Revolution and Change in England Chapter 16 Tudors and Stuarts Absolute Monarchy---common in European Countries. Most severe revolt took place in England. Revolution—radical attempt to change he very structure of a country’s government. Reign of Mary Tudor 1400’s royal family Tudors become England’s rulers. Strengthen their powers as rulers in a way similar to those made by rulers of Spain and France. 1st Tudor King Henry VII—stability and prosperity to England. Henry VIII established new official English church, Anglican Church. Mary I Henry VIII’s oldest daughter Received the throne in 1553 1st reigning Queen of England. Mary I personal unhappiness and devoted to Catholicism. Courage and kindness England to a Catholic nation Married Phillip II of Spain Determined to rid England of Clergy 300 people burned at the stake “Bloody Mary” Reign of Elizabeth I Mary died in 1558 Protestant half sister/becomes Queen Used Parliamentary acts to prevent conflict and strengthen Protestantism People who did not attend the Anglican Church had to pay fines. Elizabeth NEVER married/ NO KIDS Elizabeth I Oldest relative and heir to the throne was Mary Stuart Queen of Scotland. Mary Queen of Scots was Catholic—Horrified the English Protestants. 1568 Mary wanted to escape problems in Scotland so she fled to England where Elizabeth imprisoned her. Mary plots with Phillip II to kill Elizabeth and seize her throne. Elizabeth signs Mary’s death warrant and in 1587 Mary was beheaded. Phillip II plans an invasion on England. Spanish Armada 1588 Phillip sends a fleet of 130 ships called Invincible Armada to the English Channel. English ships were smaller and could move more swiftly and was easier to maneuver. Guns fired faster and from a longer distance. English broke the Spanish formation, damaged and sank some of the lumbering vessels. Deadly attempts. Elizabeth’s government still faced two major problems at home. Religious Problems Henry VIII broken with the Pope and established Anglicanism as England’s religion. “Purify” the English Church—Puritans. No mass, still bishops Priest dressed in elaborate dress for religious services, congregation still knelt during services. Puritans thought customs were too Catholic and wanted to abolish them. Protestant Tudors thought religious disunity threatened stability. Unite to Anglican Faith. Persecuted remaining Catholics and non-Anglican Protestants such as Puritans. Elizabeth I and Parliament Parliament, body of representatives from the whole country. Right to approve all taxes and pass laws. People looked to Parliament as a restraint on the monarchy—represented wishes of people outside central government. 2 Houses Lords—consisted of nobles and higher clergy. Commons—represented two classes the gentry and the burgesses. Elizabeth and Parliament Class lines—crossed for economic reasons Had power Elizabeth I summoned Parliament often during her reign and gave the appearance of heading them. Couldn’t find a way to keep them from questioning government policies. James I English Throne 39 years of age Rough manners Taste for learning/intelligent Lacked common sense in financial manners and diplomacy. Believed in Divine Right of Kings Finance and Foreign Policy Supporter of Anglican Church had little tolerance for the Puritans. Bible to English—King James Version of the Bible. Puritans leave England Rising inflation and growing government activity Couldn’t collect enough money in taxes Sell titles to nobles, monopoly rights to private companies Create alliance with Spain—went to war. Charles I James I Son Shy but Brave Divine Right of Kings Henrietta Maria a French princess Couldn’t get funds from Parliament—tried to force people to lend him money and imprisoned some who refused. Petition of Right—which reasserted four ancient liberties, Charles signed in hopes Parliament would give him funds. Charles I Petition to Right Not to levy taxes Not to declare martial law Not to quarter soldiers in private homes in peacetime Not to imprison people without specific charge Charles I Continued to levy taxes Disowned Parliament Refused to call upon Parliament for 11 years Used drastic means to collect money Favored formal and ceremonial faith What problems do you see this leading to?