Welcome to “Decent Exposure” : Middle School Volume I
“Decent Exposure” will help you teach words explicitly and thoroughly, so that students
will remember and use them. The words have been chosen on the basis
of their frequency in serious literature, the kind of books that students read in school.
Also, these words have synonyms, antonyms, associations, components,
and forms that extend beyond just the single word that might appear on a vocabulary
list.
By showing how these words are used in several contexts, students derive a 360°
perspective as well as model sentences from great literature.
Welcome to “Decent Exposure” Volume I
Refugee (Slide 3)
Apparent (Slide 4)
Elaborate (Slide 5)
Bewildered (Slide 6)
Congregate (Slide 7)
Haughty (Slide 8)
Persist (Slide 9)
Precipice (Slide 10)
Culprit (Slide 11)
Comprehend (Slide 12)
Emerge (Slide 13)
Stationary (Slide 14)
Dwelling (Slide 15)
Descend (Slide 16)
Despair (Slide 17)
Ominous (Slide 18)
Ravine (Slide 19)
Valor (Slide 20)
Arid (Slide 21)
Cease(Slide 22)
Beckon (Slide 23)
Recite (Slide 24)
Tranquil (Slides25)
Jubilant (Slide 26)
Chaos (Slide 27)
refugee: person who is forced to
seek safety in another country,
usually because of war or poverty
Any form of refugee will appear once in every 527 pages of text.
One
Rowan
Hemillion
took
welcomes
Maybe
them
Afghans
she
to asaw
refugees
fled
school
the
me in
country
asand
aanearby
needy
new
as arrivals
refugees.
refugee
every
day.
After theMilkweed
First Death
Lone
Maelstrom
by Survivor
by by
camp.
from the war.
by
Jerry Spinelli
Marcus
Harry
H.Luttrell
Neff
Robert Cormier
Related words:
refuge: a place of safety
fugitive: person who runs away from the law
immigrant: person who moves to a new country
to seek asylum: to go to another country in order
to be safe from a law that is considered
cruel or unfair
apparent: clear to see
Syn: obvious, overt
Ant: obscure, covert
Related word: appear
Forms:
Noun: 00 Verb: 00
Adjective: apparent
Adverb: apparently
Incredible
Apparently
I hopedThe
my
asanesthetic
disappointment
satisfied,
it seemed,
he
was
he
pressed
wasn’t
apparently
a too
button
apparent
and
intended
losing
in
going
my voice.
its
rolled
toe
effectiveness.
todown
toe with
the the
window.
troll.
New
Artemis
The Hound
Twilight
Moon
Fowl
by by
ofby
Rowan
Eoin
Stepenie
by
Stephanie
Harry
Colfer
H.
Meyer
Meyer
Neff
Any form of the word apparent will appear
once in every 56 pages of text.
Have you
elaborate (adjective): detailed; fancy
elaborate (verb): to provide many details when
ever noticeddescribing
that the something
more you try not to
word: labor
think, the moreRelated
elaborate
your thoughts become?
Syn: ornate, fancy, fanciful, decked out, complex
Ant: simple, elegant, bare; simplify
The Secret Life of Bees
Forms: Noun: elaboration
Verb:
elaborate
by
Sue
Monk
Kidd
A fire was crackling under an elaborate
elaborates
Adjective: elaborate
elaborating
carved mantlepiece. Adverb: elaborately
elaborated
HP and the Chamber of
Secrets by JK Rowling
Only when I swallowed did I realize they were looking
He was mad, as if I’d elaborately planned getting sick.
at me, waiting for me to elaborate.
Any form of the word elaborate will appear
once in every 246 pages of text.
The Truth About Forever
by Sarah
Some
Like Dessen
You by Sarah
Dessen
bewildered: completely confused; in a fog
Related word: wild
Syn: befuddled, bemused, dumbfounded
Ant: certain, sure, confident, poised, prepared
Lou Ann
Jason
returned
had forgotten
with a itbewildered
was Halloween,
look on
and
his face
He was bewildered, not thinking in that direction
was said,
and
completely
“I don’t bewildered
know what you’re
when talking
a mob of children
The man was still there, trying to smile, looking
about.”
at all.
