Terminology
A useful tool?
A necessary evil?
A waste of time?
What do curriculum objectives presuppose?
• And what about the exam?
Vg 1
discuss similarities and differences between
English and other foreign languages
• Word classes
• Gender
• Tenses
• Case endings? Inflection? Conjugation?
• Word order
• Other points?
Vg1
use relevant and precise terminology to describe the
forms and structures of English
• Word classes
• tenses
• Simple/progressive
• Singular/plural
• Sentence analysis?
• Word order - Inversion?
use a wide selection of digital and other aids
independently, including monolingual
dictionaries
• Word classes
• Infinitive
• Countable/uncountable nouns
• Formal/informal, slang, taboo, archaic
• Other points?
write formal and informal texts with good
structure and coherence
• Formal/informal, slang, taboo,
• Sentences, clauses, paragraphs
• Topic sentence
• Other points?
• explain the main characteristics of the
development of English from an Anglo-Saxon
language to an international world language
• Loanwords
• Germanic, Romance
• From synthetic to analytic??
• From endings to word order
• Other points?
OR
Does it just mean
• “How did English get where it is?”
Vg 2
• gjøre rede for grunnleggende trekk ved
engelsk språkbruk og språkstruktur
Vg 2
• gjøre rede for grunnleggende prinsipper
for oppbygning av tekster i ulike sjangrer
• Norsk 10. kl: …lese og skrive tekster i
ulike sjangere, både skjønnlitterære og
sakspregede på bokmål og nynorsk:
artikkel, diskusjonsinnlegg, formelt brev,
novelle, fortelling, dikt, dramatekst og
kåseri
• analysere språklige virkemidler i ulike typer
tekster
• Fra Norsk Vg1: ” … gjøre rede for et bredt
register av språklige virkemidler og forklare
hvilken funksjon de har”
Vg 3 Samfunnsfaglig
• drøfte sammenhengen mellom form,
innhold og stilnivå i setninger i
samfunnsfaglige tekster
• analysere språklige virkemidler i tekster i
ulike sjangrer og vurdere virkningen av
dem
Vg 3 Litteratur og kultur
• drøfte sammenhengen mellom form,
innhold og stilnivå i setninger og tekster
• beherske terminologi til å analysere
skjønnlitteratur, film og andre estetiske
uttrykksformer
• drøfte språklig særpreg ved tekster i ulike
sjangrer fra ulike perioder og regioner
Men hva med eksamen?
• Hva trenger man der?
• Vg1
• Våren 08 skulle de identifisere et avsnitt
som var skrevet i et mer uformelt språk
enn de andre, og påpeke de formelle
aspektene.
Våren 08 Sensorveiledning
• I avsnitt tre finner vi:
• 1) flere sammentrukne former: don’t, you’d
og it’s
• 2) de uformelle kortformene ok og info
• 3) direkte tiltaleformer (vokativer) Kids,…
og Mom and Dad
• 4) don’t you give…,er nærmest er truende
Og videre
• 5) det strenge påbudet i formen you’d better
teach
• 6) formen your dear ones, som åpner for en
sarkastisk tolkning
• 7) formen every Tom, Dick and Harry, som har
en negativ konnotasjon tilsvarende det norske
’Gud og hvermann’
• 8) et retorisk spørsmål Who knows what that
might lead to?
• De fleste bør klare å vise til de sammentrukne
former (1) og uformelle kortformer (2); begge
trekk er typiske for uformelt språkbruk. De som
klarer å påpeke og beskrive effekten av en eller
flere av formene i 3-8, og dertil bruke riktig
terminologi, viser høy kompetanse.
• Det er rom for å vise kompetanse på ulike nivåer
her, men siden instruksjonen ber om ”three
different ways”, er det ikke tilstrekkelig hvis man
bare oppgir tre sammentrekninger (”don’t, you’d
og it’s” ) .
Eksamen Vg1 Våren 09
• Elevene skulle ordne rekkefølgen i noen
avsnitt og begrunne 3 av sine valg.
• I tillegg skulle de peke på noen
formuleringer som viste forfatterens
negative holdning.
Våren 2009 Sensor veiledning
The relative placement of a, c and g depends on
the immediately preceding textual material.
• A functions as a response to an explicit question,
here a rhetorical question. That is why it must
follow g.
• C is introduced by consequently, another textstructuring element (a conjunct). By using it, the
writer tells the reader that the statement in one
sentence is a result/consequence of the
meaning of the preceding sentence. This cause
– effect sequence is marked explicitly when c
follows h.
