Welcome to “Decent Exposure” : Middle School Volume I “Decent Exposure” will help you teach words explicitly and thoroughly, so that students will remember and use them. The words have been chosen on the basis of their frequency in serious literature, the kind of books that students read in school. Also, these words have synonyms, antonyms, associations, components, and forms that extend beyond just the single word that might appear on a vocabulary list. By showing how these words are used in several contexts, students derive a 360° perspective as well as model sentences from great literature. Welcome to “Decent Exposure” Volume I Refugee (Slide 3) Apparent (Slide 4) Elaborate (Slide 5) Bewildered (Slide 6) Congregate (Slide 7) Haughty (Slide 8) Persist (Slide 9) Precipice (Slide 10) Culprit (Slide 11) Comprehend (Slide 12) Emerge (Slide 13) Stationary (Slide 14) Dwelling (Slide 15) Descend (Slide 16) Despair (Slide 17) Ominous (Slide 18) Ravine (Slide 19) Valor (Slide 20) Arid (Slide 21) Cease(Slide 22) Beckon (Slide 23) Recite (Slide 24) Tranquil (Slides25) Jubilant (Slide 26) Chaos (Slide 27) refugee: person who is forced to seek safety in another country, usually because of war or poverty Any form of refugee will appear once in every 527 pages of text. One Rowan Hemillion took welcomes Maybe them Afghans she to asaw refugees fled school the me in country asand aanearby needy new as arrivals refugees. refugee every day. After theMilkweed First Death Lone Maelstrom by Survivor by by camp. from the war. by Jerry Spinelli Marcus Harry H.Luttrell Neff Robert Cormier Related words: refuge: a place of safety fugitive: person who runs away from the law immigrant: person who moves to a new country to seek asylum: to go to another country in order to be safe from a law that is considered cruel or unfair apparent: clear to see Syn: obvious, overt Ant: obscure, covert Related word: appear Forms: Noun: 00 Verb: 00 Adjective: apparent Adverb: apparently Incredible Apparently I hopedThe my asanesthetic disappointment satisfied, it seemed, he was he pressed wasn’t apparently a too button apparent and intended losing in going my voice. its rolled toe effectiveness. todown toe with the the window. troll. New Artemis The Hound Twilight Moon Fowl by by ofby Rowan Eoin Stepenie by Stephanie Harry Colfer H. Meyer Meyer Neff Any form of the word apparent will appear once in every 56 pages of text. Have you elaborate (adjective): detailed; fancy elaborate (verb): to provide many details when ever noticeddescribing that the something more you try not to word: labor think, the moreRelated elaborate your thoughts become? Syn: ornate, fancy, fanciful, decked out, complex Ant: simple, elegant, bare; simplify The Secret Life of Bees Forms: Noun: elaboration Verb: elaborate by Sue Monk Kidd A fire was crackling under an elaborate elaborates Adjective: elaborate elaborating carved mantlepiece. Adverb: elaborately elaborated HP and the Chamber of Secrets by JK Rowling Only when I swallowed did I realize they were looking He was mad, as if I’d elaborately planned getting sick. at me, waiting for me to elaborate. Any form of the word elaborate will appear once in every 246 pages of text. The Truth About Forever by Sarah Some Like Dessen You by Sarah Dessen bewildered: completely confused; in a fog Related word: wild Syn: befuddled, bemused, dumbfounded Ant: certain, sure, confident, poised, prepared Lou Ann Jason returned had forgotten with a itbewildered was Halloween, look on and his face He was bewildered, not thinking in that direction was said, and completely “I don’t bewildered know what you’re when talking a mob of children The man was still there, trying to smile, looking about.” at all. Twilight by came bewildered. to the door. Stephenie Meyer The Ultimate Bean Trees Gift by by The Martian Chronicles by Barbara Jim Stovall Kingsolver Ray Bradbury Any form of the word bewildered will appear once in every 264 pages of text. congregate: form a group (of people or animals) Syn: cluster, flock together Ant: segregate, disperse The girls had congregated in her room. It’sfront In just that of the it’struck, very workers difficultJulia forcongregated aAlverez, large number of How the Garcia Girls Lost Hegroups wizards in and his toofgroupmates congregate five or six. without congregated attracting attention. Their Accent by the tables in front of the auditorium and took their packaged food. Theand HP Giver Wedding thebyGoblet of Fire Lois Rowling J.K. Nicholas Lowry Sparks Any form of the word congregate will appear