you do
GKR
: language
life contexts
the text
? Spell
as you read it ?
them, synonyms
Read a sentence aloud.
What are the main
Any topic
Read
aloud
Listen
to yourself
ideas
/
vocabulary
we
Review and
as you read it.
have
learnt
today
?
consolidate
Other ways of saying
What are other ways of
them / images ?
Sentences:
saying theparaphrase
sentence ?
What do you think ..andWhat
visualise
picture does it
What is the main idea What questions do
means ? Work out
tell you to make
Summarize
What
questions
does
in the paragraph ?
these sentences
whatvocabulary
it could mean from
in your mind ?
paragraph
What picture does it sentence/paragraph
answer
the sentence. What
answer
?
tell you to make in for us about women are some other words
your mind ?
in ancient Egypt?
you could use ?
Taken from (Munro, 2002)
Automatize the
key ideas we
have learnt.
Link with related
Automatize
ideas we have
learnt earlier
How each reading action is taught.
The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or
individually.
Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students
to automatize how they use each.
Teaching sequence: students
are
scaffolded
to use
strategy
4/13/2015
say it in
words (so they
can transfer it)
and evaluate
how it helps
them (this
motivates
them to use it
in future)
say they will
use the strategy
before they
begin to read a
text; they cue
themselves in to
comprehending
the text
Say without
cueing they
will use it,
practise
applying the
strategy
more widely,
say when
they will use
it
use it
automatically,
link strategy
with other
strategies
they know.
76
One way of teaching each strategy
1.
2.
3.
4.
Take a text about a topic you are teaching and split it
into two parts, each of about 250 words.
Write 5 comprehension questions for each part and put
these at the end of each part. Try to match up the two
parts as much as possible in their difficulty.
Ask the students to read the first part by themselves and
then answer the questions.
Before, or as they read the second part, cue them to use
the strategy you are wanting them to learn to use, for
example, to paraphrase each sentence as they read.
Have them answer the comprehension questions.
Part A
Read this text and
Rights and privileges
answer the questions
Wealthy women
After about 1500 BC, wealthier women in
ancient Egypt could own and sell property, earn
an income, work as part-time priestesses,
defend themselves in court, and decide to
marry or divorce. They decided who would
inherit their belongings, and had custody of any
children if there was a divorce. By contrast,
women in ancient Greece — even wealthy
women — had very little freedom. They lived
most of their lives indoors and were regarded
as the property of their menfolk.
1.How were wealthy women in ancient Egypt
more independent than women in ancient Egypt
?
your father
In2.If
which
case were
was a pharaoh in ancient
Egypt, what rights could help you be
it independent
easier to ?
Why was it
understand
text
easierhad? aWhat
3.How do wethe
know
that ancient Egypt
? legal system ?
made it easier ?
4.What does leading a privileged life mean ?
5.What aspect of a pharaoh’s life doesn’t
happen in our culture ?
Read this textPart
andB answer the questions.
Before you begin to read…..
Poor women
As you
readfamilies,
….. poor women helped their
Besides caring
for their
men in the fields, carried water in pots from wells or
rivers to their homes, and made bread or beer (both a
major part of the diet of ancient Egyptians). They might
also work as servants, temple dancers, midwives,
perfume makers, musicians, weavers and professional
mourners (people who were ‘hired’ to weep and wail
during the funeral procession of an ancient Egyptian).
Wives and mothers
Marriage ceremonies were not a special event; the
language of ancient Egypt does not have a word for
‘wedding’. Between wealthy families, marriages were
little more than a business arrangement. Some wealthy
men had many wives. The first wife and her children had
the highest status.
1.What were some jobs of poor women in ancient Egypt ?
2.How do we know the ceremony surrounding death was
important in ancient Egypt ?
What could you do in the future to
3.How do we know cosmetics were important in ancient
Egypt ? make it easier to understand the text
youbeing
reada?professional
I will saymourner
each sentence
in
4.What does
mean?
my
helps
5.What is
oneown
aspectwords.
of life inThis
ancient
Egyptme
that doesn’t
happen in our culture ?
Contrast the strategy teaching approach with the
content teaching approach
Read the section about Women in
ancient Egypt. Then answer
the questions and we’ll
correct your work.
We’ll read together the section about
Women in ancient Egypt. As we go I’ll ask
you to think about what says. Then we’ll answer
the questions and we’ll correct your work.
