Revision
What allomorphic features do words
have in E and U if viewed from the
semasiological side?
What allomorphic features do words
have in E and U if viewed from the
onomasiological side?
What are typologically relevant
types of idioms?
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massacre of the innocents
There is no use crying over spilt milk
Don't whistle until you are out of the wood.
Не знаючи броду, не лізь у воду.
to apply for/to accept the Chiltern Hundreds
dine with Duke Huphrey
mind ones p's and q's
when Queen Ann was alive
a pretty penny
товчеться, як Марко по пеклу
Word Formation
Word formation processes
in English and Ukrainian

The lexical stock of every language
is constantly growing
 outer means (borrowings)
 inner means.

The lexical system of English
contains about 70% of borrowed
words, Ukrainian -10%
An essential change of English
 an acceptor language => a donor language
 new words of English origin - 90-95%,
borrowed words
5-10%.
 Most productive word-formation processes
now are: compounding(36%), affixation
(20%)
 new trends, pointing up in the productive
field -clipping, blending and conversion,
“Conversion will be more active in the future,
because it is a very easy way to create new
words in English” (Cannon, 1985: 415).
Common word-building processes in
E and U:
 Derivation
 Compounding
 Abbreviation
 Blending
 Back-formation (reversion)
 Reduplication
 Accentual Word-formation
 Semantic change
Specific English types of word-formation
 Conversion
 Lexicalisation of (some) grammatical forms
Derivation
 Derivation is generally regarded as the most
productive formation process in both languages.
Derivational affixes can be either prefixes or suffixes.
Eng. non-re—present-ation-al-ism
Укр. не-до-виторг-ув-ан-ий
 The allomorphism is that:
 E has more root morpheme words
 U has a richer system of derivational affixes than E
 E derivation is usually either suffixation or prefixation
while in U prefixal-suffixal models prevail
Typological classification of prefixes
 International
antivirus - антивірус
 Semantically identical
foresee – передбачити, postwar - післявоєнний
 National
 dedecamp
 mismisstate
 malmalnourish
 midmidlife
 попо-українському
 щощонайкраще
 попопопоїсти
Typological classification of sufixes
Noun suffixes
 Agent
 Abstract notions
 Diminutive
 Augmentative
Compounding
Another highly productive process is
compounding. A compound is
created by combining two or more free
morphemes (often nouns).
 talkshow
verb + noun
 tightrope
adjective + noun
 overshadow
preposition + noun
Allomorphisms in E and U
compounding :
 Ukr. сompounds are formed with the help of
the linking interfixal element
 Землечерпалка, театрознавець
 Eng. compounds are formed through the
juxtaposition of free morpheme
 Motherland, social-economic, sky-blue
Though there a few cases of compounds with a
linking element
Anglo-Saxon, electro-therapy, craftsman, SinoAmerican, Afro-Asian
(Cont.)
 In Ukr. spelling of compounds is
strict while in E a great diversity of
spelling is observed (dictionaries
often give two variants), that is why
stress is important as a marker of
compounds in English.
Abbreviation
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Clipping
Partial abbreviation
Blending
Initialisms and acronyms
Abbreviation. Clipping
Shortening longer words is a popular strategy for
conserving breath when speaking and space when
writing or typing. Clipping is very productive in both
conversational and official style.
 Beginning element – doc, prof, mayo (mayonnaise)
 Final element – phone, copter, vator (elevator)
 Omitting of beg. and final element simaltaneously
fridge, flue
 In Ukr. such words can be used only within compound
words генпрокуратура, міськрада
Abbreviation.
Partial abbreviation.
 Partial abbreviation is found in both
languages
 modem (modulator-demodulator), hi-fi
(high fidelity), fro-yo ( frozen jogurt)
 yнівермаг, держдеп (державний
департамент)
 In translating they are usually
transformed into word phrases
(cont.) Abbreviation.
Blending
Blends are combinations of two or more
words in which the sound patterns overlap.
Often parts of either or both words are
reduced or lost in the blend, though usually
the initial components are still recognizable.
 brunch = breakfast + lunch, motel = motor
+ hotel, smog = smoke + fog,
Oxbridge=Oxford+Cambridge, Wenglish
(Welsh + English)
 Аскофен (аспірін+кофеїн)
New blends :
vodkatini = vodka + martini (vodka cocktail)
wintertainment = winter + entertainment
Japanimation = Japan + animation
spork = spoon + fork
spooktacular events – Halloween events
Halloweek – a week of scary events
Cocacolonization = Coca Cola + colonization
Product names:
Gogurt = go +yogurt (‘portable yogurt’)
Craisins = cranberry + raisins (‘dried cranberies’)
Dijonaise = Dijon + mayonnaise
Initialisms and acronyms
 Other forms of shortenings are
initialisms (also called
alphabetisms)and acronyms, which
reduce each component word to its
initial letter.
 The difference between the two types
lies in how the resulting lexeme is
pronounced in spoken language.
Initialism
- a set of letters pronounced as such
and standing for an idea, group, or
institution (BBC, for British
Broadcasting Corporation)
 Initialisms: TV, CD, MP3, MP, CNN, UFO,
BYOB - Bring your own beverages/bottle
TGIFT
 Укр.
США, МВФ, НБУ
 Specifically English – initial abreviation and
complete word combined A-life (artificial
life in computers), U-language (upper class
English)
Acronym
a set of letters pronounced as a word
(NATO, pronounced ‘Nay-toe’, for
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
SCUBA 
Self-contained underwater breathing
apparatus
AIDS  Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome
 UNESCO;
BBL, bf, u2, BRB, Hand
 Укр. СНІД, СОТ, ДАІ
 The newest: ELF - English as Lingua Franca
Back-formation
Sometimes speakers of a language will analyze a
word as containing affixes where none are present. By
removing these assumed affixes a lexeme can be
back-formed.
 Editor - to edit, babysitter - to babysit
 This word-formation process can be approached only
diachronically