Twilight by
came
bewildered.
to the door. Stephenie Meyer
The Ultimate
Bean Trees
Gift by
by
The Martian Chronicles
by
Barbara
Jim
Stovall
Kingsolver
Ray Bradbury
Any form of the word bewildered will appear once in every 264 pages of text.
congregate: form a group (of people or animals)
Syn: cluster, flock together
Ant: segregate, disperse
The girls had
congregated
in her room.
It’sfront
In
just that
of the
it’struck,
very workers
difficultJulia
forcongregated
aAlverez,
large number of
How the
Garcia Girls
Lost
Hegroups
wizards
in
and his
toofgroupmates
congregate
five or six. without
congregated
attracting
attention.
Their Accent
by the tables in front of the auditorium and took their
packaged food.
Theand
HP
Giver
Wedding
thebyGoblet of Fire
Lois Rowling
J.K.
Nicholas
Lowry
Sparks
Any form of the word congregate will appear once in every 306 pages of text.
haughty: acting with a superior attitude
Syn: snobby, snobbish, supercilious,
condescending
Ant: humble, modest, unassuming, demure
Forms: noun: haughtiness
adjective: haughty
verb: 00
adverb: haughtily
Harryresponded
“Fine,”
They
Girls
were
supposed
saidalso
Hermione
that
with
haughty,
she
pointed
haughtily,
wasbrutal,
whispers,
beautiful,
and
andshe
with
selfish.
haughty
marched
her
off.
waist-length
laughter,
and,hair
as and
I myself
floor-length
have often
cloak,
done,
but with
she evil
also
looked
eyes.
haughty and proud.
Crank
HP
The
and
Maelstrom
the Prisoner
Deathly Hollows
of Azkaban
--J.K. Rowling
--Henry
--Ellen
Clark
H. Neff
Any form of the word haughty will appear once in every 399 pages of text.
persist: to keep going, despite hardships
Syn: continue, stick with
Ant: resign, give up, surrender
Forms: Noun: persistence
Verb: persist, persists
persisting
persisted
Adjective: persistent
Adverb: persistently
“No, I mean, really,” she persisted.
…he
in every
to keep mule
the Indian
And had
yet Itried
persist
likeway
a stubborn
in myfrom
efforts.
Tuck Everlasting
Babbitt
But the
him,
butold
theman
Indian
persisted
persisted. in--Natalie
his attempts
up a conversation.
to strike
The Alchemist
TheBless
History
MeofUltimia
Love
--Paul Coelho
--Nicholas
--Rudolfo
Krauss
Anaya
Any form of the word persist will appear once in every 154 pages of text.
precipice: a cliff
Related words: precipitate, precipitation
Forms: Noun: precipice
Verb: precipitate, precipitates
precipitated, precipating
I gripped
That
was
the
when
chain-link
Ias
noticed
four
figures
and
edged
standing
on
the
a the
Then
Finally
suddenly,
I stopped
on
though
thefence
edge
it had
of yet
come
another
to down
the top
precipice,
of
mountain
until
I much
stood
onthan
the
precipice
hillwhich
rocky
and gone
Iledge,
sensed
over
rather
a precipice,
too
close
saw.
to
it dropped
the
precipice.
like a stone.
of the ditch.
Charlie
October
New
Lone
and
Moon
Survivor
the
SkyChocolate Factory
--Roald
--Homer
--Stephenie
--Marcus
Dahl Luttrell
Meyer
Hickham
Any form of the word precipice will appear once in every 481 pages of text.
culprit: guilty person
Syn: criminal, perpetrator
Forms:
Noun: culprit, culprits, culpability Verb: 00
Adjective: culpable
He Who
stoodare
over
empty box,
thetheculprits
? head swiveling around
and
thebring
Chocolate
I willroom,
the
Have
hunt out
looking
youthe
caught
for culprit
the
the Charlie
culprit.
culprits
and
? himFactory
to you.
--Roald Dahl
Theand
HP
Looking
Host
the Chamber
Glass Wars
of Secrets
--Frank
--Stephenie
--JK
Rowling
Beddor
Meyer
Any form of the word culprit will appear once in every 1,160 pages of text.