once in every 306 pages of text. haughty: acting with a superior attitude Syn: snobby, snobbish, supercilious, condescending Ant: humble, modest, unassuming, demure Forms: noun: haughtiness adjective: haughty verb: 00 adverb: haughtily Harryresponded “Fine,” They Girls were supposed saidalso Hermione that with haughty, she pointed haughtily, wasbrutal, whispers, beautiful, and andshe with selfish. haughty marched her off. waist-length laughter, and,hair as and I myself floor-length have often cloak, done, but with she evil also looked eyes. haughty and proud. Crank HP The and Maelstrom the Prisoner Deathly Hollows of Azkaban --J.K. Rowling --Henry --Ellen Clark H. Neff Any form of the word haughty will appear once in every 399 pages of text. persist: to keep going, despite hardships Syn: continue, stick with Ant: resign, give up, surrender Forms: Noun: persistence Verb: persist, persists persisting persisted Adjective: persistent Adverb: persistently “No, I mean, really,” she persisted. …he in every to keep mule the Indian And had yet Itried persist likeway a stubborn in myfrom efforts. Tuck Everlasting Babbitt But the him, butold theman Indian persisted persisted. in--Natalie his attempts up a conversation. to strike The Alchemist TheBless History MeofUltimia Love --Paul Coelho --Nicholas --Rudolfo Krauss Anaya Any form of the word persist will appear once in every 154 pages of text. precipice: a cliff Related words: precipitate, precipitation Forms: Noun: precipice Verb: precipitate, precipitates precipitated, precipating I gripped That was the when chain-link Ias noticed four figures and edged standing on the a the Then Finally suddenly, I stopped on though thefence edge it had of yet come another to down the top precipice, of mountain until I much stood onthan the precipice hillwhich rocky and gone Iledge, sensed over rather a precipice, too close saw. to it dropped the precipice. like a stone. of the ditch. Charlie October New Lone and Moon Survivor the SkyChocolate Factory --Roald --Homer --Stephenie --Marcus Dahl Luttrell Meyer Hickham Any form of the word precipice will appear once in every 481 pages of text. culprit: guilty person Syn: criminal, perpetrator Forms: Noun: culprit, culprits, culpability Verb: 00 Adjective: culpable He Who stoodare over empty box, thetheculprits ? head swiveling around and thebring Chocolate I willroom, the Have hunt out looking youthe caught for culprit the the Charlie culprit. culprits and ? himFactory to you. --Roald Dahl Theand HP Looking Host the Chamber Glass Wars of Secrets --Frank --Stephenie --JK Rowling Beddor Meyer Any form of the word culprit will appear once in every 1,160 pages of text. Comprehend: Understand Forms: Noun: comprehension, comprehensiveness Verb: comprehend, comprehends comprehended, comprehending Adjective: comprehensive, comprehensible incomprehensible Adverb: comprehensively For her part, Winnie, now that the running was over, Jonas listened, tryingtime hardtoto comprehend. comprehend. This would take some began to comprehend what was happening. Lois Lowry, The Giver William P. Young, The Shack I couldn’t comprehend what this human woman was Nataliesurrounded Babbit, Tuck Everlasting doing here, totally at ease, by vampires. Stephenie Meyer, New Moon Any form of the word comprehend will appear once in every 128 pages of text. Emerge: to slowly be revealed; to develop from an early stage; to come out of hiding or to move from one stage to another Forms: Noun: emergence, emergency, emergencies Verb: emerge, emerges, emerging, emerged Adjective: emergent Adverb: 00 Synonyms: appear, materialize, transpire Antonyms: fade, evaporate, disappear It emerged in her dreams like a dark moon with I think there’s a pattern emerging. Tally pulled her from shirt its andmouth. jacket on before daring to figures leaping Suzanne The Hunger #3 And then one day you Collins, emerged fromGames the coma. emerge from the sleeping bag. Cornelia Funke, Inkheart Robert Cormier, After the First Death Scott Westerfield, Uglies Any form of the word emerge will appear once in every 98 pages of text. Stationary: not moving Related Words: station, status, state Synonyms: immobilized, immobile, inactivated Antonyms: moving, in motion, activated A faint The rattlingfornoise waswas coming smooth it the seemed them, they even While Iacceleration waited him, I so stared up atfrom two stars Iwere Harry did not like being stationary, walking had stationary , and the wall was racing toward them. could see and let my head slowly become stationary. though they