Examples:
editor (1649)
 edit (1791)
 television (1907)
 televise (1927)
 Paramedical (1921)
 paramedic (1967
Укр. Галасувати =>галас, говорити =>говір

Specific English types of wordformation
 Conversion
 Lexicalisation of (some) grammatical
forms
Conversion
a word class change without any
morphological marking
 party (noun) -> party (verb)
We will be at the party
They like to party
 must (verb) -> must (noun)
You must eat your soup
It is a must that you call him
 open (A, V, N) right (A, V, N, Adv) round
(A, V, N, Adv, Prep)
Conversion models
from N to V: to pepper,to shape,to fuel, to ship
from V to N: fear, laugh, judge
from Adj to V: to open, to black, to quiet
from a closed category (functionals) to
notionals: ‘ifs' , 'buts'
from phrase compounds to Adj.: down-to-earth
language
from phrase compounds to V:
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dog and pony show - to dog and pony,
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to have a green thumb - to green thumb,
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to give a green light - to green light

a blue pencil
to blue-pencil
Lexicalisation of (some) plural
forms
Look up these words in the
dictionary
 Air - airs (UC pl)
 Minute - minutes (UC pl)
 Picture - pictures (UC pl)
 Damage - damages (UC pl)
Add some more on the list
Revise independently:
 Affixation
 E and U prefixes
 E and U suffixes
 Reduplication
 Accentual Word-formation
 Semantic change
 Mizin T.O. LECTURES IN CONTRASTIVE
LEXICOLOGY OF THE ENGLISH AND
UKRAINIAN LANGUAGES. – Kyiv, 2005.
 Мизин Т.О. Курс лекцій з порівняльної
лексикології англійської та української
мов. Навчальний посібник для студентів
III курсу факультету лінгвістики. – Київ,
2005.