A
B
Which teacher
1.Takes account of individual differences in what students know at beginning of lesson ?
2.Takes account of individual differences in how students think and learn during lesson ?
3.Helps students feel more confident of what they are learning ?
4/13/2015
79
How we use the HRLTPs in
teaching
To scaffold the students to think
like comprehending readers as
they work through and learn from a
text
To teach the students to use
each reading action /strategy
independently and automatically
4/13/2015
the students learn to think like
comprehending readers as they
work through and learn from a
text
the students learn to carry the
reading actions with them to any
context in which they need to
read
80
A case study of leading literacy
Context for the case study
Low academic achievement and low
student literacy levels concerned the
leadership. Literacy was seen as a key
link to successful academic learning.
Desired outcome
Enhanced student literacy skills,
to be achieved through enhanced
teaching knowledge.
To achieve outcomes
teach students ‘how to be more literate’ while learning
the regular curriculum.
4/13/2015
81
A case study of leading literacy
Means for achieving enhanced teaching knowledge
Teach a group of teachers to be ‘leaders of literacy learning’ (MLOLLs) in the school.
They guide embedding enhanced literacy knowledge in the school :
1.Each MLOLL was guided to build literacy knowledge;
1.Each MLOLL was trained to teach the strategies explicitly to a group of students as part
of their regular classroom teaching
1.Each MLOLL practised modifying their teaching to scaffold students to use particular
strategies);
1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a term by term and a within- term professional
learning plan and student learning plan
1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a schedule to monitor student learning outcomes.
.
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2007)
82
A case study of leading literacy in a
secondary college
Term
1
Outcomes for students
Outcomes for MLOLL
Teach students to use GKR and vocabulary explicitly.
Prepare colleagues to transfer GKR and vocabulary.
Use student monitoring measures for GKR +
vocabulary.
2
Teach students to use paraphrasing + visualising
explicitly.
Prepare colleagues to transfer paraphrasing and
visualizing.
Monitor student use of paraphrasing + visualising.
3
Teach students to use strategies to comprehend
paragraphs.
Prepare colleagues to transfer strategies for
comprehending paragraphs.
Monitor student use of comprehending paragraphs.
4/13/2015
Students use GKR
and vocabulary
explicitly
Outcomes for other
teachers
Support students to
transfer GKR and
vocabulary and apply it
in their subject.
Students use
paraphrasing and
visualizing,
automatize GKR and
vocabulary
Support students to
transfer paraphrasing
and visualising and
apply it in their subject.
Students use strategies
to comprehend
paragraphs,
automatize
paraphrasing and
visualising
Support students to
strategies for
comprehending
paragraphs and apply it
in their subject.
Taken from (Munro, 2010)
83
Within term planning
Week
1-4
MLOLL
Other teachers
Assess reading comprehension and strategy use
Teach targeted comprehending strategy explicitly
3-4
Monitor students’ use of the strategy
Video teaching students to use the strategy
Teach colleagues how to embed the strategy in their teaching to
facilitate transfer
5-10
Continue to teach students to use strategy automatically
6-7
Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to
transfer the strategy to their teaching
Assess reading comprehension and strategy use
9-10
Plan how to embed
the strategy in their
teaching and what it
‘looks like’ in student
learning outcomes
Scaffold students to
use the strategy in
their content area
Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to
transfer the strategy to their teaching
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2010)
84
The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy
knowledge and capacity to enhance
Assessing your school’s capacity to teach literacy : What does your school know
about effective literacy teaching ?
1.What is your school’s agreed set of beliefs about how literacy is learnt and taught ?
1.What procedures does it use to interpret assessment outcomes in terms of its teaching ?
1.How well does your school respond to literacy learning issues ? What does it do to
•
identify and analyse literacy learning issues using a learning-teaching framework
?
•
implement modified literacy teaching ?
•
monitor the effectiveness of the modified teaching ?
•
incorporate the modified teaching into its explicit literacy teaching framework ?
.
4/13/2015
85
The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy
knowledge and capacity to enhance
How to bring new literacy teaching knowledge into your school.