were that completely stationary. given the illusion they had a goal. Henry H. Neff, The Second Siege Stephenie Meyer, The Host J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows J.K. Rowling, HP and the Order of the Phoenix Any form of the word stationary will appear once in every 1,485 pages of text. dwelling: (noun): a home (verb): to live inside a home Synonym: residence Near synonym: shelter, habitat In any case, most Wizarding dwellings Go immediately to your dwelling at the conclusion of One of the dwellings was a small shop. There, great fires engulfed clusters of dwellings. are magically unwanted Apparators. Lowry, The Giver Henry Yann H.Lois Neff, Martel, The Life Fiend of Pi and the Forge Training Hoursprotected each day.from J.K. Rowling, HP and the Half-Blood Prince Any form of the word dwelling will appear once in every 80 pages of text. Descend: to lower; to move downward Forms: Noun: descent Verb: descend, descends, descended, descending Adjective: 00 Adverb: 00 Synonyms: drop, fall, precipitate, de-escalate Antonyms: ascend, climb, elevate, escalate …a following great birdday likeexperts an eagledescended high in the air, descending The like buzzards, They had descended two or more floors when She descending bent her slowly knees, in and wideher circles board down started toward tosheet descend. the recovering Missy’s remains and bagging the another set of quiet joined theirs. Scott Westerfield, Uglies J.K. Rowling, The Two HPTowers and the Deathly Hollows earth. J.R.R. Tolkien, along with whatever else they could. Any form of the word descend will appear once in every 82 pages of text. William P. Young, The Shack Despair: hopelessness Synonyms: dejectedness, sadness, depression, misery, wretchedness, pessimism Antonyms: optimism, exuberance, joy, exhilaration, hopefulness But For Shewhen yet cried another he soentered, despairingly weapon, misery swifter and that than Jo despair was hunger, frightened. the Lord alone Mayand Alcott, Little Women of the welcomed Dark Towerhim. hadLouisa dread despair. At last my mother gave up, in despair. Mary Shelley, J.R.R. Tolkien, Frankenstein The Two Towers Harriet Beecher Stow, Uncle Tom’s Cabin Any form of the word despair will appear once in every 177 pages of text. Ominous: threatening; foreshadowing bad things to come Forms: Noun: omen, omens Verb: 00 Adjective: ominous Adverb: ominously Near Synonyms: menacing, looming, foreboding, scary Near Antonyms: promising, hopeful They looked seldom it, for it was ominous All at was ominously quiet. …thesharp The ruinssound of the as towers: the gloves they had snapped an ominous into place look. J. R. Tolkien, The Return of the King but dreary even in the light ofR.morning. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Fellowship against his wrist seemed ominous to me.of the Ring J. R. R. Tolkien, The Hobbit Stephenie Meyer, Twilight Any form of the word ominous will appear once in every 357 pages of text. Ravine: a deep narrow valley formed by running water Near Synonyms: chasm, abyss, crevasse Twilight Barefoot, came she mercifully scrambles early down in the thedeep ravineravine Long valleys and ravines opened beneath them. valley opened out into a great plain dotted with of The after the streambed. her mother. Megan Sonia Whalen Nazario, Turner, Enrique’s The Thief Journey rocks and cut up by Christopher Paolini, Eragon ravines. Any form of the word ravine will appear once in every 576 pages of text. Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book Valor: Bravery, courage, nobility Forms: Noun: valor Verb: 00 Adjective: valorous Adverb: valorously The stories they tell of comradeship and valor Then cry in a loud voice, soagain, that she Theyou shadows closed on men andknows their hearts are all to make up for what they lacked. everyone in the valley canago hear yourhuddled statement The wentgirl cold, who and five the years valor of stood Gondor withered withother Mark Helprin, Soldiers of the Great War valor. Ted Dekker, Black: The Birth of Evil J.R.R. The Return of the King mother and sister, asTolkien, he presented her, the oldest into ash. child, with a medal of valor. Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games Any form of the word “valor” will appear once in every 1,030 pages of text. arid: lacking sufficient rainfall for growth Synonyms: sere, parched, desert-like Antonyms: moist, lush, soggy August Sol spent and three September days and were nightsarid in the months, arid when Atticus’s voice had lost its comfortableness; he was hardly anything grew, and ate mostly beans The mountains, arid, eating imposing only mountains theone thick-crusted sat along bread deep speaking in his arid, detached professional voice. that he had gorges hadbrought and been soared dried andto and drinking jagged stored. from peaks. hisa condenser Harper Lee, To Kill Mockingbird therm. Khaled Hosseini, The Kite Runner Dan Simmons, Tracy Hyperion Kidder, Strength in What Remains Any form of the word arid will appear once in every 1,424 pages of text. Beckon: to make an inviting gesture; to call forth Near synonyms: summon, invite, ignore Near antonyms: reject, dismiss Related word: beacon (guiding light) At that moment, “Gather round,” he thesaid, door opened, beckoning. and Snape Henry H.beckons. Neff, The Fiend this and the Forge beckoned them all inside. The woman April is upon us;beckoned May again, time more vigorously. J.K. Rowling, Libba Bray, Sweet HP and Farthe Thing Goblet of Fire J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows Any form of the word beckon will appear once in every 617 pages of text. Cease: to stop doing something Synonym: discontinue, desist Antonym: continue, proceed Related word: deceased Forms: Noun: cessation Verb: cease, ceases ceased, ceasing Adj: 00 Adv: 00 AsFang we drew near, firingand ceased, cease White Chains At the age of had eleven quieted to beorthe necessary twelve, down they after had ceased the ceased spirit snarling. has being children. Cormac Jack All the White Pretty Fang Horses goneand out we of asaw prisoner. that theMcCarthy, fightLondon, was over. Jack London, Sea Wolf Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court Any form of the word cease will appear once in every 64 pages of text. Recite: to perform or say a memorized Forms: or partially memorized Noun: recitation, recital text, pledge, or prayer Verb: recite, recites, recited, reciting Adj: 00 Adv: 00 ItHe You “Four was mean recited score hardwe to and the relax might once alphabet with draw upon Hermione afora circle Zero, timeon ago,” next then theto Zero she ground you began repeated reciting and reciting. it without auses single Julia Alverez, the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accent the stand twelve inside it and ofmistake. dragon’s recite How charms blood orand practicing spells? wand movements. Louis Sacher, Holes J.K. Rowling, HP and the Sorcerer’s Stone CS Lewis The Silver Chair Any form of the word recite will appear once in every 303 pages of text. Tranquil: calm and peaceful Synonyms: serene, gentle Antonyms: turbulent, tumultuous, riotous, stormy Forms: Noun: tranquility Verb: tranquilize, tranquilizes tranquilized, tranquilizing Adjective: tranquil Adverb: tranquilly IThe She stood notices up and that stretched she is inmeters and a tranquil looked across mood the forhighway the air at two thousand was so thin and Go toriver, bed so and sleep tranquilly. across the tranquil its water as blue first time in quite a while. tranquil that it seemed to be only a gloss of light. VictorHakuri Hugo,Murikami, Les Miserables After Dark as the sky. Helprin, Soldier of the Great War Ernest Gaines,Mark A Lesson Before Dying Any form of the word tranquil will appear once in every 321 pages of text. Jubilant: joyful Synonyms: exuberant Antonyms: morose, sullen Forms: Noun: jubilance Verb: OO Adjective: jubilant Adverb: jubilantly I would He The had cityfall expected was back, in the exhausted tomidst hear of theabut cheer jubilant jubilant. of triumph gala.and jubilation at his death. It was a wild, jubilant never be able to scene, one that I would Frank Yan Martel, Beddor, LifeThe of Pi Looking Glass War forget. J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows James Patterson, Kiss the Girls Any form of the word jubilant will appear once in every 2,232 pages of text. Chaos: disorder; state of confusion Synonyms: disorganization, disarray, pandemonium, anarchy, lawlessness Antonyms: order, orderliness, organization Forms: Noun: chaos Verb: OO Adjective: chaotic Adverb: OO But Ihave Without Compared You wasn’t her, towith sure rise ourthe lives above anyone chaos would the could squabbling dissolve of Cherry hear her into Hill, and over chaos. Northwood chaos, the screeching was and keep a paradise believing. of birds of neat andhouses the general and fastidiously chaos. maintained lawns. Rick Rick Nicole Riordan, Riordan, Krauss, TheThe History Battle Titan’s ofofthe Love Curse Labyrinth Wes Moore, The Other Wes Moore Any form of the word chaos will appear once in every 698 pages of text.