Lesson 3
How to write a
Summary
Roberta Grandi
Università della Valle d’Aosta
• The material for this contribution is adapted
from the chapter “Summary of Informative
Texts” (written by R. Grandi) in the book
Writing Techniques. Workbook, a cura di R.
Grandi e M. Andreola, Educatt Università
Cattolica, Milano, 2007.
A SUMMARY OF A TEXT
• RE-WRITING THE ORIGINAL TEXT IN A
SHORTER FORM.
• Summary is the process of re-writing a source
text into a new and more synthetic text,
containing the same information, key-concepts
and data.
Concision and Accuracy
• Remember: A summary is not a
REDUCTION.
• COLLAGE IS NOT ALLOWED
In order to summarize a text you need to
Step FROM TEXT TO MEANING: understand the
meaning of the text as a whole
Then move FROM MEANING TO POINTS,
identifying the main concepts and the
keywords of the text
Then back FROM POINTS TO TEXT, creating a
new text, shorter than the original but which
maintains its main concepts
5 steps towards a good summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
Read the text carefully to understand the main
meaning.
Read again to examine text organization and key
concepts. Try to identify topic sentence and
keywords.
Write an outline of the main concepts and
connections.
Rewrite the text:
1.
2.
3.
5.
In paragraphs: (Topic sentences etc.)
In a simplified but cohesive and coherent structure: (use
connectives and linking words).
In your own words: NO COLLAGE.
Proofread target text for content and form
From text to meaning
1. Read the text carefully to understand the
main meaning.
2. Try to identify
1. text organization and topic sentences
2. key concepts and key words
“Tulipomania”
Find this text here (p. 123)
http://www.scribd.com/doc/10
2223426/ProficiencyMasterclass-SB
Tulip Semper Augustus
From meaning to points
Write an outline of the main concepts and
connections.
•
•
•
•
•
Facts
Dates
Data
Connection between cause and effect
etc
Essential Concepts
1. Tulips arrived in Holland from Constantinople in the
middle of the sixteenth century.
2. By 1634 owning tulips was a status symbol both for the
rich and the middle class.
3. Consequently, the price of bulbs rose exponentially.
4. The most expensive species was the Semper Augustus.
5. By 1636 many Dutch stock markets traded in tulips and
speculations multiplied.
6. When the rich realized the excess of the trade and started
selling their tulips, the price suddenly collapsed causing
the ruin of many.
7. Attempt to find a solution
Summary for a tourist guide
• Are the main points the same?
• How do the reader’s expectations
influence the style and the contents of
your summary?
Outline for a tourist guide
1) During the seventeenth century in Holland tulips became a
craze.
2) By 1634 owning tulips was a status symbol both for the
rich and the middle classes
3) Consequently, the price of bulbs rose exponentially.
4) The most expensive species was the Semper Augustus.
5) Anecdote: a foreign sailor mistook a tulip bulb for an onion
and ate a 3000 florins Semper Augustus
6) By 1636 many Dutch stock markets traded in tulips and
speculations multiplied.
7) When the mania wore out, the price of tulips suddenly
collapsed causing the ruin of many.
From points to text
Rewrite the text:
In paragraphs.
If possible: Opening paragraph, main body, conclusion
In a cohesive and coherent structure:
•
•
Coherence: organization of meanings in relation to one another
(order of events or sequences)
Cohesion: the way sentences are linked through proper cohesive
devises (linkers)
Paraphrase: NO COLLAGE.
CONNECTIVES and TRANSITION WORDS:
• to add new ideas : also, too; in addition to; not only … but also;
• to create a cause/effect sequence: because, for, consequently,
therefore; thus, as a result, in order that, so that
• to reach conclusions: so, thus, therefore, hence,
consequently,finally;
• to make a comparison, highlighting the contrast: despite (the fact
that), in spite of, but, yet, however, still, rather, on the other hand,
on the contrary, by contrast; whereas; while,
• to list concepts, ideas, according to a hierarchy: first(ly),
second(ly), third(ly)
• to clarify : in other words, for example,
• To hint, refer, allude to a preceding concept: the above mentioned
; with regard to, in regard to, speaking of; considering
• To follow a chronological order: then ; next ; finally ; meanwhile ;
in the meantime ; after(wards) ; initially; to begin with ; as
already stated; most importantly ;
• To close, conclude, settle a sentence: in short, all in all, in brief, in
conclusion, to conclude, to sum up.
Generic Synthesis
Tulips were brought to Holland from Constantinople in the middle of the
sixteenth century. By 1634 they were a must among the rich, a sign of good
taste and wealth. Very soon the middle class too wanted to be distinguished by
this valuable flower and began spending enormous fortunes on tulips. Thus
prices rose exponentially.
•
The most precious kind of tulip was the Semper Augustus. In early 1636 in
Holland there were only two of these, and one of them was bought for 12 acres
of land. When, in 1636 tulip exchanges were set up in the stock markets, the
speculators began causing continuous fluctuations in prices. Many grew rich
and even the lower classes got involved in this market.
•
When suddenly the rich realized the ridiculousness of the situation and
began selling, the market collapsed and got out of control. Nobody wanted to
buy tulips any more and many lost everything. Those who were left with stores
of tulips made an attempt to bring order in the market, but the solution they
proposed succeeded only in displeasing both buyers and sellers. People who
had made profits from the tulip market were allowed to keep them but the
commerce of the country took many years to flourish again.
•
(208 words)
•
Synthesis for a tourist guide
Holland is renowned for its multicoloured tulips but the
popularity of these flowers has a curious origin. During the
seventeenth century tulips, originally imported from
Constantinople, became a real craze. By 1634 owning tulips was
a status symbol both for the rich and the middle classes and,
consequently, the demand and the price of bulbs rose
exponentially.
•
The most expensive species was the Semper Augustus,
which was worth acres of land or thousands of florins, carriages
and horses. Once a foreign sailor mistook a tulip bulb for an
onion and was found eating a 3000 florins Semper Augustus.
•
By 1636 many Dutch stock markets traded in tulips and
speculations multiplied but, when the mania wore out and the
tulip bubble burst, the price suddenly collapsed causing the ruin
of many of those who had incautiously taken part in the
speculation.
(140 words)
•
Download

Diapositiva 1 - Ready to teach