A three strand strategy to implement improvement in literacy teaching
1.Teachers are guided and scaffolded to monitor and modify their classroom teaching
1.School leadership provides instructional leadership for literacy
1.Some teachers are trained to ‘drive’ the literacy improvement: they
•
Build the literacy teaching knowledge needed to scaffold improved student
outcomes
•
Learn procedures for guiding the professional learning of colleagues
•
Procedures for bringing new literacy teaching knowledge into the school
•
Lead the professional learning of PLTs.
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2010)
86
Example of an embedding strategy
MLOLL learn GKR and MMM
SLT – develops a whole
school literacy improvement
Staff learn of literacy
improvement focus
MLOLL use GKR and MMM in their teaching
and video their activity,
1.
Become familiar with
teaching procedures
1.
1.use procedures to monitor student outcomes,
2.
Plan a broader
dissemination program
in the school including a
term outcomes plan.
Informed to
progress with
GKR and MMM
2.
See videos of
teaching in PLTs
3.
encouraged to
monitor how well
their students use
GKR and MMM
2.share the embedding with school leadership,
3.report outcomes to staff, inform staff of what
they are doing and how it assists teaching,
4.plan a broader dissemination program with SLT
5.begin to plan professional learning activity in
GKR and MMM for their colleagues.
MLOLL learn sentence reading comprehension
strategies and begin to implement professional
teaching in GKR and MMM for their colleagues.
3.
Work on teaching
activities in GKR and
MMM for colleagues
Learn to provide instructional
leadership for implementing
GKR and MMM
Scaffolded to
implement GKR and
MMM
Repeat with other literacy strategies
4/13/2015
Taken from (Munro, 2010)
87
Developing an explicit literacy PL
program for your school
88
Planning for professional
learning
89
Planning the professional
learning pathway for the school
Steps in planning the professional learning pathway
Your term by term
outcome for each
class in school: what
will you be doing
differently at end of
each term ?
the professional
learning plan for each
teacher; how will
your learning for each
term outcome be
implemented ?
the week by week
implementation plan
for each teacher and
student group; how
will literacy learning
develop over each
term ?
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
90
The plans
Three aspects of planning and doing
• the outcomes plan
• the professional learning plan for each teacher /PLT
• the implementation plan for each teacher
4/13/2015
91
Your plans
Three aspects of planning and doing
• your outcomes plan
• your professional learning plan
• your implementation plan
What new literacy outcomes will
you achieve each term ?
92
Key questions to assist with
action planning
Be clear on what you want as outcomes
Have an explicit focus on PL and staff activity:
By end of Term :
•
What will staff be doing differently?
•
What will students be doing differently?
•
What will SLTs be guiding, scaffolding differently ?
93
Literacy goals for each term
each year
Term outcome
Term
students
teachers
Term 1
•Know how to get their
knowledge ready
•trial getting knowledge
ready in teaching
Term 2
•use getting knowledge ready
when they learn
•use getting knowledge
ready in teaching
•have improved vocabulary
knowledge and strategies
•trial vocabulary teaching
•use GKR
•work out new word meanings
•paraphrase text they read
•teach vocabulary and MMM
Term 3
4/13/2015
•trial teaching
paraphrasing
94
Set goals for each term each
year ?
Term outcome
Term
students
teachers
Term 1
Term 2
Term 3
95
You set goals for each term
Term outcome
Term
students
teachers
Term 1
Know
how to get their
knowledge ready
trial
Term 2
use
use
Term 3
use
getting knowledge
ready when they learn
have improved
vocabulary knowledge
and strategies
getting knowledge
ready in teaching
getting knowledge
ready in teaching
trial vocabulary
teaching
GKR
teach vocabulary and
MMM
work out new word
meanings
paraphrase text they read trial teaching
paraphrasing
96
Plan for how the staff will
learn to do each procedure
Three aspects of planning and doing
•
your literacy outcomes plan
• your professional learning plan
•
your implementation plan
How you will learn to do
the new teaching
97
Possible staff learning options
each term
During
term
Activity
New literacy teaching you will do independently ?
New literacy teaching you will trial ?
New literacy teaching you will be coached to do ?
New literacy teaching you will see
modeled/demonstrated in teaching ?
Your collaborative lesson planning ?
Instructional leadership you will receive ?
Novel student activities and outcomes?
98
Term
outcome
Staff learning plan
The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned
using the following Weekly planning proforma
week
build
procedures
into topics to
be taught
Trial
See teaching
procedures in procedures
classroom
modelled,
coached
Work on
procedures
in PLTs to
discuss
options
share,
pooling new
teaching
knowledge
1-2
3-4
5-6
7-8
9-10
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
99
Types of professional learning
activities
Build the literacy teaching strategies into your regular teaching.
