Revolution and Change in
England
Chapter 16
Tudors and Stuarts
Absolute Monarchy---common in
European Countries.
 Most severe revolt took place in England.
 Revolution—radical attempt to change he
very structure of a country’s government.
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Reign of Mary Tudor
1400’s royal family Tudors become
England’s rulers.
 Strengthen their powers as rulers in a way
similar to those made by rulers of Spain
and France.
 1st Tudor King Henry VII—stability and
prosperity to England.
 Henry VIII established new official English
church, Anglican Church.
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Mary I
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Henry VIII’s oldest daughter
Received the throne in 1553
1st reigning Queen of England.
Mary I personal unhappiness and devoted to
Catholicism.
Courage and kindness
England to a Catholic nation
Married Phillip II of Spain 
Determined to rid England of Clergy
300 people burned at the stake “Bloody Mary”
Reign of Elizabeth I
Mary died in 1558
 Protestant half sister/becomes Queen
 Used Parliamentary acts to prevent
conflict and strengthen Protestantism
 People who did not attend the Anglican
Church had to pay fines.
 Elizabeth NEVER married/ NO KIDS
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Elizabeth I
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Oldest relative and heir to the throne was Mary
Stuart Queen of Scotland. Mary Queen of Scots
was Catholic—Horrified the English Protestants.
1568 Mary wanted to escape problems in
Scotland so she fled to England where Elizabeth
imprisoned her.
Mary plots with Phillip II to kill Elizabeth and
seize her throne.
Elizabeth signs Mary’s death warrant and in
1587 Mary was beheaded.
Phillip II plans an invasion on England.
Spanish Armada
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1588 Phillip sends a fleet of 130 ships called
Invincible Armada to the English Channel.
English ships were smaller and could move
more swiftly and was easier to maneuver. Guns
fired faster and from a longer distance.
English broke the Spanish formation, damaged
and sank some of the lumbering vessels.
Deadly attempts.
Elizabeth’s government still faced two major
problems at home.
Religious Problems
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Henry VIII broken with the Pope and established
Anglicanism as England’s religion.
“Purify” the English Church—Puritans.
No mass, still bishops
Priest dressed in elaborate dress for religious services,
congregation still knelt during services.
Puritans thought customs were too Catholic and wanted
to abolish them.
Protestant Tudors thought religious disunity threatened
stability. Unite to Anglican Faith.
Persecuted remaining Catholics and non-Anglican
Protestants such as Puritans.
Elizabeth I and Parliament
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Parliament, body of representatives from the
whole country. Right to approve all taxes and
pass laws.
People looked to Parliament as a restraint on the
monarchy—represented wishes of people
outside central government.
2 Houses
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Lords—consisted of nobles and higher clergy.
Commons—represented two classes the gentry and
the burgesses.
Elizabeth and Parliament
Class lines—crossed for economic
reasons
 Had power
 Elizabeth I summoned Parliament often
during her reign and gave the appearance
of heading them.
 Couldn’t find a way to keep them from
questioning government policies.
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James I
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English Throne
39 years of age
Rough manners
Taste for learning/intelligent
Lacked common sense in financial manners and diplomacy.
Believed in Divine Right of Kings
Finance and Foreign Policy
Supporter of Anglican Church had little tolerance for the Puritans.
Bible to English—King James Version of the Bible.
Puritans leave England
Rising inflation and growing government activity
Couldn’t collect enough money in taxes
Sell titles to nobles, monopoly rights to private companies
Create alliance with Spain—went to war.
Charles I
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James I Son
Shy but Brave
Divine Right of Kings
Henrietta Maria a French princess
Couldn’t get funds from Parliament—tried to
force people to lend him money and imprisoned
some who refused.
Petition of Right—which reasserted four ancient
liberties, Charles signed in hopes Parliament
would give him funds.
Charles I
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Petition to Right
Not to levy taxes
 Not to declare martial law
 Not to quarter soldiers in private homes in
peacetime
 Not to imprison people without specific charge
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Charles I
Continued to levy taxes
 Disowned Parliament
 Refused to call upon Parliament for 11
years
 Used drastic means to collect money
 Favored formal and ceremonial faith
 What problems do you see this leading to?
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Revolution and Change in England