Comprehend: Understand
Forms: Noun: comprehension, comprehensiveness
Verb: comprehend, comprehends
comprehended, comprehending
Adjective: comprehensive, comprehensible
incomprehensible
Adverb: comprehensively
For her part, Winnie, now that the running was over,
Jonas
listened,
tryingtime
hardtoto comprehend.
comprehend.
This
would
take some
began to comprehend what was happening.
Lois Lowry,
The Giver
William
P. Young,
The Shack
I couldn’t comprehend what
this
human
woman was
Nataliesurrounded
Babbit, Tuck Everlasting
doing here, totally at ease,
by vampires.
Stephenie Meyer, New Moon
Any form of the word comprehend will appear once in every 128 pages of text.
Emerge: to slowly be revealed; to develop from an
early stage; to come out of hiding or to move from
one stage to another
Forms: Noun: emergence, emergency, emergencies
Verb: emerge, emerges, emerging, emerged
Adjective: emergent
Adverb: 00
Synonyms: appear, materialize, transpire
Antonyms: fade, evaporate, disappear
It emerged in her dreams like a dark moon with
I think there’s a pattern emerging.
Tally
pulled
her from
shirt its
andmouth.
jacket on before daring to
figures
leaping
Suzanne
The Hunger
#3
And then one day you Collins,
emerged
fromGames
the coma.
emerge from the sleeping bag.
Cornelia
Funke,
Inkheart
Robert
Cormier,
After the First Death
Scott Westerfield, Uglies
Any form of the word emerge will appear once in every 98 pages of text.
Stationary: not moving
Related Words: station, status, state
Synonyms: immobilized, immobile, inactivated
Antonyms: moving, in motion, activated
A faint
The
rattlingfornoise
waswas
coming
smooth
it the
seemed
them,
they
even
While
Iacceleration
waited
him,
I so
stared
up atfrom
two stars
Iwere
Harry did not like being stationary, walking had
stationary , and the wall was racing toward them.
could see and let my head slowly become stationary.
though
they
were that
completely
stationary.
given the
illusion
they
had
a goal.
Henry H. Neff, The
Second Siege
Stephenie Meyer, The Host
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Order of the Phoenix
Any form of the word stationary will appear once in every 1,485 pages of text.
dwelling: (noun): a home
(verb): to live inside a home
Synonym: residence
Near synonym: shelter, habitat
In
any
case, most
Wizarding
dwellings
Go
immediately
to
your
dwelling
at the
conclusion of
One
of
the
dwellings
was
a
small
shop.
There, great fires engulfed clusters of dwellings.
are
magically
unwanted
Apparators.
Lowry,
The
Giver
Henry
Yann
H.Lois
Neff,
Martel,
The
Life
Fiend
of Pi
and the Forge
Training
Hoursprotected
each day.from
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Half-Blood Prince
Any form of the word dwelling will appear once in every 80 pages of text.
Descend: to lower; to move downward
Forms: Noun: descent
Verb: descend, descends, descended, descending
Adjective: 00 Adverb: 00
Synonyms: drop, fall, precipitate, de-escalate
Antonyms: ascend, climb, elevate, escalate
…a following
great birdday
likeexperts
an eagledescended
high in the air,
descending
The
like
buzzards,
They had descended
two or more floors
when
She
descending
bent her
slowly
knees,
in
and
wideher
circles
board
down
started
toward
tosheet
descend.
the
recovering
Missy’s
remains
and
bagging
the
another set of quiet joined theirs.
Scott
Westerfield,
Uglies
J.K. Rowling,
The Two
HPTowers
and
the
Deathly Hollows
earth. J.R.R. Tolkien,
along with whatever else they could.
Any form of the word descend will appear once in every 82 pages of text.
William P. Young, The Shack
Despair: hopelessness
Synonyms: dejectedness, sadness, depression, misery,
wretchedness, pessimism
Antonyms: optimism, exuberance, joy, exhilaration,
hopefulness
But
For
Shewhen
yet
cried
another
he
soentered,
despairingly
weapon,
misery
swifter
and
that
than
Jo
despair
was
hunger,
frightened.
the Lord
alone
Mayand
Alcott, Little
Women
of the welcomed
Dark Towerhim.
hadLouisa
dread
despair.