Embed gradually the literacy strategies into topics you will be teaching during
the term. To do this analyse the content you will teach and the written
materials you will use. Plan how you will build in the strategies to help you to
teach the key content knowledge.
For any lesson you need to decide the strategy/ies you will teach explicitly and
the strategies you will scaffold.
This planning is often done best in small group planning activities where two
or more colleagues can work together to do this.
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
100
Types of professional learning
activities
Clarify what effective literacy learning strategies look like.
In parallel with the literacy teaching, identify what the students will be doing,
saying when they are learning.
101
Types of professional learning
activities
Try out or trial parts of the literacy teaching procedures
After you have planned how you will embed particular literacy teaching
procedures in topics you will teach and you have decided what the student
learning strategies will look like, decide how you will try out or trial parts of
the literacy teaching procedures in your teaching. It is often a good idea to do
this in a small way first so that you can retain control.
How do you monitor this ? Use the indicators of progress in student learning
you decided earlier.
102
Types of professional learning
activities
Coaching and /or demonstration of literacy teaching in your class ?
You may want to see the teaching procedures demonstrated/ modelled by
peers ? Will coaching in the context of your class be implemented ?
How often do you receive feedback from peers re your innovations in
teaching ? Your colleague can evaluate your teaching using the checklist
described earlier.
103
Types of professional learning
activities
Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching
Make the opportunity to build group knowledge of the literacy teaching with
colleagues, where you can share and pool the new teaching experiences with
colleagues also working on this and with ‘critical friends’ who are not
implementing this.
This group knowledge provides a platform for further professional learning. It
ensures that every teacher’s knowledge is enhanced, every one is ‘talking the
same language’ and teachers can share their talents, discoveries and
knowledge.
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
104
Types of professional learning
activities
Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching
Make time to reflect on your professional practice.
Try to get the opportunity to reflect regularly on how the innovative literacy
teaching professional practice is going.
Reflecting backwards in time over what has happened allows you to evaluate
events and see possible links and levers to pull that you didn’t see at the time.
The reflective activity is particularly important when you encounter obstacles
and barriers.
Reflecting into the future allows you to visualise possibilities and to see what
could be possible. This can often help you see where you could go.
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
105
Types of professional learning
activities
Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning.
It is important that SLT take moral ownership of program and show this in their
commitment to, interest in and advocacy for your professional learning, particularly
when they are talking to staff about it. They
1.show active ownership and sponsorship
2.convey to staff that they see your work here as critical for the school’s future progress.
3.show to the staff that they believe the HRLTPs can solve problems for their school.
4.acknowledge to the school that you are working for the school’s future.
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
106
Types of professional learning
activities
Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning.
instructional leadership by the SLT is important for the success of the literacy
intervention. Many SLTs need to learn how to do this most effectively – it is a new role.
You can help he SLT ‘get ready’ to do this through your interaction. You can meet
regularly with SLT and discuss
1. the program you are implementing,
2. its progress and
3. obstacles you encounter.
They can spend time in your classroom when you implement the literacy strategies to see
what they ‘look like’ and be a realistic advocate for this work.
107
Types of professional learning
activities
Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning.
The SLT needs to resource your professional learning. It needs to support your learning
in each of the areas above.
In terms of needing to build a group knowledge of the new teaching, they may need to
resource your fortnightly review-evaluation-planning discussions with colleagues in other
schools.
The SLT needs to be aware of the obstacles you encounter in implementing the teaching
and discuss ways of resolving these both for you and for other staff in the future.
Resolving them now can remove them later.
.
108
Types of professional learning
activities
Increase staff awareness of the HRLTPs so that they are closer to ‘being ready’
to adopt them.
‘Bring the staff on your professional learning journey. Report regularly what you
are doing at staff meetings. Help staff
1. know what HRLTPs are, look like in teaching.
2. see how they deal with learning problems, low student engagement
3. have confidence that HRLTPs can make their job as a teacher easier
4. see that HRLTPs can overcome obstacles you have encountered.
Invite staff to see them being done in your classroom. You can video short
scenarios and show to staff at PD days.
You can feed back to the staff what you are doing and how it is progressing. They
need to see that you are working for them.