• G is introduced by such ‘stars’. The use of
such (‘stars’) - with inverted commas
around ‘stars’ to mark ironic distance –
tells us that they have been mentioned
before. This is a strong reason why g
should follow b.
• The author’s attitude to celebrities is clearly
negative. We see this in his/her choice of words
such as empty-headed, ‘stars’, superficial, mere
sheen, (people) with no talent, wisdom or
education, outward beauty, unlimited selfconfidence.
• But we can also see it in the negative
statements which indirectly refer to the
celebrities, e.g. true personal values do
not count any longer, the rhetorical
question: do they possess the true values
of the past…?, and the clear conclusion:
what is needed is a reorientation…
International English
Spring 2009
• 1 You didn’t see him, is it?
• 2 When you would like to go?
• 3 That man he is tall.
• 4 Her jewelleries were stolen.
• 5 I am understanding it now.
• 6 They two very good friends.
• 7 Sushila is extremely a lazy girl.
• 8 When you leaving?
Examiner guidelines
• Følgende er forslag til forklaringer. De
ordene som er uthevet, hører til
grammatisk terminologi. Sensorene bør
være åpne for andre, mindre detaljerte
svar, og for at svar uten fagterminologi
også kan være innsiktsfulle.
• 1 You didn’t see him, is it?
• Standard written English requires the question
tag to consist of a pronoun that matches the first
subject (here you), an auxiliary in the correct
tense (here did), and a reversal of the polarity
(positive versus negative) in the first statement
(here from negative didn’t to positive did).
• When you would like to go?
• In standard written English the auxiliary
(would) comes before the subject (you) in
interrogative sentences. This is called
inverted word order.
• That man he is tall.
• Even though the original form is not
unusual in speech, in standard written
English a 'double' subject like that man he
is not used.
• Her jewelleries were stolen
• ) Jewellery is an uncountable noun in
standard English, so the plural form
cannot be used. When the subject is
changed into the singular (jewellery), the
verb (was) must agree with the subject
• I am understanding it now
• The present continuous/progressive form
is not normally used with verbs that denote
mental states. Understand is such a verb.
• They two very good friends
• The non-standard sentence has no verb.
An appropriate verb has to be put it, in this
case are
• Sushila is extremely a lazy girl.
• The adverb (extremely) modifies the
adjective (lazy) and has to be placed in
front of it, giving an extremely lazy girl.
From “Int. Focus”
• Figurative language: exaggeration,
understatement, metaphor, simile,
personification
Vg 3 Lit/kul
a) Write a text in which you answer the following
question: What is the genre of Never Let Me Go
in "Vedlegg 1", and what is the genre of "What is
mobbing?" in "Vedlegg 2"? Give reasons for
your answer.
b) The writers use language in different ways in
the two extracts.
• Discuss some of these differences in language
use in the two extracts. Illustrate the differences
with specific examples from both texts.
Examiner guidelines
• fiction/non-fiction
• Characters/setting/theme/plot
• Narrative: beginning, a building up of
tension, a climax and a resolution
• 1st person narrator (”I”), normal
chronology.
• explanatory text : information, but it is
”depersonalised”
Examiner guidelines
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Germanic and Romance vocabulary
Formal/informal
Phrasal verbs
Personal pronouns
Sentence length
Lexical density (adj/adv/noun/verb)
Fiction/non-fiction
• Heavy premodifiers
• Grammatical complexity
Task 3
3c) Write an analysis of the poem below
pointing out its typical Romantic features.
Samfunnsfaglig exam
• d)
• Select two metaphorical expressions from
the first paragraph and explain their
meanings by paraphrasing them.
Exam
Compare versions i) and ii) below. What is lost in version
ii)?
i) I would advise you to remember that you did not create
the disaster that the world is experiencing, and you alone
are not responsible for bringing the world back to
balance. A primary responsibility that you do have,
however, is to cultivate happiness in your own life.
ii)I would advise you to remember that you did not create
the disaster that the world is experiencing, and you alone
are not responsible for bringing the world back to
balance. You have a primary responsibility to cultivate
happiness in your own life.
Guidelines
• Three different features of the first version
emphasise the contrast between what Obama is
responsible for and what he is not responsible
for:
• - the fronting of "A primary responsibility that you
…"
• - the emphatic use of "do"
• - the explicit contrast expressed in "however"
• These features are lost in version ii).
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Terminology - BroAschehoug