At last my mother gave up, in despair.
Mary Shelley,
J.R.R. Tolkien,
Frankenstein
The Two Towers
Harriet Beecher Stow, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Any form of the word despair will appear once in every 177 pages of text.
Ominous: threatening; foreshadowing bad
things to come
Forms: Noun: omen, omens Verb: 00
Adjective: ominous Adverb: ominously
Near Synonyms: menacing, looming, foreboding,
scary
Near Antonyms: promising, hopeful
They looked seldom
it, for
it was ominous
All at
was
ominously
quiet.
…thesharp
The
ruinssound
of the as
towers:
the gloves
they had
snapped
an ominous
into place
look.
J. R.
Tolkien, The Return of the King
but dreary even in the light
ofR.morning.
J.R.R. Tolkien,
The Fellowship
against his wrist seemed
ominous
to me.of the Ring
J. R. R. Tolkien, The Hobbit
Stephenie Meyer, Twilight
Any form of the word ominous will appear once in every 357 pages of text.
Ravine: a deep narrow valley formed by running water
Near Synonyms: chasm, abyss, crevasse
Twilight
Barefoot,
came
she
mercifully
scrambles
early
down
in the
thedeep
ravineravine
Long valleys and ravines opened beneath them.
valley
opened out into a great plain dotted with
of The
after
the streambed.
her mother.
Megan
Sonia
Whalen
Nazario,
Turner,
Enrique’s
The Thief
Journey
rocks and cut up by
Christopher Paolini, Eragon
ravines.
Any form of the word ravine will appear once in every 576 pages of text.
Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book
Valor: Bravery, courage, nobility
Forms: Noun: valor Verb: 00 Adjective: valorous Adverb: valorously
The stories they tell of comradeship and valor
Then
cry in a
loud voice,
soagain,
that she
Theyou
shadows
closed
on men
andknows
their hearts
are all to make up for what they lacked.
everyone
in
the
valley
canago
hear
yourhuddled
statement
The
wentgirl
cold,
who
and
five
the
years
valor
of
stood
Gondor
withered
withother
Mark Helprin, Soldiers of the Great War
valor.
Ted Dekker, Black: The Birth of Evil
J.R.R.
The Return of
the King
mother
and sister,
asTolkien,
he presented
her,
the oldest
into ash.
child, with a medal of valor.
Suzanne Collins, The Hunger Games
Any form of the word “valor” will appear once in every
1,030 pages of text.
arid: lacking sufficient rainfall for growth
Synonyms: sere, parched, desert-like
Antonyms: moist, lush, soggy
August
Sol
spent
and
three
September
days and
were
nightsarid
in the
months,
arid when
Atticus’s voice had lost its comfortableness; he was
hardly
anything
grew,
and
ate
mostly
beans
The
mountains,
arid,
eating
imposing
only
mountains
theone
thick-crusted
sat
along
bread
deep
speaking
in his
arid,
detached
professional
voice.
that
he had
gorges
hadbrought
and
been
soared
dried
andto
and
drinking
jagged
stored.
from
peaks.
hisa condenser
Harper
Lee,
To Kill
Mockingbird
therm.
Khaled Hosseini, The Kite Runner
Dan Simmons,
Tracy Hyperion
Kidder, Strength in What Remains
Any form of the word arid will appear once in every 1,424 pages of text.
Beckon: to make an inviting gesture; to call forth
Near synonyms: summon, invite, ignore
Near antonyms: reject, dismiss
Related word: beacon (guiding light)
At that moment,
“Gather
round,” he
thesaid,
door opened,
beckoning.
and Snape
Henry
H.beckons.
Neff, The
Fiend this
and the
Forge
beckoned
them
all
inside.
The woman
April
is upon
us;beckoned
May
again,
time
more vigorously.
J.K. Rowling,
Libba
Bray, Sweet
HP and
Farthe
Thing
Goblet of Fire
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows
Any form of the word beckon will appear once in every 617 pages of text.