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
109
Your plans
Three aspects of planning and doing
• your literacy outcomes plan
• your professional learning plan
• your implementation plan
Staff learning : Weekly
planning proforma
How will you implement the new
teaching procedures in your classroom ?
110
Staff implementation : Weekly
planning proforma
Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1
Week
Use orally
1
GKR visualize
2
GKR say
GKR vizualize
3
GKR bridge
GKR say
GKR vizualize
GKR bridge
GKR say
GKR
vizualize
GKR bridge
GKR say
4
5
When cued
Read,do,
say evaluate
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
Say and do
when read
Apply
vizualize
Student learning : Weekly
planning proforma
Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1
Session
Use
orally
1-3
GKR
4-6
vocab
7-10
11-13
When
cued
Read,do, say
evaluate
Say and do
when read
Apply
GKR
vocab
GKR
vocab
14-16
GKR
vocab
112
GKR
Student learning : Weekly planning
proforma
Week
Useteaching
orally
When
Read,do,
say strategy
Say and dofor
Plan for
new cued
aspects
of each
evaluate
when read
1
1
2
3
4
GKR imagery
Students can talk about images, possible
words, bridgewords
vocab
GKR imagery
words, bridge
Students can talk about images, possible
words
vocab
GKR imagery
Students can say what they do to
words, bridge
GKR
vocab
Students say what they will do to
GKR
5
Apply
Term
GKR imagery
words, bridge
vocab
GKR imagery
Students automatically do GKR and say what they
words, bridge
have
Taken from (Munro, 2005)
4/13/2015
113
Know how to build the
implementation on student
learning
Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1
Wee
k
Use orally
1
paraphras
2
paraphras+
visualize
3
4
5
4/13/2015
When cued
Read,do, say
evaluate
Say and do
when read
Apply
paraphras
paraphras+
visualize
paraphras
paraphras+
visualize
paraphras
paraphras+
visualize
paraphras
114
How do you build these into your teaching ?
A weekly schedule to scaffold students to use GKR strategy
Lesson 1
Visualize and
organize
knowledge
Visualize the
topic and talk
about their
imagery
Say what you
know in words
and sentences
Bridge over to the
text
4/13/2015
Lesson 2
Think Pair Share
Interview
Write brief article
showing what
someone could say
about topic
Why might the
text be written?
Lesson 3
Say what
questions the
topic might
answer
How is the text
organized ?
115
Monitoring your progress
Know how your school will gather data re

Staff learning progress re literacy teaching

student learning progress re literacy outcomes

Improved instructional leadership re literacy leadership
Know how your school will interpret data and map it into
action
116
Staff learning plan
The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned
using the following Weekly planning proforma
week
instructional
leadership
activities
Build staff
Student
awareness,
outcomes +
feedback from feedback
peers
1-2
3-4
5-6
7-8
9-10
117
Monitoring your progress
How can you gather data about students’ literacy?
 AIM test
 Torch test
 PAT test
 Probe test
 Teacher assessment reports
 ‘standardized relevant texts’
118
Monitor the success of
professional learning
How will the school monitor
Change in staff knowledge re literacy ?
Improvement in literacy teaching practice ?
119
learning feedback from
students ?
Feedback from students:





Existing knowledge used and valued?
Feel engaged in learning-teaching ?
See they are learning new ideas ?
See themselves making progress ?
Believe they can learn successfully through literacy?
120
What will the PL program target ?
For individual teachers the PL program for literacy will
enhance
 literacy knowledge
 literacy teaching knowledge
 literacy teaching practice
121
The issue : how to reposition the
school in its literacy outcomes
professional learning
School is
here now
4/13/2015
School
leadership
wants school
here
pedagogic leadership
122
How to lead pedagogy ?
Our aim : to unpack what this means for a LOPL.
professional learning
School
leadership
wants school
here
pedagogic leadership
School is
here now
4/13/2015
To be effective leaders of pedagogy,
what do the leaders of professional
learning and school leadership team
need to know/ do /believe?
123
Some key questions when you are
leading literacy
What are you leading ?
Why will you lead ? What is
the value in the leading ?
What are the outcome of leading
? To where ?
From where ?
How will you lead ? How have leaders ‘trodden the
path’ before ?
4/13/2015
124
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Reading comprehending strategies