Cease: to stop doing something
Synonym: discontinue, desist
Antonym: continue, proceed
Related word: deceased
Forms:
Noun: cessation
Verb: cease, ceases
ceased, ceasing
Adj: 00
Adv: 00
AsFang
we
drew
near,
firingand
ceased,
cease
White
Chains
At
the
age
of
had
eleven
quieted
to beorthe
necessary
twelve,
down
they
after
had
ceased
the ceased
spirit
snarling.
has
being
children.
Cormac
Jack
All the
White
Pretty
Fang
Horses
goneand
out
we
of asaw
prisoner.
that
theMcCarthy,
fightLondon,
was
over.
Jack London, Sea Wolf
Mark Twain, A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court
Any form of the word cease will appear once in every 64 pages of text.
Recite: to perform or say a memorized
Forms:
or partially memorized
Noun: recitation, recital
text, pledge, or prayer
Verb: recite, recites,
recited, reciting
Adj: 00
Adv: 00
ItHe
You
“Four
was
mean
recited
score
hardwe
to
and
the
relax
might
once
alphabet
with
draw
upon
Hermione
afora
circle
Zero,
timeon
ago,”
next
then
theto
Zero
she
ground
you
began
repeated
reciting
and
reciting.
it
without
auses
single
Julia
Alverez,
the Garcia
Girls
Lost Their
Accent
the
stand
twelve
inside
it and
ofmistake.
dragon’s
recite How
charms
blood
orand
practicing
spells?
wand
movements.
Louis Sacher, Holes
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Sorcerer’s Stone
CS Lewis The Silver Chair
Any form of the word recite will appear once in every 303 pages of text.
Tranquil: calm and peaceful
Synonyms: serene, gentle
Antonyms: turbulent, tumultuous, riotous, stormy
Forms: Noun: tranquility
Verb: tranquilize, tranquilizes
tranquilized, tranquilizing
Adjective: tranquil Adverb: tranquilly
IThe
She
stood
notices
up
and
that
stretched
she is inmeters
and
a tranquil
looked
across
mood
the
forhighway
the
air
at two
thousand
was so
thin
and
Go
toriver,
bed so
and sleep
tranquilly.
across
the
tranquil
its water as blue
first
time
in
quite
a
while.
tranquil that it seemed to be only a gloss of light.
VictorHakuri
Hugo,Murikami,
Les Miserables
After Dark
as the sky.
Helprin,
Soldier
of the Great War
Ernest Gaines,Mark
A Lesson
Before
Dying
Any form of the word tranquil will appear once in every 321 pages of text.
Jubilant: joyful
Synonyms: exuberant
Antonyms: morose, sullen
Forms: Noun: jubilance
Verb: OO
Adjective: jubilant Adverb: jubilantly
I would
He
The
had
cityfall
expected
was
back,
in the
exhausted
tomidst
hear of
theabut
cheer
jubilant
jubilant.
of triumph
gala.and
jubilation
at his
death.
It was a wild,
jubilant
never be able to
scene, one that I would
Frank
Yan
Martel,
Beddor,
LifeThe
of Pi
Looking Glass War
forget.
J.K. Rowling, HP and the Deathly Hollows
James Patterson, Kiss the Girls
Any form of the word jubilant will appear once in every 2,232 pages of text.
Chaos: disorder; state of confusion
Synonyms: disorganization, disarray, pandemonium,
anarchy, lawlessness
Antonyms: order, orderliness, organization
Forms: Noun: chaos
Verb: OO
Adjective: chaotic Adverb: OO
But Ihave
Without
Compared
You
wasn’t
her,
towith
sure
rise
ourthe
lives
above
anyone
chaos
would
the
could
squabbling
dissolve
of Cherry
hear her
into
Hill,
and
over
chaos.
Northwood
chaos,
the
screeching
was
and
keep
a paradise
believing.
of birds
of neat
andhouses
the general
and fastidiously
chaos.
maintained lawns.
Rick
Rick
Nicole
Riordan,
Riordan,
Krauss,
TheThe
History
Battle
Titan’s
ofofthe
Love
Curse
Labyrinth
Wes Moore, The Other Wes Moore
Any form of the word chaos will appear once in every 698 pages of text.